%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140921110857+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140921110857+01'00') /Title (1848: a European Revolution? International Ideas and National Memories of 1848) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3985 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1848: a European Revolution? International Ideas and National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Memories of 1848)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In February 1998 the Centre for European Research at University College London and the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical Institute in London organised a conference on the changing meanings of 1848. This conference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was held to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the 1848 revolutions. Those giving papers at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conference were either British or German academics, apart from the late Jan Havrnek \(formerly Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Modern Czechoslovak History at the Charles University, Prague\) and Simonetta Soldani \(Professor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary History at the University of Florence\). The contributions were first published in hardcover by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan in 2000; with a few minor alterations, they have now been republished in paperback by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same publishers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the preface of the paperback edition, the special focus of the contributions is on ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions? European dimension and on the commemorations of 1848 during the past 150 years? \(p. ix\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axel Krner stresses both these themes in his ?Introduction?. He argues that the revolutionary movements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1848?49 occurred in many parts of Europe but that they were subsequently commemorated as events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national, rather than of European, history. The various revolutions in Europe of 1848?49 were connected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways, and countries that did not experience revolutions themselves, such as the Netherlands, Sweden, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia and Spain, were nevertheless influenced by the events. Many contemporaries were aware of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(422)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axel Krner)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403920346)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Fortescue)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6938 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European dimension of the 1848 revolutions, but subsequently national perspectives dominated, partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the events of 1848?49 became subsumed into the histories of national liberation and unification. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, ?the political primacy of European integration during the 1990s has changed this long-lasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration on the national perspective? \(p. 20\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The extent to which the 1848 revolutions were connected and comparable is explored by John Breuilly. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees connections through the impact of the February 1848 revolution in France on other European states, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread, though mistaken, assumption that a republican France would launch wars of national liberation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the common pattern of many of the popular insurrections of March 1848. Breuilly maintains, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these connections became less obvious after April 1848 as ?the revolutions entered unknown territory? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 35\). Features shared by the 1848 revolutions included the prominent role played by the artisanal labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement; the importance of the Roman Catholic Church in the conservative reaction; the eruption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular and democratic forms of political expression such as publications, public speeches, clubs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrations and elections; and the subsequent decline and repression of democratic movements in cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in rural areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exploring ?Cultural reflections of and on 1848?, Martin Swales surveys works of literature and concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?the recurring issue? is ?the role of the middle classes, of the ethical and political sensibilities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois mentality? \(p. 62\). Gabriella Hauch reminds readers that ?the revolution of 1848 was not only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man?s business? \(p. 64\). In several European cities, women formed women?s clubs and associations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published petitions, pamphlets and newspapers, supported and participated in street-fighting, and generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to participate in politics and enter the public sphere. Nowhere, however, did they make any significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains. Instead, women involved in political and revolutionary activity were everywhere singled out for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridicule and, if captured as suspected insurgents, for humiliating treatment. Popular French songs are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined by Krner for the light that they shed on French working-class attitudes to European countires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than France. The conclusion is that Europe in the popular mentality was associated with conflict: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between monarchical coalitions and republican or Napoleonic France, and between the Europe of Metternich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Radetzky and the Europe of free peoples struggling for liberation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Grand Duchy of Baden, considered by Sabine Freitag, republicanism and German national unification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the crucial political issues. Economic and social problems, the influence of neighbouring France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Switzerland, and even of the distant United States of America, and intellectual inspiration from classical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recent literature all helped to promote republicanism in Baden. However, the perceived threat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French aggression, the primacy given to the goal of German unification and to political reform at a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level rather than at a state level, and the problems that emerged in 1848 over Posen and Schleswig weakened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the republican movement in Baden. Nor were Bavaria and Wrttemberg, let alone Prussia, prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerate a republic in Baden.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As is well known, ethnic Germans welcomed, but Czechs opposed, the proposal that representatives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bohemia should sit in the Frankfurt Parliament. The resulting conflict, according to Jan Havrnek, marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the starting point of Bohemia?s modern political life. Havrnek then surveys how Czech historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated the events of 1848?49 in Bohemia. Unsurprisingly, their interpretations have reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupations and political realities of their times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three contributions are concerned with commemorations of 1848 within national contexts. Simonetta )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soldani concludes that in Italy there is now little interest in the events of 1848?49. Very few Italian scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have recently published on the revolutionary and nationalist movements of 1848?49 in Italy, and the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150th anniversary commemorations were remarkably muted. Part of the explanation for this comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglect may be that 1848? 49 posed, but did not resolve, issues relating to national independence, civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and class conflict. Conservative and Catholic politics and fears of popular revolts and of the Left, meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1898 and 1948 the 50th and centennial anniversaries were similarly muted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, according to Rebecca Spang, is almost obsessed with remembering, with anniversaries, and with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness of its national heritage. However, a key intellectual contribution to this phenomenon, Pierre )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4506 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nora?s )] TJ ET BT 71.000 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les lieux de mmoire)] TJ ET BT 173.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(7 vols, Paris, 1984?93\), scarcely considers the French Revolution of 1848. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Marx, Tocqueville and several other historians, the memory of 1789 influenced the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1848. However, Marx and Tocqueville believed, respectively, that 1789 represented tragedy or reality, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789 represented farce or play-acting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Jam Merk returns to Baden and surveys how the events of 1848?49 \(in Baden\) have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorated there in monuments and interpreted in historical writing. After 1871 the German imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities restricted monuments commemorating 1848?49 to listing the names of those who had died. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historical studies of Baden in 1848?49 tended to be unsympathetic to the revolution until the 1920s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1948. In a divided Germany, unsurprisingly the role in 1848?49 of liberalism and parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy tended to be emphasised in West Germany, whereas in the German Democratic Republic the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers? movement was stressed. The 1998 commemorations in Baden were numerous, well-attended and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised liberalism, democracy and the European dimension.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?Conclusion? by Reinhart Koselleck asks how European was the revolution of 1848?49. While states on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the periphery of Europe, such as Spain, Britain, Sweden and Russia, were not directly involved, elsewhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of Europe experienced movements which shared certain common characteristics: common economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social factors, similar rural problems, a shared agenda of constitutional reform, a pattern of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation. Altogether, Europe in 1848?49 ?for the first and last time started off and underwent a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. All subsequent revolutions were the result of nationalistic inter-state wars? \(p. 221\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is obviously the case that the various revolutionary and nationalist movements that occurred in Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1848?49 constitute, at least in part, a European phenomenon. However, this is not a new idea; and, arguably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European theme should have been explored in this volume with more regard to such topics as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanisation and the role of cities in the revolutions of February and March 1848, and the ?European? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors which help to explain the eventual triumph of reaction. The emphasis on commemoration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory clearly reflects currents in historiography. The conclusion, unsurprisingly, is that today?s politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the current political climate enormously influence how historical events are commemorated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered. Arguably, this also applies to the publication under review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 358.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 341.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 341.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/422)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 339.657 m 322.316 339.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 314.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2088)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 339.9715 322.3157 351.8515 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/422) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000574 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000004693 00000 n 0000004802 00000 n 0000004912 00000 n 0000005021 00000 n 0000008582 00000 n 0000008710 00000 n 0000008794 00000 n 0000008859 00000 n 0000015850 00000 n 0000015934 00000 n 0000020493 00000 n 0000020621 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 20716 %%EOF