%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420071708+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420071708+01'00') /Title (The First Industrial Region: North-West England c. 1700?60) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4194 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The First Industrial Region: North-West England c. 1700?60)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British industrialisation lacks clarity as a national experience because we now recognise that some regions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de-industrialised even as others grew rapidly. Furthermore, academic studies below the national level are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often based on very narrow evidential foundations, sometimes a single town, firm or industry, and the North-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West has been a particular victim of this despite its centrality to the development of modern industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Here, Jon Stobart takes a broad view of the period between 1700 and 1760, just before classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialisation, analysing the interactions between thirty places in south Lancashire and Cheshire which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were viewed by contemporaries as market centres. It deals with them primarily as an urban system rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than individual places, and, since the majority of late nineteenth-century north-western towns had not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged, many that later became important are necessarily excluded. The importance of these centres for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade in raw materials and manufactured goods is investigated, and also their role in manufacturing. He re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts that, whatever the national picture was, the eighteenth century saw changes in the North-West that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were profound and startling, and also, more contentiously, that the regional urban system was an essential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerequisite for industrialisation, not its accompaniment or product. Such a study is to be welcomed not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for its content, but also for attempting a genuinely regional analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most striking facet of both Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire during industrialisation was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of dynamic activities that they housed, and here mining, metal-working, chemicals, transportation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(424)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 September, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Stobart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719064627X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(49.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(269pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Caunce)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7437 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the other activities found in this region are examined alongside textiles. From St Helens and Preston to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leeds and Sheffield, these multiple activities were not just neighbours, but overlapped each other and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interacted. These were no lean, mean, specialised production units ? the area had its aristocracy and gentry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the growing middle class demanded services on a steadily increasing scale. Finally, the urban pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that developed along with industrialisation was quite different from that of southern England. Neither fits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily into conventional images of urban systems, the south being extremely concentrated in London, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north tremendously fragmented but close-packed. Too often, studies of both industrialisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanisation leave a sense that theory-based assumptions have influenced the analysis as much as intimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge, and agendas derived from nineteenth-century experience determine earlier investigations of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns and people, but later results should not be treated as inevitable. Stobart tries to compare actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions with the predictions of leading theoretical models, though his assertion that there is no point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treating this region as a special case seems to contradict his other arguments for its importance in breaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through to a new sort of economy. It may well be that models derived from elsewhere do not fit at all, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rather fragmented comparisons between actuality and various theories make it harder to assess how good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fit really is.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unusually, this was a time and place where urban and industrial systems both seemed essentially fluid, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however much hindsight and research may suggest that solid foundations had been laid. Very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment had occurred in this region?s infrastructure, and pollution and environmental degradation were as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet slight and localised, making little impact on living conditions and urban patterns. The question had still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be decided of whether the remnants of medieval urbanisation, chiefly Chester and the towns along the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic road heading north to Scotland, would revive, or be replaced by newcomers There was enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of experience here: Malpas and Frodsham would never get formal recognition as independent urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places while, despite being in Lancashire, Ormskirk and Clitheroe remained essentially country market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns. It is, however, harder here than over the Pennines to separate out some trends because the landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was so much more compressed in the west. Most obviously, successful medieval towns in Yorkshire stood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart from the new economy and achieved very little, whereas in Stobart?s North-West it lapped over some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British economy was changing steadily, especially due to new global contacts, and this relatively tight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of towns was always outward looking, even though strong evidence is produced that it functioned as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucible within which powerful forces reverberated and strengthened, rather than radiating out and wasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their potential. Urban growth started so late that self-sufficient economic zones never seemed possible, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even Liverpool, for instance, could never have risen above its immediate surroundings as London had long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since done. It ploughed enormous resources into creating an intense local network of transport links with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial areas around Merseyside which it served rather than dominated. This issue has resonance today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when London sometimes seems to be recreating itself as a global city state that just happens to be in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but sees little need to be part of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In presenting this case, the author?s own empirical research is united to existing studies from Wadsworth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Mann to Timmins. The analysis of probate records is prominent, producing convincing and interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical patterns, though the woollen precursors of cotton seem to be played down in the analysis more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the map symbols suggest they should. There is also quantitative and qualitative evidence on credit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business linkages, while the less tangible connections of trust embodied in nominations of executors are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated. Less secure is the contribution to understanding occupational structure, since the law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prescribed probate only for those with significant personal possessions. Titles for tables, such as )] TJ ET BT 498.620 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(occupations in north-west England, 1701?60)] TJ ET BT 250.352 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, imply that the distribution within such middling and upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income groups mirrored the whole exactly, which seems unlikely. This data is also clearly skewed in terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of life cycles, containing too many elderly people, many winding down their business activities. Since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were to be very involved in Lancastrian industrialisation, gender issues also arise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Openly paradoxical results can also occur, as when analysis of various inter-urban linkages indicates Chester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the region?s key centre \(p. 207\). However, this does draw attention to the odd nature of the system in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, as well as stimulating consideration of why that never particularly successful medieval town )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7682 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained so high a profile in some respects, and a stable economy if viewed in isolation, when it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dropping steadily down the urban hierarchy and becoming economically marginal. Indeed, all analyses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change need to be handled carefully in this complex and dynamic period, for low initial populations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of economic activity mean that relative measures of growth can mislead badly. Thus, Prescot recorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an above-average and impressive-sounding growth rate between 1664 and 1775 of 215 per cent. This, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, only took it to 993 inhabitants, and from 30th place in the regional hierarchy to 25th. Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care must be taken in distinguishing between activities that were important in the early years, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacture of pewter goods in a small corporate town like Wigan, and others which had incomparably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more growth potential but which may not seem so dominant in more populous settings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The whole of this system was clearly greater than the sum of its parts. It would be impossible to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise answers to most of the questions Stobart raises, since urban linkages are ghostly things for such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, reflected in uncertain transport flows and unrecorded business interactions, and never as formalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in a single, unified conurbation. What we get instead is an excellent stimulus to debate, and a framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to work within and build upon. The points made below are intended in that spirit, suggesting ways of taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting concepts forward and of clarifying some things that seem obscure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study area itself perhaps needs more introduction. The topography is neglected - an important matter for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those unfamiliar with the area?s great diversity. Its many natural barriers must have modified the patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban interactions in ways not seen in the south, or allowed for in most models. I would argue that early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turnpikes, for instance, are a very poor proxy for transport flows since much industrial traffic was located )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Pennines where packhorse causeys, built by township surveyors almost regardless of gradients, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were most effective and wheeled vehicles mostly undertook only very local journeys. More generally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing the criteria that divide this region from others is essential since such boundaries are particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to define to general agreement in England, and those placed along rivers rarely reflect real divisions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic activity. Thus, a glance at any modern map will show that the Mersey has proved anything but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barrier to industrial activity. Northern English shires were administrative units imposed by kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively late in English history, and Lancashire and Yorkshire proved themselves particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwieldy and impractical. This attempt to substitute an economically defined North-West for one based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties therefore has a lot to recommend it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, official bodies define such a region in many different ways, and this is a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconventional North-West that includes all of Cheshire but only those Lancashire towns between the rivers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mersey and Ribble. Preston is the only exception northwards, and as Lancashire?s county administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre it played a key role as a node in the urban system. However, if it and the utterly obscure Malpas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(population in 1775 )] TJ ET BT 131.684 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 137.012 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.680\) in rural southern Cheshire were essential for this study, why not Lancaster and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Fylde towns? The eighteenth century was a time of renewal and optimism in Lancaster, reflected today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in elegant stone buildings, and its port rivalled the infant Liverpool for a time. We see that rural Cheshire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had connections with the industrialising area, and that Warrington played a key role at the lowest bridging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point over the Mersey, but the analysis also shows that Preston provided similar strong links across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ribble. The southward linkages are interesting, given the trade in Cheshire cheese to London that developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the previous century, but asking why the Ribble, unlike the much bigger Mersey, became a decisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(termination line for industrial south Lancashire seems no less likely to reward study. Also, why did so few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links develop between this main grouping and the industrial zone of Furness \(also in Lancashire\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cumberland coast and the miniature metropolis of Kendal in Westmorland? Finally, the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transpennine linkages, hinted at here, suggests that automatic assumptions that looking north and south was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most natural thing need at the very least to be queried.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other fundamental issue I would have like to have seen debated more directly is whether commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity is enough to make a place urban in a general sense. There was a European saying that ?God made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the countryside but man made the town?, but what population and institutions justified that feeling? De )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vries said that towns with a minimum of 3,000 inhabitants ?would embrace very nearly all the functionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban population of early modern Europe, and fixed 2,000 as his lowest possible threshold of urbanisation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.620 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.620 62.787 m 560.612 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1720s France, Pounds counted almost 120 towns with over 5,000 inhabitants, the threshold for a medium-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.6197 63.1015 560.6117 74.9815 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6104 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sized town under the classification of Mols.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.656 795.075 m 257.648 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.648 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 385 small towns had populations of between 2,000 and 5,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and five reached over 40,000. The Dutch Republic and northern Italy obviously had many more large towns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are generally accepted as providing the key to their precocious economies in earlier centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of Stobart?s thirty north-western towns, he estimates that only five exceeded two thousand people in 1664, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while seventeen did not then pass the thousand mark. Chester?s 7,817 was more than twice the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester \(3,690\), and no other town topped three thousand. Of the top six, four were Cheshire towns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Congleton with only 1,939 inhabitants. Of these four, only Macclesfield would really go on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialise. The future Lancashire industrial and trading complex already filled the upper middle ranks, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Preston reached only 1,890, and Liverpool was down in twelfth place with 1,273 people \(maybe 300 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households but quite probably fewer\). By 1775, seven towns in the region had passed the 5,000 threshold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but although sixteen had reached 2,000, Leigh and Bury then hit the mark pretty exactly and so presumably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the majority were still below it in 1760. Liverpool had by now risen to first place and reached 34,407, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester came second with 22,481, but Chester clung to third and Warrington needed only 8,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants to take fourth. We should also remember that London had 400,000 people in 1650, and 650,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1750, but that other English towns very rarely got past 20,000, so the yardstick of English urbanisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unusual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is even unclear what proportion of apparent urbanites lived in a built-up core, for northern towns mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay within enormous rural parishes, several comparable to the county of Rutland in size. These were divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into townships for administrative purposes, which themselves often consisted of scatters of hamlets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated farms. The larger towns of 1760 had grown so fast that their institutions and physical structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always lagged well behind older equivalents. A pan-European urban definition would include institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and economic self-government, defences, the location of religious, educational and cultural centres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and so on, and though only a few would tick off all or nearly all of such a list, many would have impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credentials. Not so in the North-West, as Stobart partially shows in analysing leisure towns at \(and after\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close of his period via eight indicators. Chester, Liverpool and Manchester hit them all, Preston got six and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warrington five. Twelve got one or two, and four got none at all. There can surely be no comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between places like Ormskirk, whose attractions for the gentry were soon exhausted, and successful leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns like Bath or even Harrogate; and does a racecourse make a place urban on its own?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These towns possessed market charters, but only a handful had active corporations, even if we judge by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holding of regular meetings, and only Liverpool?s demonstrably wielded constructive economic power. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used its thirteenth-century charter, but it had lain largely dormant since being granted, and whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic ancient European town was crowded with urban parishes, it had gained parish status as a whole only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1699. The 1840 Ordnance Survey map shows Newton-in-Makerfield, home to just 751 people in 1775, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still as just one wide street \(adapted to the need of the fairs held to sell cattle walked down from Galloway\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was lined by farmsteads and pubs. Its market was vestigial or dead; it was still a century away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(getting a parish church when this study ends; courts leet and baron ran its affairs; and though it ?elected? two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of parliament, it was notoriously completely in the pocket of the Leghs of Lyme Hall in Cheshire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It later became industrial, but almost by chance, due simply to lying on the routes of both the Sankey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navigation and Liverpool and Manchester Railway, and most of the growth that resulted was carefully kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from the old nucleus.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.6557 795.3895 257.6477 807.2695 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7204 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North-western towns as market centres clearly played an economic role disproportionate to their size, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitely acted as nodes in an integrated commercial system, but throughout the early eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most employment opportunities lay outside these cores, and few institutions or government agencies offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility of charity or preferment, so they were not destinations where the displaced would migrate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either in hope or desperation. Without their market functions, it is often hard to see that they would have had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any significance at all, even locally. The issue raised here of whether the original rural population thickened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or urbanised can thus be largely semantic. Many of the apparent disagreements with Timmins about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of urban places seem to hinge on defining the urban rather than disagreeing about geography or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall economic structure. This region therefore offers a fascinating challenge to conventional urban studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could be taken much deeper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, even though this was a dispersed urban system, particular towns could develop almost symbiotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links. Thus Liverpool and Chester seem outwardly to be rivals but the sequence of their development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests rather that they formed two parts of a functional whole, detached and reluctant but inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partners in providing the main western gateway for the other towns. The trade available to both was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same, and Liverpool had no pre-existing merchant community of its own. It is universally accepted that port )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilities migrated down navigable rivers at this time, especially those that were shallow and prone to silting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Dee certainly was, and Chester tried to maintain its sea-going connections in this way by developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent harbours nearer to the sea. It asserted, unsuccessfully, that Liverpool must remain part of this port )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex but its neighbour was far better placed than Chester \(or Lancaster\) to serve the Pennine industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities as they got into their stride. Yet it neither extinguished nor absorbed Chester despite its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive growth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salford poses different problems. It certainly was never an independent urban entity, but its existence makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding Manchester more difficult, even at the mundane level of including or excluding its population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the total of its larger neighbour ? it is not stated whether this is done here. Bolton, however, was always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeniably its own town and its relationship with Manchester is frequently, but fragmentarily, alluded to. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has always occupied a high place within the north-western urban system, but one that is relatively ill-defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since it had no administrative or religious significance, and in trade its function as an independent mercantile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre eroded steadily. Here terminology could usefully be examined. Was Bolton ?losing? by this process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it continued to grow faster than average, and emerged as the largest nineteenth-century town in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire, behind only the true cities and Salford? Equally, suppose it had emerged as a rival to Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? would this have fragmented the region?s commercial system and so weakened its performance? Could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every town have stood alone and yet formed part of an urban system? Wigan remained arguably more in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of its own economy, but grew far less. Co-ordination is not necessarily at all the same as control, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional language often obscures the difference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the concept of proletarianisation is also redolent of exploitation and failure, even of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?immiseration? of the individuals involved. Yet eighteenth-century Lancashire was moving away from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian economy set in a landscape full of difficulties, whether due to the mosses of the plain or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moorlands of the hills. The evidence suggests that, in the eighteenth century, there was no need to coerce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone into the new manufacturing economy, which proved capable of supporting large numbers of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by means of trade. It obviously had bad years, but so did agrarian economies, and fewer people stood at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious risk of starvation in the Lancashire of 1760 than two centuries before, despite a hugely increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population. Commercial chains inevitably formed between individuals, because otherwise the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial economy would not have worked, but we cannot assume that that process inevitably made most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants into industrial serfs. Wage work and personal independence were not incompatible as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were plenty of merchants, and there were, and as long as debt did not become a deliberate instrument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of control \(as under metayage\), and mostly it did not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads back to the question of models. It is wrong to say the region had no precursors, because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italians and the people of the Netherlands had helped mark out this way forward, and other regions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England also contributed; but the actual transition seen in the north of England was novel in its use of coal, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 3353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and later of factories, and its extraordinary rapidity. The Pennine matrix encouraged a completely now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to town formation, and the inhabitants showed as yet no desire for greater formality, while external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances did not punish their lack of walls and government, as in the Netherlands. Later economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development experiences elsewhere, moreover, might reach a similar end-point, but they could only ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replicate part of the pioneer aspect. National statistics certainly obscure the intensity of the regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, and looking at this urbanisation through a lens built elsewhere may also obscure critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements and combinations. Therefore, models based upon other experiences, before or after, or on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisation across many experiences, are inherently unlikely to catch what made this one so special. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defining that will be very hard, but this book is a contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. de Vries, )] TJ ET BT 121.004 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Urbanization 1500?1800)] TJ ET BT 292.340 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1984\), p. 22.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.332 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.332 615.507 m 414.320 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. J. G. Pounds, )] TJ ET BT 145.352 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Historical Geography of Europe, 1500?1840)] TJ ET BT 378.008 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1979\), p. 145.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.328 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.328 601.251 m 551.324 601.251 l S BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 78.008 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://eh.net/book_reviews/first-industrial-region-north-west-england-c-1700-60)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 532.227 m 419.624 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.624 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 528.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 511.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 511.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/424)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 509.721 m 322.316 509.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2092)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://eh.net/book_reviews/first-industrial-region-north-west-england-c-1700-60)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.3317 615.8215 414.3197 627.7015 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.3277 601.5655 551.3237 613.4455 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 78.0077 599.1895 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 532.5415 419.6237 544.4215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://eh.net/book_reviews/first-industrial-region-north-west-england-c-1700-60) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 510.0355 322.3157 521.9155 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/424) >> endobj xref 0 40 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004903 00000 n 0000005012 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005231 00000 n 0000008792 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000009004 00000 n 0000009069 00000 n 0000016559 00000 n 0000016643 00000 n 0000024378 00000 n 0000024408 00000 n 0000024534 00000 n 0000024570 00000 n 0000024654 00000 n 0000030811 00000 n 0000030841 00000 n 0000030969 00000 n 0000031005 00000 n 0000031070 00000 n 0000038327 00000 n 0000038439 00000 n 0000041845 00000 n 0000041973 00000 n 0000042028 00000 n 0000042156 00000 n 0000042211 00000 n 0000042337 00000 n 0000042392 00000 n 0000042519 00000 n 0000042650 00000 n 0000042778 00000 n trailer << /Size 40 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42873 %%EOF