%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150522021327+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150522021327+01'00') /Title (Deadly Enemies) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4868 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Deadly Enemies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There has been much interest in biological weapons in recent years, stoked by ongoing debates over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and by fears that such weapons may fall into the hands of terrorists. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat came to feel increasingly real when envelopes prepared with pulverised anthrax spores of unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin started to appear in the post \(along with many more copycat envelopes containing harmless powder\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(causing panic and chaos in the United States and elsewhere in the West. Historians are becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly interested in the subject, and it is also slowly finding its way into syllabi in the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science, technology and war. While usually no substitute for lectures, documentary films provide students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with access to original footage on issues in recent history, as well as quick and easy access to interviews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with main historical actors. In some \(rare\) cases, imaginatively produced films can grant students unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights that they would not get by any other means.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 284.672 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 284.672 243.417 m 298.664 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.664 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Enemies)] TJ ET BT 379.976 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, is of a more conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Lambert?s film tells us above all about the science behind biological warfare. It starts with the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthrax trials in the Second World War, very briefly, and without much discussion of the research at Porton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Down and its origins. The story moves on swiftly to the laboratories of the US biological weapons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme at Fort Detrick during the Cold War. The film makers introduce us to Bill Patrick, a veteran of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the programme, who reminisces about how impressed the researchers were with the research opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they encountered in the facility \(??it was fascinating work, really fascinating work??\), allowing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraging them to pursue research on germs and diseases which could not be handled safely in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional university laboratories. Patrick remembers Fort Detrick as an ideal research and development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facility. We learn about the controversy unfolding during the Korean War, when the Soviet government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accused the Americans of using biological weapons. This controversy, rather than slowing it down, led to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensification of the US programme. When penicillin and other antibiotic agents threatened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(425)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 October, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Lambert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ABC TV)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carsten Timmermann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 284.6717 243.7315 298.6637 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7703 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of bacterial weapons, the use of myxomatosis to kill scores of rabbits in Australia \(?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment in the mass extermination of mammals?\) pointed the researchers to the possible use of viruses as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapons. We also hear about the testing of biological agents in the Utah desert and see newsreel footage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happy ?human guinea pigs? playing piano in a Fort Detrick common room: conscientious objectors, pacifists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Seventh Day Adventists, for whom Bill Patrick expresses his highest regard. According to the veteran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researcher, these experiments yielded ?very, very important findings? which could not have been produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise. We do not hear what the volunteers thought about their role ? none seem to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewed for the film.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, despite attacking the US over the alleged use of biological weapons in Korea, the Soviets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launched their own programme, and again it is researchers? accounts, interspersed with archive and newsreel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footage, that inform the film. We watch interviews with the physician Ken Alibek, former deputy director of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biopreparat, the Soviet Union?s biological warfare agency, who defected to the US in 1992.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.600 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.600 626.259 m 490.592 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.592 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( We also hear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the virologist Serguei Popov, who worked on the development of a genetically enhanced, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lethal strain of smallpox. Smallpox was thought to be a particularly effective weapon when the World Health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organisation in 1981 announced the eradication of the disease and vaccination programmes were suspended. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Popov, ?it was a very scary weapon?. The Soviet programme continued until the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union, and led to a spectacular accident with anthrax near Sverdlovsk in 1979. In the US, in contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the offensive biological weapons research programme faced increasing public criticism and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinued by President Nixon in 1969.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of the weaknesses of )] TJ ET BT 178.316 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Enemies)] TJ ET BT 256.628 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the film relies almost exclusively on the reminiscences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a handful of reasonably well-known veterans of biological warfare research, who also know each other quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. The late David Kelly, head of the first team of western experts invited by Mikhail Gorbachev to visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet facilities, tells us how impressed he was by the managerial finesse of his host, Ken Alibek, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to keep his staff from giving out too much information on what they were doing without raising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion of the visitors. Alibek, in turn, remembers that most of those who debriefed him after his defection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unable to grasp what he was telling them. Only when he met Patrick he found someone who spoke the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same language ? and was duly impressed by what the Soviet scientists and engineers had achieved \(?What in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world would you do with 4,500 metric tons of anthrax?? Fort Detrick had only been able to produce one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metric ton per year\). The odd one out among the interviewees is Mathew Meselson, a leading opponent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biological weapons research. However, like the others, he is a scientist, an insider.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important source of fears over weapons of mass destruction is that they are based on applications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cutting edge science. The effects of chemical weapons have a central place in the collective memory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War I, and they were contributions of the world?s leading chemists to their nations? causes. The atom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bomb was developed by a colony of the world?s best physicists in the New Mexico desert, who believed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were helping to defend fascism. In many people?s eyes, what makes biological weapons especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfidious is that they seem to pervert the aims of medicine, for they are based on medical knowledge that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to kill rather than cure. However, one of the implicit messages of this film is that those researchers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviewed in its making all appear to be perfectly nice people, somewhat proud of what they have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved. Alibek today is the vice president of a biotechnology firm in the US and Popov seems delighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these days he is developing vaccines rather than killer viruses. We can be almost certain, though, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the right circumstances similarly nice people are going to be as impressed as Patrick was by the ideal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilities at Fort Detrick or Alibek and Popov by the opportunities granted to them at Biopreparat. And they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will focus their creative energies on the design of new, ever more efficient weapons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is slightly regrettable that the film does not give us the dates for many of the events it reports on; nor does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it engage with the wider historical and cultural contexts of biological weapons research. Biological warfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has long been occupying the public imagination. Along with other weapons of mass destruction, biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents of death are invisible. But in contrast with nuclear weapons, for example, which we fear because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the uncontrollable damage inflicted on all things living by invisible rays, there is no large explosion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warns us of the imminent danger of death-dealing bacteria. We have learned that anthrax bacteria may even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrive by mail in an inconspicuous looking envelope. Or we may contract the germs of death while riding a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.5997 626.5735 490.5917 638.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowded subway train. But unlike the unlucky commuters who became casualties of the sarin gas attack on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tokyo underground train committed by members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult in 1995, victims of a biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack, say, on the London Underground would notice symptoms only hours or days later, at a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half the city?s population would be infected \(or so we are led to believe by those warning us about the threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such attacks\). A brochure distributed to all households in the UK earlier this year \(?Preparing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emergencies: What You Need to Know?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.300 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.300 723.795 m 244.292 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.292 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) tells us what to do in cases of such or other terrorist attacks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is not just terrorists we have to fear: the film tells us how US biological weapons experts exposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens of San Francisco to two kinds of allegedly harmless bacteria in 1950 in order to learn more about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread of such agents in populated areas. Who knows, maybe the latest wave of freshers? flu is the product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a biological weapons experiment? No wonder that conspiracy theories about the origins of AIDS in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical research laboratory are so persistent. Unfortunately, )] TJ ET BT 326.936 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deadly Enemies)] TJ ET BT 405.248 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not deal with such recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fears of citizens in Western societies, who face increasingly smaller risks of dying premature deaths \(not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least thanks to scientific and technological advances\), but who nevertheless continue to worry, now about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential dangers posed by science and the technologies designed to keep them warm and safe. Fear, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems, may be the main effect of biological weapons. Up to the present day, biological weapons have not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused many casualties \(at least not outside the research facilities\), and there is some evidence pointing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility that their complicated handling due to the frailty of biological agents makes their broad use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather unlikely.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.336 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.336 540.723 m 121.328 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.328 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Anthrax, with its unique qualities, may be quite an exception. Conventional explosives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the good old handgun have certainly killed far more people in history than these deadly enemies. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film does not discuss such alternative views; it does not challenge the basis of our fears. It is also a pity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the producers did not trust the images and the interviews to stir us up sufficiently: they chose to add an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annoying, sensationalist voice-over of the kind better suited for cinema trailers announcing, say, the latest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sequel of )] TJ ET BT 80.672 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Hard)] TJ ET BT 126.332 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There are certainly more subtle, surprising and interesting ways of telling the story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biological warfare than that chosen by the producers of this film.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An outstanding example was an eight-part television series on the history of technology broadcast in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994, )] TJ ET BT 94.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White Heat)] TJ ET BT 148.340 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The series was accompanied by a book: Caroll Pursell, )] TJ ET BT 420.296 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(White Heat: People and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Technology)] TJ ET BT 120.008 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.320 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.320 361.155 m 261.308 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alibek?s account of the Soviet biological weapons research programme is also available in book form: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ken Alibek with Stephen Handelman, )] TJ ET BT 249.992 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Biological Weapons Program in the World)] TJ ET BT 270.344 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.668 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ 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