%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818071422+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818071422+01'00') /Title (The Politics of the Poor: the East End of London, 1885?1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4370 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Politics of the Poor: the East End of London, 1885?1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central theme of this book can be summed up as ?neither electoral sociology nor linguistic turn?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, its author emphasises the micro context of politics ? how local social and cultural milieux shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reception of political ideas, and hence the fortunes of political parties. His focus is, thus, ?how ? ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were filtered by localized social and economic structures and processes of communication and popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture? \(p. 12\). And, have no doubt, for the most part he does this brilliantly ? this is the most thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking and refreshingly original book about British politics that I have read for some time. Brodie?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus is East End politics between the Home Rule crisis and the First World War, and his principal target is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historiography of East End Conservatism. He convincingly demolishes accepted explanations linking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative political strength in the East End to extreme poverty, casual labour, protectionism and anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien sentiment. Conservatism, he argues, was strongest in the least impoverished areas of the East End ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places such as Stepney and Mile End where, by Booth?s standards, the bulk of the population lived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?comfort?, and skilled workers and clerks outnumbered the casual poor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contrary to the arguments of Davis and Tanner, Brodie demonstrates that no part of the East End boasted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true ?slum vote?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.336 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.336 88.857 m 130.328 88.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 130.328 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Through painstaking work linking electoral registers to census enumerators? returns, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that the typical East End house in multiple occupation rarely boasted more than one voter, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case law suggesting that each sub-tenant was also entitled to claim the household franchise. Landlords )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(426)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Brodie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199270554X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(252pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Lawrence)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3357 89.1715 130.3277 101.0515 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7939 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally let the whole property to a ?chief tenant?, who would then let sections of the house to sub-tenants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to help cover the rent. Brodie shows not only that ?chief tenants? were usually the only ones to make it on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the register, but also that they generally took more rooms than their tenants. Most chief tenants had large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families, which was why they needed more rooms, but they were also more prosperous than their neighbours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? they had to be to take on responsibility for a whole house. This ground-breaking work on electoral registers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows Brodie to demonstrate that, contrary to Paul Thompson?s arguments, manual workers dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electorate across the East End, but that these electors were nonetheless far from representative of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population as a whole. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.004 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.004 695.283 m 158.996 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.996 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Brodie shows that, in social and economic terms, the composition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary electorate was broadly similar across the East End, with a strong bias towards regularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed, older family men in all constituencies. Nowhere did electoral politics reach down to the casual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residuum, so this cannot have been a bulwark of popular Conservatism \(even if Liberals sometimes liked to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue differently\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brodie therefore reminds us that the East End was socially more diverse than is often allowed. As others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have observed, the apparent separateness of ?the East End? helped fashion an ?imagined slum? of depravity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and immiseration, which contemporary ?explorers? and philanthropists often had good reason to reinforce.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.584 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.584 583.491 m 560.576 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Brodie argues that we should take Booth?s more sanguine view of East End poverty at face value: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost everywhere comfort predominated over poverty, and that in much of the East End the great political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question was not ?what to do about the casual poor??, but rather how to satisfy the aspirations of the better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off \(though this was not something much welcomed by Booth\). Throughout the book Brodie makes good use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Booth and other late Victorian and Edwardian social investigators. Particularly impressive are the sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where he reconstructs snatches of working-class culture and politics by carefully decoding investigators? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts \(notably Cornford on lodging house protectionism and Loane on working-class resistance to social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condescension\). That said, sources are sometimes accepted too uncritically if they support an argument ? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance Krause?s account of unemployed dockers insisting that they had no time to protest in Trafalgar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Square \(p. 18\), or worse Rogers?s partisan explanations of Liberal abstentionism in the wake of the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1886 electoral debacle \(p. 127\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, Brodie?s grasp of the complexity and diversity of working-class political culture is compelling. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, he constructs a fascinating picture of coster politics, arguing that their status in working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts meant all parties worked hard to cultivate their support. He accepts that some local coster unions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came under the sway of anti-alien, Conservative politics after 1900, but demonstrates that most did not. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brodie does more than simply demolish established mythologies about East End Conservatism; he offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich and challenging analysis of the relationship between religiosity and partisanship. Building on the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hugh McLeod and Sarah Williams, Brodie insists that we need to recognise the importance of ?marginal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominational allegiances among urban workers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.636 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.636 300.627 m 289.628 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.628 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In other words, while, by national standards, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers regularly attending church may have been fairly low in the East End, the influence of the church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still extensive. Brodie argues that marginal attachments counted for most in ?respectable? working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts characterised by highly privatised, home-centred life-styles. Here church visitors were more readily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed into working-class homes, giving them the chance subtly to influence political attitudes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Brodie, the influence of such visitors was most important, not in making little Conservatives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in weakening the resolve of instinctive anti-Conservatives to vote in certain critical elections. Brodie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses that the East End Conservative vote was remarkably stable across the four decades, whereas the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive vote varied wildly between elections, with nadirs in 1886, 1895 and 1900 and peaks in 1892, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1906 and 1910. He suggests that in elections where Liberalism was divided nationally, Conservative-leaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors found it relatively easy to use their influence with voters? wives to spread doubt about the personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of local progressive candidates, thereby encouraging the abstentions needed to deliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative victories. He points to Bromley South-East as proof of his case ? here both the Church and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of social visitors were strongly progressive in outlook, and in consequence, he suggests, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive vote proved much more stable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is here that the argument seems to break down somewhat. For one thing, we are back to the old habit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining Conservative success largely in terms of Liberal/Labour failure ? the solid block of working-class )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 145.0037 695.5975 158.9957 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.5837 583.8055 560.5757 595.6855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 275.6357 300.9415 289.6277 312.8215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7655 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lower-middle-class Conservatism is left largely unexplained. But the problem runs deeper than this. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as though, having sketched out the social bases of politics more thoroughly than his predecessors, Brodie is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined to construct an argument that will wholly banish parties, ideas and issues from the story. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence, little is uncovered about party organisation and party activism in the East End, beyond a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleeting references such as the interesting discussion of a party worker?s role in boosting the lodger vote at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mile End East, or the analysis of party efforts to woo costermongers and other potential political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediaries. The Primrose League is mentioned, but its relative strength in different parts of the East End, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hence whether it may have reinforced the political influence of church visitors, is not explored. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, we learn nothing about the growing use of ?lady canvassers? by both parties in the late nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, though these too may have reinforced the influence Brodie detects at work across the ?respectable? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(East End, particularly if the Conservatives made better use of this electioneering weapon than their rivals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But then in truth we do not hear much about the relative strength of the parties at all ? not even in the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of registration work. And it is not just parties that are largely ignored in this study: so too is the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of public politics. Perhaps because the emphasis is on the conservatism of a well-to-do, privatised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class, there is little discussion of the rough-and-tumble of late Victorian and Edwardian popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics. This is a pity because it would be interesting to know if election meetings were less common in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brodie?s more affluent, home-centred districts, such as Mile End, than in the old, central districts, such as St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George?s and Whitechapel. It would also be interesting to know whether meetings were more popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among Liberals than Conservatives, and whether their importance declined over time. But then more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic forms of political communication, such as the election leaflet and the politicised local press, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also written out of the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brodie wants to offer an explanatory model which rejects the current fashion for emphasising political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse and the active role of party in the construction of political identities. But while his frustration with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constructivists? indifference to questions of reception is understandable, Brodie falls into the opposite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trap of ignoring the world of formal politics altogether. State policy, political issues and party rhetoric are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated as matters of little consequence compared with the micro-level social interactions said to shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral choice in the East End. This preference for sociological over political explanation leaves many key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues unexplained. For instance, we are frequently told that although the Conservative vote was more stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Parliamentary elections, progressive voters consistently turned out in greater numbers in municipal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections. Strikingly, in both cases only progressive voting behaviour is explained. At the Parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level we are alerted to the social influence of church visiting, while at the municipal level we are told that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal voters polled in greater numbers because they felt strong loyalty to the Radical clubs that were so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active in local politics. This is an interesting hypothesis, though one that requires considerably more work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between voter turnout and candidate type. Did Liberal ?outsiders? poll much worse than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?locals?? Did club officials always outpoll other Liberals? Why did church influence not create similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties among Conservatives?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, even if one accepts Brodie?s arguments about the differential propensity to vote at local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national level, this still leaves three major questions unanswered. First, why was the Conservative vote so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stable when the electorate was so shifting \(Brodie estimates that up to a third of the electorate would be new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters at any given general election\)? Second, has Brodie really disproved John Davis?s original argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Conservatives polled more heavily in Parliamentary than local elections because they were successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilised around issues such as empire, Ireland, war and protection ? issues which appeared to have little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance to municipal politics?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.992 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.992 172.323 m 200.984 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.984 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Third, why could radical clubs apparently mobilise support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidates at local elections, but not national? For Brodie, this is simply a question of the limits of personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, but perhaps political factors were also at work. We have long known that many London Radicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were dissatisfied with aspects of national Liberal politics, and with the cliques controlling Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation across much of the capital. Were such issues really irrelevant to the vitality of Liberalism as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral force in parts of the East End?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, in short, significant problems with Brodie?s determination to ignore ideas and activism in favour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of focusing narrowly on micro-level social and cultural contexts. This approach is ultimately no less )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.9917 172.6375 200.9837 184.5175 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 5873 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic than histories which interpret the so-called ?linguistic turn? as a licence to stop worrying about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old-fashioned issues like social structure and the franchise. In this work Brodie has developed new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling methodologies for investigating the social bases of politics, but perhaps, because his grasp of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social is so strong, he leans too heavily on purely sociological explanations of politics. The result is a study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, far from exploring the reception of ideas, treats ideas as all but irrelevant ? only context matters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some middle ground, combining the strengths of Brodie?s non-determinist sociology with the insights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse-centred ?new political history?, would seem preferable, and would surely generate more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling historical explanations. Such an approach might also allow working people a more sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political consciousness than they are accorded in )] TJ ET BT 270.968 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of the Poor)] TJ ET BT 385.640 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 647.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Davis, ?Slums and the Vote, 1867?1890?, )] TJ ET BT 278.996 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 375.320 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 65 \(1991\), 375?88; and J. Davis and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D.Tanner, ?The Borough Franchise after 1867?, )] TJ ET BT 297.620 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 393.944 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 69 \(1996\), 306?27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.264 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.264 601.251 m 545.252 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 145.688 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socialists, Liberals and Labour: the Struggle for London, 1885?1914)] TJ ET BT 479.048 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1967\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.040 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.040 586.995 m 560.036 586.995 l S BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 572.739 m 78.008 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Mayne, )] TJ ET BT 129.668 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Imagined Slum: Newspaper Representation in Three Cities, 1870?1914)] TJ ET BT 493.988 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 544.227 m 118.004 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh McLeod,)] TJ ET BT 137.336 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Religion and Irreligion in Victorian England: How Secular was the Working Class?)] TJ ET BT 544.676 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bangor, 1993\); S. C. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 220.352 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religious Belief and Popular Culture in Southwark, )] TJ ET BT 472.364 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 477.692 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.1880?1939)] TJ ET BT 534.692 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 501.459 m 193.652 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Davis, )] TJ ET BT 123.680 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reforming London: the London Government Problem, 1855?1900)] TJ ET BT 441.992 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.640 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.640 487.203 m 551.300 487.203 l S BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 472.947 m 90.344 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I thank Dr Lawrence for his positive comments, and I am happy to accept the review. I would just note, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated in the book, that my central aim, in addition to rescuing the East End from simple ideas of 'slum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatism', was to show how very localised social structures and personal relationships, often ignored, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might influence political results, and not necessarily to explain the entire make-up of East End politics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 345.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 328.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 328.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/426)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 326.649 m 322.316 326.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 301.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2381)] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.2637 601.5655 545.2517 613.4455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.0397 587.3095 560.0357 599.1895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 573.0535 78.0077 584.9335 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 544.5415 118.0037 556.4215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 501.7735 193.6517 513.6535 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.6397 487.5175 551.2997 499.3975 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 473.2615 90.3437 485.1415 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 326.9635 322.3157 338.8435 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/426) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005073 00000 n 0000005182 00000 n 0000005292 00000 n 0000005401 00000 n 0000008962 00000 n 0000009090 00000 n 0000009174 00000 n 0000009203 00000 n 0000009330 00000 n 0000009366 00000 n 0000009464 00000 n 0000017456 00000 n 0000017486 00000 n 0000017614 00000 n 0000017650 00000 n 0000017680 00000 n 0000017808 00000 n 0000017844 00000 n 0000017874 00000 n 0000018002 00000 n 0000018038 00000 n 0000018122 00000 n 0000025830 00000 n 0000025860 00000 n 0000025988 00000 n 0000026024 00000 n 0000026157 00000 n 0000032083 00000 n 0000032211 00000 n 0000032266 00000 n 0000032394 00000 n 0000032449 00000 n 0000032575 00000 n 0000032630 00000 n 0000032757 00000 n 0000032812 00000 n 0000032940 00000 n 0000032995 00000 n 0000033123 00000 n 0000033178 00000 n 0000033304 00000 n 0000033359 00000 n 0000033487 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33582 %%EOF