%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818221618+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818221618+01'00') /Title (Review Article: Nehru) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2980 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Nehru)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forty years after his death, much of Nehru?s world has been lost, its certainties eroded, its structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demolished. The European empires which Nehru challenged have long since disappeared. The Cold War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which he fought hard to insulate the Third World, has come to an end, replaced by an unipolar world in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(429)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 December, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Zachariah)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(415250161X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(299pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3000938553)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(407pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joya Chatterji)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7050 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the neo-imperialist superpower, the uncovenanted legatee of earlier empires, presents dangerous new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges to the sovereignty of nations. The model of state-led socialism, which Nehru and a generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-builders saw as the key to development and the fight against poverty and inequality, has failed. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the new nations whose independence Nehru championed are now in deep crisis, a painful commentary on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the failures of Nehru?s dreams of a new world order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In India itself, Nehru?s legacy has come under sustained attack. One government after another ? whether his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own successors or other alliances ? has dismantled the state-planned ?mixed? economy he worked so hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put into place. The Congress, which he had led and which was the lynchpin of the system of governance, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disintegrated. The party itself ? its recent pyrrhic victory at the polls notwithstanding ? is a shadow of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former self. Nehru?s commitment to a secular India has been openly challenged by increasingly strident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindu nationalists; and his old faith in progress, liberalism and inductive rationalism is no longer in fashion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with India?s intelligentsia, once his natural allies but now influenced by post-modernism and flirting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerously with )] TJ ET BT 120.008 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hindutva)] TJ ET BT 164.672 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Ironically, many of Nehru?s erstwhile critics on the left, who used to attack his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-of-the-way compromises, today rally to defend his ?legacy?, and the debate about its relevance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably the big issue of contemporary India.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So it is timely to have two new works on Nehru, one by an old hand with a lifetime of research and writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Gandhi and modern India behind her; the other by a Young Turk eager to win his spurs. These add to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not inconsiderable existing body of biographical literature, but avoid some of its pitfalls. Both Judith Brown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Benjamin Zachariah avoid sensationalism. Neither are hagiographers. Both have avoided the prurience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tabloid history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For her part, Brown has set her sights ambitiously high. Her aim is to write a definitive biography of Nehru, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to displace Gopal?s comprehensive three volumes as the standard work. She brings to this task new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources \(in the main, Nehru?s private papers between 1947 and 1964, to some of which she alone has had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access\) and an historian?s perspective. For some parts of Nehru?s political life, she has achieved what she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set out to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point, however, is that Nehru?s long career in Indian politics was divided into several different phases. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For much of the time before independence, the young Nehru was used by others, whether by Gandhi and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lieutenants in the High Command or by Jawaharlal?s own co-adjutors on the left. He was more often a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figurehead than his own man, whose charisma and enthusiasms were convenient ways of disguising the hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts of machine politics. In the endgame before transfer and partition, his role was more visible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial than it had been in the 1930s, but others still called the shots. In post-independence India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vallabhbhai Patel, the Bismarck of modern India \(or, in a bathetic key, the Gordon Brown to Nehru?s Blair\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the leading architect of India?s constitution, the guardian of its unitary system of governance and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iron statesman who integrated the princely states. Only after Patel?s death in 1952 was Nehru his own man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown is best on Nehru before 1947. Here, her knowledge of the workings of nationalist politics enables her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to situate Nehru?s political life securely within the constraints within which he operated. Paradoxically for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historian of Gandhi, Brown displays a greater natural empathy with Nehru. In consequence, her finely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn and multi-faceted portrait of Jawaharlal gets the measure of the man: his integrity and the passion he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to the causes he espoused but his tendency to shy away from confrontation; his concern for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantaged and the under-privileged but his lofty and often impatient paternalism; his capacity to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long hours but his convenient reliance upon his father?s financial support; his curiosity ? wide ranging and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eclectic ? but which was not matched by depth of understanding or mastery of detail; his inclination to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship heroes but his arrogant and unjustified contempt for those he deemed to be lesser beings; and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significantly, his capacity more or less to realise what the problems were but, as Brown perspicaciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes, his lack of tenacity of mind and purpose to impose solutions upon them. For these insights alone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book deserves to be read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, for the period in Nehru?s life when he had the most influence and authority, where least is known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and where judgements call to be made, Brown is less sure-footed. After the Great Divide, Indian politics )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7741 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were shaped by a new constitution, a different balance between a centre and increasingly demanding states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(soon to be organised on the basis of language\), all within a context of full adult franchise, superintended by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Election Commission with unprecedented powers \(with huge implications for the survival of democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in India\). This too was a time when the Congress, adapting to new conditions, dominated the political scene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a system which effectively managed both the party and the government, and when Nehru and his pet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisers embarked on experiments with state-led development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On none of these matters does Brown display the flair and confidence she has when she is in familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory. Instead of teasing out Nehru?s particular contribution to these essential structures of the new India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she gives a long and exhausting list of the many trials and tribulations which this embattled Prime Minister )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced as a daily diet: opposition and intrigues inside the Congress, Hindu communalism, demands by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic communities, and ? somewhat bizarrely ? even the relatively minor controversies about Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missionaries. A chronicle of how Nehru reacted to these problems \(or ?dealt? with them\) is no substitute for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. We need to know why and when these problems emerged, how they were connected with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. Nehru?s mainly )] TJ ET BT 143.996 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc)] TJ ET BT 176.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?responses? to these problems played a significant role in changing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance of power within the ruling party, both inside parliament and in the country as a whole, in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown does not fully assess. Nehru?s idiosyncratic style of leadership ? however much it may have fudged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issues ? has left a deep mark on the office of Prime Minister, and has given it an overweening role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian political system, something which Brown has failed to bring out. Given Brown?s contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the huge significance of the Congress constitution which Gandhi imposed in 1920, her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to analyse and assess Nehru?s role in the framing and the working of India?s constitution of 1950, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the crucially important consequences it had for relations between centre and provinces and for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing regional elites, is another glaring omission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachariah?s )] TJ ET BT 94.988 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nehru)] TJ ET BT 124.988 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a very different kettle of fish. Neither a conventional biography, nor a systematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of Nehru?s ideas, the book falls rather between two stools. Zachariah?s approach, refreshingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irreverent if somewhat idiosyncratic, is to discuss those aspects of Nehru and those of his predicaments that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest him, regardless of their relative import in the wider scheme of things. For instance, the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated to a long disquisition on Iqbal?s poem \(and the song for which it provided the lyrics\) ?)] TJ ET BT 484.964 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sare Jahan se )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(achchha)] TJ ET BT 74.672 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, but only the briefest mention of Nehru?s role in the failure of the Cabinet Mission. The Socialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Communists, close to the author?s heart, get more space than such players on the Indian stage as Gandhi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Patel \(who is caricatured as a representative of the Hindu right in favour of a Hindu state, which he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not\). On everything that bores him Zachariah is glib and facile. What he writes, for instance, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution of 1950 and Nehru?s part in it is short, sloppy and simply incorrect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But nonetheless Nehru is fun to read: lively, provocative, sometimes stimulating even when it is palpably off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rails. What saves the book is that Zachariah cares deeply about his subject and has many good ideas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Primarily interested in Nehruvian thought and its genealogy, he recognises the constraints in practice on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these experiments with ideology. He is sceptical about the extent to which Nehru?s early flirtations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fabianism and socialism explain his ?later engagement with a gradualist and top-down socialism?, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly so. Such an interpretation attributes, as he argues, ?too much reasoned choice and too little )] TJ ET BT 506.948 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realpolitik)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the phenomenon of Nehruvian governance, and too much freedom of choice to Nehru himself? \(p. 25\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachariah is particularly good on ?planning? under Nehru and the origins, both pragmatic and intellectual, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state-led development. Planning was a way by which Nehru was able to circumvent the party bosses in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states and their powers under the constitution. That these plans were not ?socialistic?, either in origin or aim, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is another of Zachariah?s better points, albeit one which has been made before by others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zachariah?s critique of Nehru?s views about Indian identity and secularism, as set out in )] TJ ET BT 462.272 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Discovery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(India)] TJ ET BT 59.348 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is convincing. So also is his characterisation of Nehru?s ?solution to the problems of Indian cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity? as accretive and synthetic, relying on crude and often paternalistic stereotypes. Nehru?s contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, as Zachariah argues, was to ?disarm the view of Indian culture as ?Hindu?, thus allowing ?a Hindu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majoritarian ethic? to ?hide behind a secular view of an overarching Indian culture? \(p. 147\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sadly, Zachariah is more interested in how Nehru came to have his sometimes muddled and less-than-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2148 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rigorous ideas than in how and to what extent they were implemented. Did planning fail because it was ill-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived or did it fail because it was refracted and broken by India?s social circumstances? Did ?Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularism? falter because it was a half-baked intellectual compromise with Hindu majoritarianism or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because its achievement depended on institutions ? whether the Congress party, the bureaucracy or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police ? in which high-caste Hindus, whose commitment to secularism was often equivocal, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly dominant?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither Zachariah nor Brown provides full answers to these important questions about Nehru?s project and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its legacy. However, in their very different ways, both these works will encourage historians and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists in the future to pose these questions in a more informed and rigorous way. For a definitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment, Nehru still awaits his historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/429)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 322.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2392)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2390)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 322.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/429) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000524 00000 n 0000000606 00000 n 0000003638 00000 n 0000003747 00000 n 0000003857 00000 n 0000003966 00000 n 0000007527 00000 n 0000007655 00000 n 0000007739 00000 n 0000007804 00000 n 0000014907 00000 n 0000014972 00000 n 0000022766 00000 n 0000022850 00000 n 0000025051 00000 n 0000025179 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25274 %%EOF