%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818062908+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818062908+01'00') /Title (A Death-Dealing Famine: The Great Hunger in Ireland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4331 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine: The Great Hunger in Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not long ago Cormac Grda lamented the dearth of scholarly writing about the Great Famine. Since then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the drought has been broken by a deluge. Some outpourings are far from scholarly; some fall into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of what D.H. Atkenson has recently described as "Famine porn" as their authors scour the lexicon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of shocking vocabulary to arouse our indignation. But there are also good local studies and collections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary documents, a few fine reflective essays, and some carefully crafted monographs, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Kinealy?s 1994 volume, )] TJ ET BT 201.008 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(This Great Calamity)] TJ ET BT 299.684 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her new work, )] TJ ET BT 108.656 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 230.636 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a curate?s-egg sort of a book. I am not sure for whom it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended. Dr Kinealy seems to be striving to achieve two things simultaneously. At one level she assumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the Roy Foster of Famine history and at another the mantle of a modern Cecil Woodham-Smith. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She will not like the first description, for Foster is the arch-revisionist, not a species that finds favour with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Kinealy, since revisionists seek to remove blame from considerations of Ireland?s past and Kinealy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very strong on blame. But just as Foster?s )] TJ ET BT 238.340 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Ireland 1600-1972)] TJ ET BT 369.656 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an excellent synthesis of a bigger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story, so )] TJ ET BT 77.684 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 199.664 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( brings together much of the recent writing on the Famine. Within its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limits it is very successful. It is based on extensive reading and the end-notes are a rich source of primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(43)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 July, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Kinealy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745310756)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pluto Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.plutobooks.com)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and Chicago)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L.A. Clarkson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and secondary references. For students commencing their studies of the Great Famine, )] TJ ET BT 451.928 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Famine)] TJ ET BT 70.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can take its place besides other introductions, such as the monograph by Mary Daly and the essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by Cathal Prtir.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.340 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.340 766.563 m 165.332 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Kinealy never explicitly aspires to emulate Mrs Cecil Woodham-Smith, but she shares with her a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outrage at what the government of the United Kingdom failed to do to alleviate the sufferings of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famine. Woodham-Smith?s villains are Kinealy?s villains; and like Woodham-Smith, her interpretation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events is coloured by what ought to have happened rather than by what actually did take place. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the writing is limp and has none of the vigour of Woodham-Smith?s. I cannot imagine any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer of )] TJ ET BT 91.988 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 213.968 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( describing it, as Professor Dennis Brogan did of )] TJ ET BT 450.608 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Hunger,)] TJ ET BT 542.264 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("a moving and terrible book. It combines great literary power with great learning.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Kinealy?s work poses the question whether a comprehensive history of the Great Famine that is balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not anodyne can ever be written There are two major difficulties to overcome. The first, that I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already touched on, is "the tradition of telling the ?story of Ireland? as a morality tale" \(the words are Roy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster?s\). The urge to do so is particularly strong in Famine historiography. Recently it has taken the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconcerting form of setting out one?s pedigree for public inspection. Thus Terry Eagleton, in )] TJ ET BT 491.948 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heathcliffe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Great Hunger)] TJ ET BT 140.336 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, tells us that all four of his grandparents were Irish immigrants and that his mother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was born into "the Irish community of the tiny Lancashire town of Bacup.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.100 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.100 542.979 m 408.092 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 408.092 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Likewise Christine Kinealy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges her debt to "my Irish grandparents who never had a chance to be buried in the country of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(birth", and she thanks "my beloved Wicklow collie, Trot ?" Should I make clear that I am London-born, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far as I know I have no Irish antecedents, but I have lived half my life in Belfast and have one Belfast-born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son and two Belfast-born cats?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The purpose of all this ancestor display is, I presume, to make the point that historians are prisoners of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments and cannot write history objectively. Dr Kinealy?s view is unambiguous. "Fundamentally the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of value-free history, whilst noble in its intentions, is flawed in its execution. In striving for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectivity, that very purpose itself violates the concept, as the quest reflects the writer?s own value-system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is set in the context within which the historian is writing \(p.2\)." In plain English, all history is subjective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemic. Such silliness was robustly refuted by Geoffrey Elton thirty years ago.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.300 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.300 388.419 m 430.292 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.292 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Of course, historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have less than complete knowledge of the past, simply because the events that interest them happened then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not now and motives and causes have to be deduced from outcomes. But this applies to all writing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, not just Irish history. As for subjectivity, historians are no more prisoners of their environments than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are natural scientists.. To possess an Irish ancestry is not a qualification for writing good Irish history. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only requirement is a respect for the fundamental principles of the historian?s craft, which are to be faithful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the evidence and to interpret that evidence honestly and fairly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greater challenge facing an historian attempting a comprehensive account of the Great Famine is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any famine is a tissue of complex social, economic, political and psychological strands. Famine affects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society at large. It may or may not result in the death of men, women and children, who may starve because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have no food or, more commonly, die from diseases made worse by severe malnutrition. But such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufferings are not inevitable. Dr Kinealy?s title - which is a borrowing from Daniel O?Connell - implicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises that famine need not be "death dealing", but she does not explore with any rigour the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances that turn famine - i.e. a severe shortage of food - into mass starvation and death. She offers no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of famine and makes no use of theoretical writings on famine, such as those by David Arnold and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amartya Sen that would have clarified these issues.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.972 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.972 162.579 m 295.964 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold draws a useful distinction between event and structure. The "event" triggers off a famine. It may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, frost, flood, drought, pestilence or, in the Irish case in the 1840s, )] TJ ET BT 370.964 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(phytophthora infestans)] TJ ET BT 481.304 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Dr Kinealy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the potato blight briefly but adequately, in the process partly acquitting the lumper of its reputation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a particularly dismal member of the potato family. However, an event precipitates a famine only when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodges into some deep fissure of society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1845 one-third or more of Ireland?s people relied almost entirely on potatoes for food. The blight )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.3397 766.8775 165.3317 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.0997 543.2935 408.0917 555.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.2997 388.7335 430.2917 400.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.9717 162.8935 295.9637 174.7735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7410 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming, not once, not twice, but in three seasons out of four, and intermittently thereafter, rotted the sinews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of survival. Dr Kinealy outlines this straightforwardly, although her account of how the precarious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence came about is woefully superficial. But there is a further step that needs exploring. For a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse in food supplies to result in widespread starvation and death requires other fault lines in society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was the shortfall so absolute that starvation was inevitable, whatever anybody tried to do about it? Or was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem, to employ the vocabulary of Sen, a failure of entitlements?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion of entitlements is a simple one. A person is entitled to food because he or she legally owns food, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or owns the means of producing it, or possesses the income to purchase food, or otherwise can obtain food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by lawful exchange. Society might also recognise its legal or moral responsibility to supply food to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who have no food nor any lawful means of getting it. How does the entitlements analysis assist in our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the Great Famine?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few years ago Peter Solar used the entitlements approach to the Great Famine in a volume of essays to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Dr Kinealy was herself a contributor. His conclusion was that the loss of the potato crop in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasons 1845-49 was so great that there was an absolute shortage of food in the country. He urged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless, that the idea of entitlements "be incorporated in a full analysis of the Great Famine". It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assist in examining the effects of rent demands, and the operation of the poor law and private charity on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destinies of the starving. "But", he continued, "whatever the value of this approach, it should be remembered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the major change affecting the entitlements of the Irish people in the late 1840s was a direct fall in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income that took the form of far fewer potatoes being harvested.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.840 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.840 514.467 m 361.832 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had Dr Kinealy thought in these terms her treatment of relief policies, the grain trade and, indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culpability would have been so much stronger. She is good when describing policy. Her book is, in effect, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of relief policies pursued by the Westminster government. She steers us through the turbid pools of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy shifts and judges the motives of those who held the fate of hungry people in their hands. Or did they? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What could any legislator have done to disperse the putrid cloud that rotted the basic entitlements of one-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third of Ireland?s people? Dr Kinealy?s answer is that government ministers and their civil servants could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have done more. It is a fair charge, but it needs to be pressed home and not taken to be self-evident.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consider the case for the defence. The course of the potato blight and the extent of crop failures were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpredictable. With hindsight we know the scale of the problem, but )] TJ ET BT 366.308 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post hoc)] TJ ET BT 406.640 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wisdom comes easily; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in 1845-6 was floundering in the dark. As for the corn trade, to do more than tinker was difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for practical as well as ideological reasons. The grain that was exported during the Famine was legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owned by producers or merchants; the starving masses possessed only a rotten mess of potatoes. Is it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable to expect the men of the 1840s to possess the degree of knowledge that we enjoy with hindsight, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to demand from them the value systems that we hold today?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such defences can be dented, possibly even demolished. Uncertainty may well have reigned in late 1845 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1846. By the end of that year there was no doubt among informed opinion that Ireland was in the grip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a dreadful crisis. The public works had failed to maintain the people. The soup kitchens introduced in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early months of 1847 provide clear evidence that after two years of hunger the government had stumbled on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kind of relief - cooked food - that was effective. The closure of the kitchens in the summer and autumn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1847 was a dangerous gamble with human lives, scarcely justified by a few healthy potato plants. As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlements, the government )] TJ ET BT 176.672 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 194.672 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( interfered with the corn trade only a few years before the Great Famine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Smith?s famous justification of a free trade in corn written in 1776 had been be set aside on several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions. Every ear of corn and bag of flour that might have been stopped from leaving Ireland in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s, was one ear and bag that might have saved a life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both charge and counter-charge are clouded by Dr Kinealy?s insistence on writing normative history: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of what ought to have been done rather than what was done. Where there is scope for differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgements, she chooses the hard line. Take, for example, her treatment of Sir Charles Trevelyan. In August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1847 Trevelyan took a holiday after, in his own words, "two years of such continuous hard work as I never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had in my life". Dr Kinealy comments, "as a third year of Famine commenced in Ireland, he toured France )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.8397 514.7815 361.8317 526.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 6973 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 125\)". The implication is clear; Trevelyan heartlessly put his own health above the health of tens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of Irish men, women and children. But go back a year, to early 1846. Sir Randolph Routh, chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief commissioner in Ireland, told Trevelyan that he was exhausted: "I cannot write more, as I am an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invalid today and I intend to remain quiet tomorrow to recruit [i.e. to regain his health]". Trevelyan replied: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("I hope to hear tomorrow that you have got rid of your indisposition - we have not time to be ill nowadays.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 723.795 m 48.008 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Routh and Trevelyan crossed swords more than once. On 28th December 1846 \(how many of us today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on 28th December?\) the latter refused Routh?s request to release food from the government?s depots at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(below market prices: "If we make prices lower, I repeat for the HUNDRETH TIME, that the whole country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will come upon us \(quoted p. 82\)." But Trevelyan had instructed Routh earlier in the year, this time using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(italics for emphasis, "? the people must not, )] TJ ET BT 246.896 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(under any circumstances)] TJ ET BT 366.872 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, be allowed to starve.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 477.080 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 477.080 666.771 m 491.072 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who was the real Trevelyan? The answer is both. His holiday in 1847 did not make him a callous man, nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his energy in 1846 a caring man. Trevelyan was stiff and unbending, but a man doing his best according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his lights. Those lights were not our lights. The principles guiding policy towards Ireland in the 1840s were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on classical economic orthodoxy ? the market will make all things good ? and a conviction that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaster was the will of God. Trevelyan adhered to both tenaciously.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No scholar endeavouring to write Famine history in all its aspects can be other than impressionistic about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies . Dr Kinealy sensibly avoids selective quotation and stresses that an allegiance both to market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces and the will of God left open a number of policy options. Her complaint is that Westminster always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose the ones that produced the worst results. She may be right, but she has not made her case convincingly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A surprising weakness of )] TJ ET BT 158.660 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 280.640 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is its treatment of demographic matters. There are nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forty references to mortality in the index, all of them brief and most incidental. Dr Kinealy repeats several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times that at least one million people died between 1845 and 1851 \(and another million emigrated\), but she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not explain how these totals are derived. According to Dr Kinealy \(p. 59\), "no one died during the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year of shortages [1845-6]", which is plainly nonsense. On p. 63, the statement is elaborated: "no excess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality was recorded during this time." This is better, but it obscures the fact that no mortality ? neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal nor excess ? was officially recorded in Ireland until 1864. All mortality totals and rates before then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the constructions of historians. As for the effects of the Great Famine on marriage and fertility, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no discussion at all. The treatment of emigration is scarcely any better. The is a section entitled "The Flight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Ireland: Emigration", on pp. 146-8, but it is largely concerned with the horrors of the coffin ships and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perils awaiting emigrants if they survived their journeys.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Does this lack of discussion matter? Not so much if Dr Kinealy?s purpose is to write a history of policy; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it matters a great deal if )] TJ ET BT 150.656 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 272.636 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is intended as an account of a great disaster. The central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters in the Great Famine were those whose fleshless bones perished in the fields alongside their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blighted potatoes or who were forced to flee Ireland to escape starvation. It was their suffering and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacies that have shaped the history of Ireland. Trevelyan and his tribe are useful targets to throw mud at, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they were the spear-carriers in the dolefully unfolding pageant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the historiography of the Great Famine, famine as "Ireland?s destiny" is a recurring thread, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among those who take a Malthusian view of the crisis. Insofar as Christine Kinealy shows her hand, she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a Malthusian. There is a longish section \(pp. 42-48\) on "Pre-Famine Famines" that might suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(otherwise, but its purpose is to demonstrate "a long history of state involvement in famine relief". It is meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emphasise that the state in 1845-9 could have behaved differently had it chosen to do so. But the section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can equally be read as highlighting the uniqueness of the Great Famine and therefore the inappropriateness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of earlier policies.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 724.1095 48.0077 735.9895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 477.0797 667.0855 491.0717 678.9655 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 5548 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A question that Dr Kinealy avoids is whether Ireland was more prone to famine than other European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries. She has some useful things to say about the impact of the potato blight in the 1840s in Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and on the Continent; again the intention is to contrast the failure of the UK government to do much that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful with more effective actions elsewhere. The famines that afflicted parts of Sweden, Finland and Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in the century are not mentioned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I asked earlier whether it is possible to write a history of The Great Famine that is comprehensive, balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and compelling. On the evidence of )] TJ ET BT 208.316 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 330.296 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the answer is no. Dr Kinealy is not clear about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her purpose. She seemingly wants to synthesise, but instead she has written a morality tale. Its plot is policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it has a cast of villains and victims. If I were certain that her book is intended to be a history, not of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Famine but of famine relief, I would qualify my judgement, although I would then protest that the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is misleading. If )] TJ ET BT 114.680 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Death-Dealing Famine)] TJ ET BT 236.660 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is meant to stir my indignation, then, for me, it fails, not because I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have only English blood coursing through my veins, but because the language is flat and the methodology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flawed. Still, as the curate said, "parts of it are excellent".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 535.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Daly The Famine in Ireland, Dudalk, 1986; Cathal Porteir , ed, The Great Irish Famine, Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 520.227 m 145.004 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terry Eagleton, Heathcliff and the Great Hunger: Studies in Irish Culture, London and New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995, p. x.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.016 491.715 m 169.004 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G.R. Elton, The Practice of History, London and Sydney, 1967, pp. 71-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.652 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.652 477.459 m 469.640 477.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 464.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Arnold, Famine: Social Crisis and Historical Change, Oxford, 1988; Amartya Sen, Poverty and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famines: an Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford, 1981.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.656 450.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.656 448.947 m 435.644 448.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Solar, `The Great Famine was No Ordinary Subsistence Crisis', in E. Margaret Crawford, ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famine: The Irish Experience 900-1900, Edinburgh, 1989, pp. 127-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.640 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.640 420.435 m 451.628 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quoted in Austin Bourke, `The visitation of God'? the potato and the Great Irish Famine, Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993, p. 173.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.016 391.923 m 181.004 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 86.348 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 86.348 377.667 m 140.336 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 333.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 316.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 316.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/43)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 314.649 m 316.316 314.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 289.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/331)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 520.5415 145.0037 532.4215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.0157 492.0295 169.0037 503.9095 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.6517 477.7735 469.6397 489.6535 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.6557 449.2615 435.6437 461.1415 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 397.6397 420.7495 451.6277 432.6295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.0157 392.2375 181.0037 404.1175 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 86.3477 377.9815 140.3357 389.8615 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 314.9635 316.3157 326.8435 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/43) >> endobj xref 0 59 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005026 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000005245 00000 n 0000005354 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000009043 00000 n 0000009127 00000 n 0000009232 00000 n 0000017455 00000 n 0000017485 00000 n 0000017613 00000 n 0000017649 00000 n 0000017679 00000 n 0000017807 00000 n 0000017843 00000 n 0000017873 00000 n 0000018001 00000 n 0000018037 00000 n 0000018067 00000 n 0000018195 00000 n 0000018231 00000 n 0000018315 00000 n 0000025778 00000 n 0000025808 00000 n 0000025936 00000 n 0000025972 00000 n 0000026063 00000 n 0000033089 00000 n 0000033119 00000 n 0000033245 00000 n 0000033281 00000 n 0000033311 00000 n 0000033439 00000 n 0000033475 00000 n 0000033608 00000 n 0000039209 00000 n 0000039336 00000 n 0000039391 00000 n 0000039519 00000 n 0000039574 00000 n 0000039702 00000 n 0000039757 00000 n 0000039885 00000 n 0000039940 00000 n 0000040068 00000 n 0000040123 00000 n 0000040251 00000 n 0000040306 00000 n 0000040433 00000 n 0000040488 00000 n 0000040616 00000 n trailer << /Size 59 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40710 %%EOF