%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818074430+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818074430+01'00') /Title (War and Liberation in France: Living with the Liberators) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4160 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(War and Liberation in France: Living with the Liberators)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When one thinks of the Liberation of France after World War II, one generally thinks of those weeks as ones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a transition from German control through a short, if intense period of anarchy and chaos to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of centralised control by a new, if provisional, French government, with law and order soon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly re-established by the new French authorities. In fact, as Hilary Footitt has so ably demonstrated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Liberation in France)] TJ ET BT 179.348 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that version of the story of the transition is misleading and the smoothness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was by no means a sure thing. Even as the Americans landed in Normandy, it was not certain exactly what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the post-war administration would look like, or whether it would even necessarily be French, let alone led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles de Gaulle. Those weeks and months following the Normandy landings, as the Germans were pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back into their own country, were marked by considerable administrative confusion and improvisation at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local level, with important implications for both the local French population and the Americans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complicating the story was the presence of the Allied forces, who effectively, if temporarily, acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another occupation force, while they drove back the German forces. It meant that the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liberated and the liberators was a problematic one, as the French were torn between gratitude for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escape and frustration with the Americans? seizure of control. Footitt?s book explores this tension-ridden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship and its implications for the French, as they sought to reassert their national identity and regain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their national dignity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(430)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilary Footitt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(415250161X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(237pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynne Taylor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7261 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is well known that there was little love lost between President Roosevelt of the United States and Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Gaulle, leader of the Free French Forces and head of the external French resistance. Each deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distrusted the other. However, it is less well known the depths to which their enmity shaped the plans for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Liberation period in France. Roosevelt had always insisted that, having recognised the Vichy regime as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legitimate French government, he could hardly offer recognition to any other claimant until after France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was liberated and the French had been able to express freely their own opinion about who they wished to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(govern them. For this reason, he refused to consider recognising de Gaulle?s organisation as the successor to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vichy until after Liberation. Indeed, Roosevelt stubbornly refused even to decide on what the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future administration would be or when the liberators would transfer control to an independent French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government until after France was liberated. This ran counter to the advice of many who surrounded him, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the advice of Winston Churchill, all of whom were convinced that de Gaulle was the only viable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative. Thus, when the Americans arrived in France in June 1944, they did so without any kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction or model for post-liberation administration. Instead, the forces in the field were instructed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvise ? pragmatism and empiricism ruled. The result was a very diverse Liberation experience, Footitt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, shaped by the nature of the immediate circumstances of the specific military situation, the balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting forces and the needs of the Allied forces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By exploring the Liberation experience in five different parts of France \(Normandy, Cherbourg, the south )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(focusing on Marseille\), the Pyrnes-Orientales and Reims\), Footitt dramatically illustrates the variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences. In Normandy, the Americans, once they had landed and pushed the Germans back, moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the region swiftly. Their chief impact on that region was the extensive physical devastation resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from heavy fighting. But the Allied presence was actually very fleeting, as the troops quickly pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through. Footitt describes the interaction between the American forces and the locals as distant and unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the French taking a rather passive role in their liberation; the Americans sympathetic, but also frustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the French who just seemed to create logistical problems for troops keen to move on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cherbourg, a key port on the English Channel, destined to be a major entry point for American supplies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops, experienced liberation very differently. After a fierce battle, which reduced much of the city to ruins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Americans took control, with the primary objective of restoring the port and facilitating the easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of supplies and troops off their ships and to the front lines. Thus, rather than moving on, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans settled in for the foreseeable future. For the Cherbourgeois, this meant that their city, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberated from the Germans, had been re-occupied ? this time by the Americans. And like the Germans, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? objectives for Cherbourg did not necessarily match those of the French, who wished to return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their homes and businesses and begin the process of rebuilding. Instead, they found themselves under a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign occupation again, subject to the needs of the American forces for housing, office space, power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuel, food, a functioning harbour and a clear run to the front lines. Inevitably, the tensions between the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and the Americans mounted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story was somewhat similar in Marseille, except that the Americans arrived to discover that much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of liberation had already been accomplished by the local Resistance, and that an effective and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulate left-wing French administration, Resistance-based, had already been put in place. Initially, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked well, and the Americans and the French administration cooperated effectively. However, Marseille?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable port was key to the Allied war effort and the American presence would be considerable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained. Compounding this was the American decision to use the coastal area for a large ?rest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relaxation? area for troops on leave. Although initially good, relations soon became strained, as they had in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cherbourg. In this case, however, the French administration was able to protest more effectively than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cherbourg, where the local administration was much weaker.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Pyrnes-Orientales was a region of little concern to the Americans, being tucked up against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pyrenees and a long way from the fighting. Here, the needs of the Americans did not figure nearly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly as the threat from Franco?s Spain and the presence of a large number of Spanish Republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees, who had played an important role in the local Resistance and in the region?s liberation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans hoped to parlay the goodwill earned by fighting for France into support for carrying the war )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7369 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against fascism into Franco?s Spain, even going so far as to plan an invasion across the border. It was a vain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope as, instead, Paris stabilised relations with Franco and the border with Spain. With the support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and French, Spanish Republicans in the Pyrnes-Orientales ultimately found themselves once again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalised and isolated, their contributions to France?s liberation forgotten.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final case study, Reims, was an extreme example of what happened in Cherbourg and in Marseille. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, the Americans established their headquarters for SHAEF \(Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Force\) and the city became the Allied Command?s military forward base. So the department and the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the epicentre for the concentration of an enormous number of Allied, mostly American, troops and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment. It remained so even after the war had ended, used as a staging area for the re-deployment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops. When the Americans first arrived, they had been welcomed enthusiastically, but the sheer size of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American forces and the all-consuming needs of the war machine stretched the city?s and the department?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical infrastructure, and the population?s goodwill, to breaking point. Friction between troops and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local population was soon manifested in a growing number of physical clashes. By mid-1945, the hostility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on both sides was thick, and the tensions became increasingly politicised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In each case, Footitt argues, local circumstances shaped the relationship between liberated and liberators, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is quite true. However, Footitt also tacitly acknowledges that there were certain common elements to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story of the French-Allied relationship at the time of Liberation which, when put in the various local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts, resulted in different experiences. This is not a contradiction. Perhaps a more effective way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining it might be that there was a set of commonalities to the liberation experience across France which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave rise to different liberation experiences because of the way in which they interacted with local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. It is an important, if nuanced, observation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the French found themselves in the awkward position of ostensibly playing host to guests \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans\) they had been forced to invite into their home \(an analogy Footitt uses effectively\). Yet, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamics were not those of the usual host-guest relationship, where the guest is dependent upon the host and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the host is the dominant force in the relationship. In this case, while the hosts \(the French\) had the )] TJ ET BT 506.960 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de jure)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the ?space? \(the resources and the infrastructure belonged to the French\), the guests \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans\) had )] TJ ET BT 113.324 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 151.652 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( control of it. Nothing required the Americans to concern themselves with French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wants or needs other than a sense of moral obligation. The French found themselves in a rather ambivalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position: once invited in, their guests could hardly be thrown out. Although they needed the Americans? help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and aid, they resented being put in the position of supplicant. No matter what corner of France they came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from, the French expected that Liberation would mean an opportunity to re-establish their national identity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affirm their national sovereignty and reconstruct a viable nation-state, beginning with their own locales. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were desperate to rebuild and restart their lives, but unable to begin without reclaiming the physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space that they had lost to the Germans, something denied them in many instances by the Americans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commandeering of that same space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Americans, on the other hand, had very different objectives which clashed with those of the French in at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least some parts of the country. For the Americans, the focus was on the war with and in Germany. France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly became a mere staging-post, a means to an end, rather than the end result. The Americans sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure territory, and then to occupy enough of that territory to ensure the successful prosecution of the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then they intended to move on. There was no interest in being involved in the cultural or social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction of France, only in the physical reconstruction necessary to support the war effort. Those parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of France that were not essential to military progress were ignored by the Americans, resulting in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberation experience in which the Americans played only a fleeting role. In territory essential to the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort, the Americans established a massive, dominating presence which distorted, and sometimes crushed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French efforts to rebuild according to French needs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The common theme, then, to these case studies is the clash of two cultures, two solitudes ? French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American. In those parts of the country where the two did not meet \(and they really did not in Normandy\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was no opportunity for the differences to manifest themselves. On the other hand, in those places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the French and the Americans were forced to cohabit, even in Marseille where there was perhaps the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3273 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most interest in and sympathy for the Americans? technological and logistical prowess, what is striking is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how little each understood the other, and how little they wanted to understand the other. Instead, the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retreated into bitter disillusionment, and the Americans into baffled frustration and impatience with French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingratitude. In each case, the one dismissed the other as an ignorant foreigner who did not appreciate what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other had to offer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A final concern is the manner in which ?Allies? is elided with ?Americans? in this work. If we are talking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a clash of cultures, surely the fact that there were British and Canadian forces involved in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation of France is a factor that should be taken into account. Footitt seems to use the words, ?Allies? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Americans? interchangeably and, for all practical purposes, has focused on the American forces? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction with the French. For this reason, ?Americans?, rather than ?Allies? has been used in this review. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be interesting to know if the Liberation experience differed according to the nationality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberating force, as well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparative studies like this one have the weakness of not having the space to provide the reader with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details of a particular region?s liberation experience. However it has the important strength of highlighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences and reinforcing commonalities between the different regions? liberations, as well as helping to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overcome the danger of a single case study and the question of its representativeness. 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