%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 53 0 R 83 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724012707+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724012707+01'00') /Title (The Ottoman Empire, 1300?1650: the Structure of Power) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5322 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Empire, 1300?1650: the Structure of Power)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman histories ? better put: histories of the Ottoman state ? have some right to be regarded in a pseudo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Braudelian sense as )] TJ ET BT 131.660 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(une historiographie du longue dure)] TJ ET BT 307.652 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Richard Knolles?s massive folio, )] TJ ET BT 475.304 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Generall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historie of the Turkes)] TJ ET BT 139.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, came out in 1603, a scant half-century before the cut-off point of this latest offering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject by Colin Imber \(by ?the Turkes? Knolles meant, of course, the Ottoman state, also long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as the Turkish Empire\). More than two centuries later, a more relevant founding father for the field is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in the Austrian civil servant, dragoman and orientalist Joseph von Hammer, who published in ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cumbersome volumes a history of the Ottoman Empire from its origins to the conclusion the treaty of Kk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaynarja in 1774, a point in history which marks if not the end, then at least the beginning of the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 79.016 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 147.332 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.332 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.332 172.137 m 164.324 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.324 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hammer?s )] TJ ET BT 222.308 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches)] TJ ET BT 399.932 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, dedicated to the archpriest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative reaction, the Russian tsar Nicholas I, had its successors; at least in the German-speaking world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of central European scholarship, there was the seven volume work by J. W. Zinkeisen in the mid-century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and five volumes from the Rumanian polyhistorian Nicolae Iorga fifty years later, both with near-identical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 60.356 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 60.356 115.113 m 74.348 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.348 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the best that English scholarship could offer at this time was a potted one-volume abridgement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hammer put together by an Old Etonian High Court judge \(and later Chief Justice in Ceylon\), Sir Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Creasy. Not unsurprisingly, the first edition appeared contemporaneously with the Crimean war, the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Russo-Turkish war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.672 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.672 72.345 m 184.664 72.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.664 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is worth pointing out that some very real British skills in Turkish studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Victorian era lay in the fields of literary criticism and lexicography: Sir James Redhouse?s extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(431)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 30 November, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Imber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333613873X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(419pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Heywood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.3317 172.4515 164.3237 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 60.3557 115.4275 74.3477 127.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 170.6717 72.6595 184.6637 84.5395 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman-English dictionary first appeared in 1891 and is still in print; E. J. W. Gibb?s history of Turkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry ? six volumes, all, except volume one, brought out posthumously by E. G. Browne ? appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1900 and 1909 \(Gibb had died prematurely in 1901\). Neither work has been in any real way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superseded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the century since Iorga?s volumes began to appear, Ottoman history as a self-referential academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline has steadily waxed, although Ottoman history written in English, at least with reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period down to 1789, has tended to flourish more at the level of the scholarly article than what our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeanist colleagues would regard as the standard monograph. In fact, it is hardly an exaggeration to state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the large-scale scholarly monograph on a definable period of Ottoman history, of the type that we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyed for late medieval and early modern European history for at least the last fifty years by, e.g., Elliot on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain, Michael Roberts on Sweden, almost does not exist in our field.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.332 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.332 640.515 m 383.324 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 383.324 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, the dominating figure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst historians is that of the late Professor Paul Wittek, the Vienna-born expatriate and first holder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chair of Turkish in the University of London, whose monistic formulations on the nature of the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state dominated the field until a posthumous revaluation set in after his death a quarter of a century ago. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imber has had much to do with that revaluation, but it is worth observing here that Wittek published, apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from some singularly influential articles, only a single monograph, and that was not devoted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottomans. It is not surprising, therefore, that attempts to write surveys of Ottoman history within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confines of a single work, almost without exception, have been spectacular failures, with even Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press?s efforts in that direction coming to grief at the hands of the reviewers twenty-five years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 54.344 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 54.344 512.211 m 68.336 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, of course, is all very deplorable, and may be taken as evidence of the intellectual backwardness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field \(equally visible in largely unsuccessful attempts to apply to Ottoman history the paradigm developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the French historians of the )] TJ ET BT 183.332 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 221.996 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( school for the study of pre-revolutionary France\); the difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(linguistic, and in terms of freedom of access\) inherent in any attempt to use the voluminous documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance of the empire preserved in the Turkish state archives and libraries; and the wilful neglect or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismantling of the field at university level in favour of Arabic studies in most western countries \(with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable exception of post-1968 France\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These thoughts are those of the reviewer, but they have also found a voice in the writings of Colin Imber. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The short introduction, which he wrote a decade ago to preface his invaluable collection of )] TJ ET BT 473.252 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman History and Law)] TJ ET BT 159.692 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Istanbul, 1994\), should be required reading for all Ottoman historians who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take either themselves or their subject too seriously. Invoking the spirit of Sellars and Yeatman, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mordantly observes that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is not the best work that defines the character of modern Ottoman historiography and gives it )] TJ ET BT 64.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its direction. The best work tends rather to stand out in isolation and only rarely leads to serious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate and development. It is the bad and mediocre that is typical \(p. vii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imber, it has to be said, is perhaps the leading, and is certainly the most productive, of the painfully few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman historians currently working in British universities: his )] TJ ET BT 344.684 199.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Empire, 1300?1650: The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Structure of Power)] TJ ET BT 125.348 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 2002\), reviewed here, represents the latest attempt to stuff the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polymorphous genie of the first three and a half of the six centuries of Ottoman history back into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confining bottle of a single work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is also worth pointing out that Imber has not been the only Ottoman historian of note, working in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United Kingdom, never to have held a formal appointment in a department of history \(evidence, perhaps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the blurring of the lines of demarcation between oriental studies and history is still, to some extent, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of this field\), and yet, if we were forced to choose between classifying him as a historian equipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with oriental languages, or as an orientalist who happens to write history, we would unhesitatingly ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly ? place him in the former group. This is not to say that Imber?s own definition of his field is not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.3317 640.8295 383.3237 652.7095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 54.3437 512.5255 68.3357 524.4055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8318 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn somewhat tightly. Comparative history is not part of the equation: Imber?s Ottoman history, like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman state itself for much of its history \(and in much of its historiographic tradition\) stands alone, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuous ?otherness? from the polities, Christian or Islamic, which circumscribe it. This sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works to his, and the non-specialist reader?s, disadvantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where, then, does Imber?s latest work fit, in the historiography of the field, and in late twentieth/early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twenty-first century historiography in general? We may say, with some justice, that his approach contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more of the spirit of the )] TJ ET BT 150.668 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revue Historique)] TJ ET BT 234.320 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than of the )] TJ ET BT 291.644 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 330.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; more of the )] TJ ET BT 394.964 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 520.964 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 116.012 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but it may not be an exaggeration to suggest that Imber is a member of no particular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifiable school of history-writing. This is the second of his two books which cover broad periods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman history. The first, )] TJ ET BT 165.344 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Empire 1300?1481)] TJ ET BT 323.672 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Istanbul, 1990\), is densely factographic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linear, recalling, in its approach to the subject, the now largely forgotten traditions of sound east European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship embodied in such works as Klyuchevsky?s )] TJ ET BT 300.980 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Course of Russian History)] TJ ET BT 427.988 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or \(albeit on a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger scale\) Hrushevsky?s )] TJ ET BT 166.304 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Ukraine)] TJ ET BT 274.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(to invoke the ghosts of Hammer, Zinkeisen or Iorga, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned above, would be superfluous, and essentially incorrect: Hammer?s protean work is cast in a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antique mould; while neither Zinkeisen nor Iorga, unlike both Hammer and Imber, were acquainted with any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriental languages\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How to handle the subject? His opening words, typically self-deprecatory: ?[t]o write a general history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman Empire is a foolhardy undertaking, and one that needs justification?, do not fill one with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence. A plain, linear approach, )] TJ ET BT 214.628 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( la)] TJ ET BT 232.964 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hammer and his successors down to the Shaws, obviously will not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work; accordingly, in )] TJ ET BT 140.000 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Empire 1300?1650)] TJ ET BT 298.328 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, his approach is largely topical. A long first chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baldly entitled ?Chronology?, compresses a factographic but critical survey of the first three and a half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries of Ottoman history into eighty-six densely written pages. Thereafter, separate chapters are devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the dynasty: ?Recruitment? ? namely of the sultans? servants; the ?Slaves of the Porte?, often recruited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the male Christian children of the empire's Balkan and Anatolian provinces through the remarkable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much studied and much criticised ?peculiar institution? of the )] TJ ET BT 332.984 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(devshirme)] TJ ET BT 382.304 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; ?The Palace?; ?The Provinces?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Law?; ?The Army?; and, finally, ?The Fleet?. A surprising omission, that of any treatment of the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial bureaucracy, the hydra-headed collection of treasury departments which lay at the financial heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state, is excused away by Imber?s admission that he was leaving ?this important topic to someone who, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlike me, understands figures?. This is somewhat disingenuous: an early, long study of the navy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sleyman I \(originally a large chunk of his Cambridge PhD thesis\), based almost entirely on Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial documents of stunning mathematical complexity, make one wish that he had found time to work up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a chapter on the subject. The emphasis of the work is very much on the organs of state, and their evolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the early fourteenth-century origins to what I perceive Imber sees \(without allowing himself the luxury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any comparative input\) as a temporary resolution of the Ottoman ?general crisis? of the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would perhaps be mischievous to see encased within Imber?s book the ghost of a well-known work by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Halil Inalc?k, the \(now nonagenarian\) Turkish doyen of Ottoman history, which appeared more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than thirty years ago in Imber?s elegant English translation, which is cast in a similar, though slighter mould.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 217.347 m 48.008 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Inalc?k cut off what he terms the ?Classical Age? of Ottoman history at 1600, by which time indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things were beginning to go wrong with the Ottoman bureaucratic and military machine \(whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dysfunction should be equated with a ?decline? which nevertheless failed to bring about the empire?s demise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for another three centuries is a question which needs further exploration\). Imber continues to 1645, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the last page or two of his chronological summary he briefly reviews events down to 1699, a 1066-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date which conveniently marks not only the virtual end of the seventeenth century, but the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rolling back, in successive treaties, of the Ottoman frontier, first in Europe and \(much later\) in Africa and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, then, is Imber's ?view? of the Ottoman Empire, that posthumously reified construct with which we all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern ourselves? ?The History of the Ottoman Empire?: a simple concept but, in terms of the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Turks, one which may be misleading. History may be, as it has been suggested, no more than what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have written about the past; the past, thus defined, is what historians have written about it. That )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 217.6615 48.0077 229.5415 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8450 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past has had an existence apart from the historians? recreation of it is indisputable, but it is an existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by definition inaccessible, and for the loss of which no number of 'sources' can ever atone. The idea put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward by the nineteenth-century French historian Michelet, that historians are the custodians, almost in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal sense, of the dead, has much to recommend it, although for Michelet, who was writing the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his native land from a plethora of sources, the past ? all around him as he wrote ? was still alive.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 495.272 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 495.272 738.051 m 509.264 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 509.264 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more are historians custodians of the dead, with a special responsibility for them, when they come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak of dead imperial structures, of a whole entity of governance and governed which has vanished from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land, leaving behind its monuments, its documents and its often dubious legacy. Imber?s approach to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy has been one of rational enquiry tempered by skepticism, and further attenuated by a healthy disdain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both for fashionable trends and for all-embracing monistic \(or nationalistic\) historical explanations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At one remove, in his intellectual absolutism and refusal to compromise ? and for this he will probably strike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me down ? Imber is a Wittekian \(as well as an anti-Wittekian of course\), although it is doubtful how much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Wittek?s essentially acribic attitudes were transmitted through the approach to Ottoman history of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Skilliter, the Cambridge supervisor of the former and one-time student and devote of the latter. ?This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apocalyptic state of mind ... exceedingly productive of myths and stereotypes?, a phrase which Imber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed tellingly in another context, could well have been applied by him to Wittek?s historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulations, most notably confronted in his impassioned dissection of Wittek?s notable construct of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical determinism on the course of Ottoman history in the first half of the fifteenth century, published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half a century earlier in the late 1930s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.636 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.636 526.467 m 232.628 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 232.628 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The genesis of that study was on the occasion of the holding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first \(and last\) Wittek-)] TJ ET BT 140.996 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tagung)] TJ ET BT 177.668 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at SOAS in 1984, where we shared a platform and where, perhaps, the formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break occurred between the hagiographers and the historians, the traditionists and the revisionists, over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wittekian legacy and the ultimate nature of the Ottoman state. Since then, in what has at times seemed like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue of the deaf, Imber has been a leading proponent of the revisionist approach, and his notable studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ?The Ottoman Dynastic Myth? \(1987\), ?The Legend of Osman Ghazi? \(1993\), ?Canon and Apocrypha in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early Ottoman History? \(1994\) and ?What does )] TJ ET BT 266.972 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ghazi)] TJ ET BT 292.976 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( actually mean?? \(2000\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.608 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.608 440.931 m 425.600 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.600 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have forcefully and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively taken the debate forward, despite often failing to attract the cogent and informed response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which their intellectual and historiographic merits deserve.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The shadows, if not the reality, of this conflict appear here and there in the present book, but without the fire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which illuminates many of Imber's articles; one could stress here his uncompromising disdain for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment figures past and present, and equally his disdain, expressed mainly in his reviews, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship that appears to verge \(no; let us say, that verges\) on the bogus and the shabby. It would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invidious to go into detail but, as he once remarked apropos of one well-known publishing venture, ?in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of Ottoman history, the demands of commerce do not coincide with the demands of scholarship?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.280 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.280 314.883 m 546.272 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imber?s work evinces a strong resemblance, at the very least, to another Manchester historian who was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mighty provoker of the establishment: the late A. J. P. Taylor. Certainly Imber, in his work, is more Taylor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Trevor-Roper \(Taylor would never have been fooled by the 'Hitler' Diaries, nor, I suspect, would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been Imber\); and what was once said of Taylor, that he was ?a technically outstanding historian, with two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special qualities: intuition and a unique gift for making ordinary language carry extraordinary thought?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be equally applied in our field to Imber who, like Taylor in his, has been no friend to the long-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrenched certainties of the historical establishment. Equally, we must admire his technical expertise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidenced most at length in his long article on ?The Navy of Sleyman the Magnificent? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.956 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.956 188.835 m 482.948 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 482.948 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, which his friends will regret was never expanded into the monographic treatment from an Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archivally-based standpoint from which sixteenth-century Ottoman maritime history would have so greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefited. Technical skills and intuition both are in evidence in the difficult field of Ottoman legal history, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Imber has contributed much in recent years, and which find an echo in the excellent chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman law in the present work. Equally good is the long chapter on the Ottoman army, much of it written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely from contemporary sources, which shows how a growing inability to make use of technological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change was closely linked with the slow decline of Ottoman battlefield flexibility from the late sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century onwards.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 495.2717 738.3655 509.2637 750.2455 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 218.6357 526.7815 232.6277 538.6615 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6077 441.2455 425.5997 453.1255 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.2797 315.1975 546.2717 327.0775 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 462.9557 189.1495 482.9477 201.0295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R ] /Contents 54 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 10114 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, therefore, there is much here to attract not only the Ottoman specialist but also those other and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more numerous specialists in late medieval and early modern European history, whose approach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the European East still often seems to reflect Metternich?s timeless remark about Asia beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Landstrasse. As an elegant and well-informed introduction to the pre-1683 realities of that ?Asian? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, the present work has much to recommend it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 661.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph von Hammer [-Purgstall], )] TJ ET BT 226.328 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches, grossentheils aus bisher )] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(unbentzten Handschriften und Archiven)] TJ ET BT 260.996 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(10 vols., Pest, 1827-35; repr. Graz, 1963\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.964 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.964 646.275 m 523.952 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. W. Zinkeisen, )] TJ ET BT 145.340 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches in Europa)] TJ ET BT 374.300 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(7 vols., Hamburg, 1840?1863\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(covers the period down to 1856\); N. Jorga, )] TJ ET BT 276.644 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte des osmanischen Reiches nach den Quellen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dargestellt)] TJ ET BT 115.352 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(5 vols., Gotha, 1908?13 \(down to 1912\)\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.996 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.996 603.507 m 377.984 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Edward Creasy, )] TJ ET BT 160.664 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of the Ottoman Turks from the beginning of their empire to the present )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(time)] TJ ET BT 84.680 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., 1854, 1856; 2nd edn. 1877-8; repr. Beirut, 1961\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.992 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.992 574.995 m 420.980 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only serious monographic treatment of the early Ottoman state, George Arnakis?s )] TJ ET BT 481.604 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ho protoi )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Othomanoi)] TJ ET BT 118.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Athens, 1947\), described by Rudi Lindner as ?the finest unread book on Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history?, still remains, after half a century, inaccessible to anyone without a reading knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Greek \(R. P. Lindner, ?Beginning Ottoman History?, in ed. C. Heywood and C. Imber, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Ottoman History in Honour of Professor V. L. Mnage )] TJ ET BT 380.348 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Istanbul, 1994\), 199?208\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.328 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.328 503.715 m 551.324 503.715 l S BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 78.008 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On S. J. and E. Kural Shaw's )] TJ ET BT 205.496 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey )] TJ ET BT 456.140 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2 vols., Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1976?7\), see the reflective and profound study by K. Kreiser, 'Clio's poor relation: Betrachtungen zur )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(osmanischen Historiographie von Hammer-Purgstall bis Stanford Shaw', in ed. G. Heiss and G. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Klingenstein, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Das osmanische Reich und Europa 1683 bis 1789: Konflikt, Entspannung und Austausch)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Wien, 1983\), 25?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.328 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.328 418.179 m 220.316 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Inalc?k, )] TJ ET BT 119.996 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Empire: the Clasical Age, 1300?1600)] TJ ET BT 367.652 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1972\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.644 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.644 403.923 m 459.632 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the ?Prface? to vol. ii of J. Michelet, )] TJ ET BT 275.984 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire du XIXe sicle)] TJ ET BT 387.632 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3 vols., Paris, 1872\), cited in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roland Barthes, )] TJ ET BT 144.344 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Michelet)] TJ ET BT 186.332 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(trans. R. Howard, New York, 1987\), p. 101.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.624 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.624 375.411 m 458.612 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Imber, 'Paul Wittek's "De la dfaite d'Ankara la prise de Constantinople"', )] TJ ET BT 443.720 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Osmanl? Aratirmalar?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, v \(1986\), 65-81, reprinted in )] TJ ET BT 209.660 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Ottoman History and Law)] TJ ET BT 385.340 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 291?304. Also see, of course, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wittek's own study, 'De la dfaite d'Ankara la prise de Constantinople: Un demi-sicle d'histoire )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ottomane', )] TJ ET BT 116.840 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revue des Etudes Islamiques)] TJ ET BT 255.812 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, xii \(1938\), 1?34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.804 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.804 318.387 m 395.792 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 305.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Imber, 'The Ottoman dynastic myth', )] TJ ET BT 257.324 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Turcica)] TJ ET BT 294.656 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, xix \(1987\), 7?27, repr. in )] TJ ET BT 423.968 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies In Ottoman History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Law)] TJ ET BT 105.692 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 305?22; C. Imber, "The legend of Osman Ghazi" in )] TJ ET BT 362.444 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ottoman Emirate)] TJ ET BT 467.108 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1300?1389\), ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Zachariadou \(Rethymnon, 1993\), 67?75, repr. in )] TJ ET BT 348.296 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Ottoman History and Law)] TJ ET BT 523.976 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(323?331; C. Imber, 'Canon and Apocrypha in Early Ottoman History', in Heywood and Imber, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(117?137; C. Imber, 'What does )] TJ ET BT 216.488 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ghazi )] TJ ET BT 245.492 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually mean?', in )] TJ ET BT 338.300 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Balance of Truth. Essays in Honour of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Professor Geoffrey Lewis)] TJ ET BT 186.680 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. i?dem Balim-Harding and C. Imber \(Istanbul, 2000\) 165?178.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.972 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.972 232.851 m 555.968 232.851 l S BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 218.595 m 78.008 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Imber, review of S. J. and E. Kural Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 190.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, xcii \(April 1978\), 393?5, at p. 393.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.332 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.332 190.083 m 423.320 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Navy of Sleyman the Magnificent', )] TJ ET BT 265.304 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archivum Ottomanicum)] TJ ET BT 380.288 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vi \(1980\), 211?282, repr. in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies In Ottoman History and Law)] TJ ET BT 240.356 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1?69.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.684 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.684 161.571 m 332.672 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 68.547 m 240.992 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 65.215 526.499 1.500 re S endstream endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.9637 646.5895 523.9517 658.4695 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.9957 603.8215 377.9837 615.7015 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.9917 575.3095 420.9797 587.1895 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot 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