%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 51 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150630010212+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150630010212+01'00') /Title (The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon: Edwardian Britain on Film) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1962 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon: Edwardian Britain on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Film)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(432)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 December, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vanessa Toulmin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Popple)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Russell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1844570460)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(210pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Film Institute)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Brown)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8731 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early and silent cinema is generally ghettoised in popular culture. Early film, British or otherwise, is mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen by the public on television as illustrations for documentaries and is rarely, if ever, the subject of them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the study of early British cinema is the study of a still relevant, living entity. The early pioneers built an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry that still stands as an essential part of British and world culture. By 1914, filmmakers had produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature films, made films in colour and films with sound, developed current systems of sales and distribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more or less devised the techniques of editing which are still used today. Audiences could see these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films in plush cinemas in their local areas, paying multiple ticket prices, and even buy chocolates or drinks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take in with them. The cinemas may be gone, but the buildings still remain, converted into shops, bingo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(halls, theatres and showrooms. Early filmmakers and audiences, and early film performers ? be they actors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or members of the public ? are only one or two generations away. Although out of the spotlight, scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the field of early British cinema has been vigorous since the important conference on early cinema put on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the British Film Institute \()] TJ ET BT 174.368 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bfi)] TJ ET BT 187.040 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in Brighton in 1978. In the last decade, there has been an explosion in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, fuelled in part by the British Silent Cinema Weekend, held annually at the Broadway cinema in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nottingham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of early British cinema is therefore remarkably healthy, albeit fractured and fragmented. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of British film which is being written is still appearing mostly in article form. Many of these articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are widely dispersed among obscure \(some very obscure\) journals. There have been a number of important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited volumes, like the recent )] TJ ET BT 183.992 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young and Innocent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.652 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.652 528.723 m 297.644 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 297.644 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published by the University of Exeter Press, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various invaluable editions arising from the Nottingham Weekend.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.644 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.644 514.467 m 368.636 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.636 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, although these volumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain some outstanding detailed pieces, they tend to be about disparate subjects linked around a theme and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go in scope for the broad canvas rather than the sharp focus. In the recent upsurge of interest no single author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has tackled the subject of early British filmmakers or the industry, and there are almost no book length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of specific companies, apart from Richard Brown and Barry Anthony?s groundbreaking study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Mutoscope and Biograph Company.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.680 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.680 443.187 m 257.672 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.672 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rachael Low )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.320 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.320 443.187 m 341.312 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.312 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and John Barnes )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.632 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.632 443.187 m 440.624 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.624 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, many years on from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their initial writing, still remain the best available concentrated resources for the historian of the period. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in part why the publication )] TJ ET BT 177.344 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon)] TJ ET BT 368.012 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has so much potential. For the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, a book is published which is a collection of essays based around a single company, a limited time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, and a specific collection of films, offering a focussed entry point for the rigorous study and analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period and one element within it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first line of the book makes it clear that ?the primary inspiration for this book?is the collection of films? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\). The discovery of the Mitchell and Kenyon Collection \(hereafter the Collection\), 800 or so original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camera negatives stored in three metal drums in the basement of a shop in Blackburn, is described on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back of the book as the film world?s equivalent to the discovery of Tutankhamen?s Tomb. In his article in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, Tom Gunning, arguably the world?s most celebrated early film historian, likens the discovery to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the Dead Sea Scrolls and the Nag Hammadi codices, although noting that such a claim might just be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggeration \(p. 57\). Whether the Collection itself proves that important only time will tell. What is clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now is that it has, perhaps like the treasure of Tutankhamen, the power of diverse appeal and it is in this way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Collection and the book make their most vital contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In some respects using the films as the starting point could have been a retrograde step. The study of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cinema in Britain is evolving beyond its important initial phase, which was the study of the surviving films )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their relation to film language and the development of storytelling techniques. The focus now is towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more historical and analytical approach to the production, distribution and exhibition of films and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related development of cinema as an institution in the UK. Such a study opens up a whole new range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial, economic, sociological and cultural approaches to early cinema, exploring its relevance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to the changing face of British life in the Edwardian period, and the lasting influences of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change. In this scenario the style and content of the films become incidental. However, it is impossible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore the appearance of over 800 new films, and particularly 800 new non-fiction films. As Patrick Russell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues in his eloquent article, non-fiction has long been the poor relation within worldwide early film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, receiving little of the focus of its seemingly more illustrious counterpart, story films. This reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the obvious dominance of the fictional narrative film in cinema. If the telling of fictional stories is the main )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.6517 529.0375 297.6437 540.9175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6437 514.7815 368.6357 526.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.6797 443.5015 257.6717 455.3815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.3197 443.5015 341.3117 455.3815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.6317 443.5015 440.6237 455.3815 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7626 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose of cinema, then the non-fiction film, particularly early examples like these with their unmoving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cameras and lack of editing structure, is but a sidebar issue. The Mitchell and Kenyon films put non-fiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the centre not just of the study of early cinema, but back at the heart of early film form.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand, therefore, they represent a wealth of new film material at a time when film studies is trying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to move beyond the film text, drawing it back to a text which is new and challenging both in terms of style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and content. On the other hand they link the film text squarely to the industry. The importance of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collection to film studies at this moment in its arc is undeniable, and the )] TJ ET BT 385.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bfi)] TJ ET BT 397.688 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in partnership with the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fairground Archive and funded by a grant from the Arts and Humanities Research Board \(AHRB\) have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the intelligent decision to engage in a four year painstaking restoration project of the complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collection. After some aggressive road-showing and mounting excitement, the )] TJ ET BT 414.968 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bfi)] TJ ET BT 427.640 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s first publication on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collection is a self-confessed ?first step on a long road to fully exploring the consequences of the discovery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this national treasure? \(p. 4\). As such it stands as a fascinating, thrilling, and yet at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustrating read, both a vital and important addition to the canon of early film works, and a missed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part this is because the focus of the book is simultaneously narrow in some ways, yet general in others. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors have two main aims which some, but not all, of the articles address. The more interesting aim, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which I will come to, is an attempt to open the collection to wider social study. The first is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constricting, which is to ?begin the process of uncovering details of the commissioning \(the films\), the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showmen involved in exhibiting the films and the network of venues in which they were exhibited? \(p. 4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This focus of the book is therefore not just upon the films but equally upon the showmen who commissioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. Such an emphasis, though important in terms of film history, narrows the scope considerably and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidelines both the men who made the films, and the industry that supported them. It may be useful to find out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who commissioned a particular film to be made, but once the basic principal is established that showmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asked for the films to be made to be shown to local people, such information becomes predominantly a list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of names, dates and places. We may learn the who, the when and the where, but the why and the how remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dancing out of reach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the weakest section of the book is the second, detailing the films as text and the films in context. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the articles reflect most directly the film/commissioning showman approach. Not surprisingly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongest articles here are by Richard Brown and Stephen Bottomore, both leading experts in the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early cinema and both of whom attempt to relate the films and the showmen who commissioned them into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider context. Brown proves himself as ever a master of detail, providing a superb analysis of public hall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showman Sydney Carter?s New Century Pictures. As Brown quite rightly says, of the three major types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibitors of early film in Britain ? which were music hall, fairground and public hall showmen ? the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have received the least attention, representing a dead-end in exhibition as ?they did not foreshadow later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice? \(p. 69\). Like Brown, Bottomore is not shackled by Mitchell and Kenyon, the showmen or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collection, and instead uses them as a springboard for a far-reaching international study of the institution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the local film. Janet McBain similarly uses the Collection only as background to a piece about the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the local topical, and about two important early exhibitors in Scotland, George Green and George Kemp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given his reputation, it is not surprising that Tom Gunning is given the most difficult task of all, looking at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the myriad of ?Factory Gate? films. By far the largest selection of films in the Collection can be defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such; basically films of workers, mostly working-class, leaving their places of work, either for lunch or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the day. Such films were commonplace \(although we would not perhaps have known that were it not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Collection\) as they were the simplest way to get large numbers of the local working-class population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together in one place. The attraction of this was that these workers would then be encouraged to attend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showman?s film presentations to see themselves and their friends on the screen. Instead of adopting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical approach, Gunning?s article verges on poetry, musing artfully on the ?sea of humanity? parading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the camera and what it represents for the cinema. Gunning?s piece seems the most honest in the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear that he sees no logical way of analysing these almost abstract texts, so he makes observations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poses important theoretical questions, without drawing any conclusions save the fact that these films )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent something exciting and important, being glimpses of a moment ?on some morning, evening or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7700 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afternoon when the gates were flung open and a sea of humanity rushed out to meet, and be met, by [)] TJ ET BT 519.248 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 532.580 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century?s newest medium? \(p. 57\). In fact the book?s second section highlights just how much the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early non-fiction remains in its infancy. Gunning?s is the sole attempt at a theory of early actuality, relying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part on his model of the cinema of attractions, which still remains remarkably durable. Yet his musings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are embryonic, barely scratching the surface of the films themselves. To paraphrase Gunning, his ideas are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sea of theory continually breaking against the films. In an evocative phrase, he refers to the factory gates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films as ?an unending sea of humanity continually breaking against the camera? \(p. 55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section therefore attempts three distinct approaches to the Collection. On a more basic level is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the identification of data with the film/showman approach, then the broader industrial history as per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bottomore, Brown and McBain, and finally Gunning?s poetic theory. From a film studies point of view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each approach has merits and yields useful results to varying degrees. Yet ultimately the book is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful by moving away from film studies altogether and opening the Collection to an interdisciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the third section of the book looks at the films as historical evidence. The abundance of similar subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter in the films, which again Russell perceptively recognises as giving immense )] TJ ET BT 436.976 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(depth)] TJ ET BT 463.640 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the Collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has allowed various social historians to explore their own diverse subjects with considerably more visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence than they had before. There are pieces by historians of street and ceremonial processions, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seaside holiday, football and transport. Andrew Prescott?s piece is a model example, using a film of a 1902 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lady Godiva procession in Coventry as a start and end point for a fascinating discussion of the class war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which raged around the centuries old Godiva procession from the mid nineteenth century, and illustrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how, as a result, it became a ?mish-mash of low-level historical pageantry?and trade exhibition? \(p. 132\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here the discovered film provides the visual evidence to draw a convincing conclusion from the wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed sources which Prescott uses, and ably demonstrates the use of the Collection to social historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst remaining an interest piece in its own right. Similarly John Widdowson?s fascinating account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendar customs chronicles the problems with recycled, second hand and often judgemental secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, before embracing the primary visual evidence of the Collection like a kid in a candy store. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, unlike Prescott, Widdowson?s analysis says more about the content of the films than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, detailing for example the content of a 1900 film of egg-rolling on Easter Monday, without fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining how the evidence demonstrates that ?the celebrations in the early 1900s were somewhat different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([than in recent times]? \(p. 140\). John Walton?s analysis of the seaside films, on the other hand, teases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable details of the class and social make-ups of the groups on view in the films that he selects. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the class and age implications of facial hair and hats, though it sounds amusing put this way, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model example of the kind of questions that the Collection can raise and help to answer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sections two and three therefore provide the main theoretical approaches to the films. The opening section is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by contrast mostly background, and consists of three papers, one on Mitchell and Kenyon themselves, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the discovery, archiving and restoration of the films, and one on the technology of the film business at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time that the films in the Collection were made. Already quoted, Patrick Russell presents a thoughtful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impassioned study not only of the process of archiving \(which all too often is a source of conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics and archivists as titles are unavailable through being badly deteriorated or worse, because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funding issues\), but also of the potential value of the Collection and the project to the film community and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world at large. Less successful is the first piece, which presents a regrettably brief overview of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central figures in the book, Sagar Mitchell and James Kenyon. Indeed Mitchell and Kenyon themselves are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most significant absence from the entire endeavour. Admittedly the article, combined with that of Leo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enticknap?s which notes some of the cameras and lenses that they used, at least says more about them than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was previously available. Before this they were little more than a footnote in film history. But the article is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more of an introduction to their relationship with their commissioning showmen than a serious study of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business or their place in history. This is undoubtedly the book?s gravest error. There are a great many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneer filmmakers and companies who to this day remain footnotes in history, and a great many more who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have remained so were it not for dedicated research by scholars. The Mitchell and Kenyon Collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have taken the spotlight, but not the men themselves. We learn nothing of their business. Was it just the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 9608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two of them, or did they have any employees? What kind of capital did they have? If they were travelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around, how did they print their films? Did they do any other business, for example printing for other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filmmakers who were making films in the local area? Certainly other filmmakers were operating in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North East. One of the films clearly shows Cecil Hepworth, a London-based producer, setting up his camera )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to film Boer War hero Lord Robert?s visit to Manchester in 1901. What then was Mitchell and Kenyon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in the wider British industry and, indeed, the wider filming of local subjects? Such questions are not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much unanswered as unacknowledged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is clearly a significant omission, but not altogether catastrophic. More importantly the book opens up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the value of a film collection to social historians, and explores the possibility of an interdisciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to this Collection. Perhaps this is the first step to considering an interdisciplinary approach to early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British film studies in general. Perhaps from here we can consider not just social history but also urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history or economic history interacting with early film scholarship. To do that we need to go significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the films, almost to the point of abandoning them, and this is not what this book sets out to do. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction states clearly that the book marks the conclusion of the Mitchell and Kenyon project, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a unique collaboration between an archive and the academic community \(p. 5\). As a conclusion, the book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frankly disappointing, as it was bound to be, since as an end result one cannot help but lament what is )] TJ ET BT 525.296 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered here and not likely to be considered elsewhere unless some individual scholar takes it upon him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or herself to do so. But as a )] TJ ET BT 168.332 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(beginning)] TJ ET BT 216.332 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the book seems much more hopeful. It represents a collaboration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between archivists, social historians, film historians and, in its wider context, television and popular culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the BBC?s three part series on the Collection. So )] TJ ET BT 312.332 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lost World of Mitchell and Kenyon)] TJ ET BT 503.000 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a map for the road ahead, aligning the study of silent British cinema with other disciplines, drawing it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a wider sphere of public consciousness and academic debate, and perhaps finally allowing the rich study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the early growth of the single most important industry of the twentieth century out of its fractured ghetto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and into the light. In the meantime, the book itself remains what one could only have expected it to be but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather hoped it would not be: a sometimes illuminating, sometimes irritating collection of essays, held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together not by a concrete approach based on theoretical discourse, but )] TJ ET BT 377.264 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(only )] TJ ET BT 400.928 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the shared subject of a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company, a limited time period, and a specific collection of films.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 378.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Young and Innocent? The Cinema in Britain 1896?1930)] TJ ET BT 334.352 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Andrew Higson \(Exeter, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.312 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.312 346.899 m 549.308 346.899 l S BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 332.643 m 78.008 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pimples, Pranks and Pratfalls: British Film Comedy Before 1930)] TJ ET BT 378.344 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Alan Burton and Laraine Porter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Trowbridge, 2000\); )] TJ ET BT 164.996 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Showman, The Spectacle and the Two Minute Silence: Performing British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cinema Before 1930)] TJ ET BT 163.340 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Alan Burton and Laraine Porter \(Trowbridge, 2001\); )] TJ ET BT 442.616 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crossing the Pond: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American Film Relations Before 1930)] TJ ET BT 279.332 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Alan Burton and Laraine Porter \(Trowbridge, 2002\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scene Stealing: Sources for British Cinema Before 1930)] TJ ET BT 334.328 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Alan Burton and Laraine Porter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Trowbridge, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.660 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.660 247.107 m 215.648 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Victorian Film Enterprise: The British Mutoscope and Biograph Company by Barry Anthony and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Richard Brown)] TJ ET BT 137.684 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Trowbridge, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.328 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.328 218.595 m 292.316 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachael Low and Roger Manvell, )] TJ ET BT 229.316 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the British Film 1896?1906)] TJ ET BT 434.660 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \( 1948\); Rachael Low, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the British Film 1906?1914)] TJ ET BT 269.360 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1949\); Rachael Low, )] TJ ET BT 380.336 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the British Film )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914?1918)] TJ ET BT 118.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1950\); Rachael Low, )] TJ ET BT 228.992 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the British Film 1918?1929)] TJ ET BT 434.336 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1971\); Rachael Low, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The History of the British Film 1929?1939: Filmmaking in 1930s Britain)] TJ ET BT 415.364 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1985\); Rachael Low, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Documentary and Educational Films of the 1930s)] TJ ET BT 304.004 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1979\); Rachael Low, )] TJ ET BT 414.980 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film of Comment and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persuasion of the 1930s )] TJ ET BT 182.684 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.676 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.676 133.059 m 271.664 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Barnes, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginnings of the Cinema in England 1894?1901)] TJ ET BT 387.344 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: vol. i, )] TJ ET BT 424.352 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1894?1896)] TJ ET BT 478.352 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(revised edn., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exeter, 1998\); vol. ii, )] TJ ET BT 169.676 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jubilee Year 1897)] TJ ET BT 257.000 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1983\); vol. iii, )] TJ ET BT 335.672 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of the Photoplay 1898)] TJ ET BT 486.668 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1983\); vol )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iv. )] TJ ET BT 79.352 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Filming the Boer War)] TJ ET BT 185.012 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\); vol. v, )] TJ ET BT 259.676 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1900)] TJ ET BT 283.676 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Exeter, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.988 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.988 90.291 m 412.976 90.291 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 74.959 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 57.179 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 57.179 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/432)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 55.785 m 322.316 55.785 l S endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.3117 347.2135 549.3077 359.0935 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 332.9575 78.0077 344.8375 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.6597 247.4215 215.6477 259.3015 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.3277 218.9095 292.3157 230.7895 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.6757 133.3735 271.6637 145.2535 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.9877 90.6055 412.9757 102.4855 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 56.0995 322.3157 67.9795 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/432) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2398)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000002677 00000 n 0000002786 00000 n 0000002896 00000 n 0000003005 00000 n 0000006566 00000 n 0000006694 00000 n 0000006778 00000 n 0000006890 00000 n 0000015674 00000 n 0000015704 00000 n 0000015832 00000 n 0000015868 00000 n 0000015898 00000 n 0000016026 00000 n 0000016062 00000 n 0000016092 00000 n 0000016220 00000 n 0000016256 00000 n 0000016286 00000 n 0000016414 00000 n 0000016450 00000 n 0000016480 00000 n 0000016608 00000 n 0000016644 00000 n 0000016709 00000 n 0000024388 00000 n 0000024453 00000 n 0000032206 00000 n 0000032332 00000 n 0000041993 00000 n 0000042121 00000 n 0000042176 00000 n 0000042302 00000 n 0000042357 00000 n 0000042485 00000 n 0000042540 00000 n 0000042668 00000 n 0000042723 00000 n 0000042851 00000 n 0000042906 00000 n 0000043033 00000 n 0000043088 00000 n 0000043214 00000 n 0000043309 00000 n 0000043374 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43651 %%EOF