%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 51 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150328061340+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150328061340+00'00') /Title (Review Article: Health in Europe 1500-1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3231 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Health in Europe 1500-1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is not often that a tutor is handed an entire course on a plate, ready for consumption, served up complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with material for the lectures, case studies, points for seminar discussion, essay questions, as well as primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and secondary readings for student use. But that is exactly what the pair of books under review provide. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Open University has a tradition of offering us extremely useful compendia such as these, pioneering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing of course materials in the 1970s, via a range of media, including print. To what extent can books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(433)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 November, 2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Elmer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719067340X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(456pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719067375X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Gentilcore)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as these be used by tutors in other, more traditional, educational environments? What would students )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take away with them from the course as outlined is these two books? I must confess to an interest from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(start. As someone who has been teaching the history of early modern medicine for some ten years, both to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical and history students, I have acquired my own preferences and biases. These have also been shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by my own research projects, in religious history, popular culture, and Italian social and cultural history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, I hope that my own experience will prove a help rather than a hindrance in evaluating the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these two books.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians of medicine have an embarrassment of riches when it comes to the choice of course textbooks, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published within the last decade.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.000 669.027 m 204.992 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 204.992 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet for those of us who benefited from, and contributed to, a more social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural approach to the subject, relative to the early modern period, there was comparatively little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice. Without doubt the strongest and most useful survey text is Mary Lindemann?s)] TJ ET BT 447.644 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Medicine and Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 152.336 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 626.259 m 169.328 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 169.328 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Part of Cambridge University Press?s important ?New Approaches to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History? series, Lindemann?s book manages three things. Eschewing historical overview or synthesis, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies different methodologies and approaches to the topic, not necessarily those sympathetic with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s own broadly social and cultural orientation. Thus each chapter begins with a historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion, highlighting the very different emphases and views that historians have taken with regard to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular theme. Second, it neither celebrates the rise of medicine, in a way that traditional Whiggish or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentist-minded views did, nor does it stray into the opposite pitfall of painting an uncritically relativist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rosy picture of the past. It manages to strike a balance between what we ?know? about disease in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past and what actors in the past ?knew? about it. Finally, it goes some way to redressing the imbalance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between English and continental coverage, in a field long dominated by Anglo-Saxon historiography. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of British and North American historians has led the field and done much to shape it, but it has meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the voices of other European regions have been heard less clearly in textbooks than ought to have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case. I have been happy to adopt Lindemann?s book as a course text despite what I would consider its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations, which include a stress on the eighteenth century and a cursory discussion of the links between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine and religion during the early modern period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nature of the two books under review, designed as they are for an Open University course, permit a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much larger scale than is common for most textbooks. The first book, )] TJ ET BT 371.312 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Healing Arts: Health, Disease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Society in Europe, 1500?1800)] TJ ET BT 200.336 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, provides the general survey, while the companion volume, )] TJ ET BT 490.292 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Health, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disease and Society in Europe, 1500?1800: A Source Book)] TJ ET BT 319.640 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, gives us short readings of primary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary material. It means that a chapter in the first volume on, say, the care and cure of mental illness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter nine\) provides us with a general introduction to and historical survey of the theme, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several case studies \(the casebooks of Richard Napier, the hospitalisation of the insane in two German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, and the reforms of William Battie\). Each of these case studies comes complete with exercises and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion points, which refer the student to an article or document extract in the second volume. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents alone are worth the price of the two books. Not only do they represent the first such collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources on early modern medicine, but their coverage is very broad indeed: from early-fifteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian letters of medical advice to eighteenth-century Parisian surgical instruction; from the published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of a French midwife to the rules of an English voluntary hospital; from a treatise on the duties of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian physician during time of plague to a newspaper account of smallpox inoculation. Hitherto sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this type have been available in a very few journals, such as )] TJ ET BT 337.280 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 466.268 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional ?documents and sources section?; otherwise publication has been rare, especially of non-English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source material.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.660 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.660 172.323 m 124.652 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.652 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The result is that the Elmer and Grell sources volume can also be used on its own, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent of volume one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the first volume in particular, )] TJ ET BT 198.668 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Healing Arts)] TJ ET BT 281.336 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which merits our attention, marking as it does the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of age of the social and cultural history of medicine. It is the culmination of some thirty years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research that has transformed writing and teaching in the history of medicine. This has meant a shift away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the ?great men? focus towards attention to marginalised or neglected groups in society; away from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive interest in medical practitioners towards the experiences of sufferers and patients; away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allure of retro-diagnosis \(that is, applying modern biomedical knowledge to the illnesses of the ?rich and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 190.9997 669.3415 204.9917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3357 626.5735 169.3277 638.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.6597 172.6375 124.6517 184.5175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7656 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous? of the past\) and towards how contemporaries understood disease in their own time; and away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a university- and hospital-centred account of medical knowledge and practice towards one influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of medical pluralism \(the co-existence of alternative or complementary therapies and systems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief\). The essays in this book succeed in providing a cross-section of this research, addressing recent issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and debates in a thematic way. \(The thematic approach does lead to some repetition, although this is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily a bad thing in a student textbook.\) The essays engage with the new approaches without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jettisoning the achievements of previous generations of scholarship. Thus the ?ideas? focus of the great men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition, all too often seen as a worthy end in itself, is not abandoned here \(as if the ideas themselves no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer mattered to our understanding of the past\), but is re-configured as an exploration of how these ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were transmitted and put into practice at different levels of society. Ideas form the heart of the first essay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sachiko Kusukawa?s survey of medicine in Western Europe in 1500. In addition to exploring the content of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greco-Roman medicine, it surveys how ancient medical knowledge was studied and how it was used around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1500, adopting the city of Rome as her focus \(itself a nice conceit\). Silvia De Renzi?s essay on old and new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of the body \(chapter seven\) looks at changing ways of understanding and representing the body, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from William Harvey through to Albrecht von Haller, while not forgetting the \(limited\) impact this had on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual medical practice and patients? expectations. Likewise in the chapter by Peter Elmer on mental illness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter nine\), referred to above, we read of categories and definitions of insanity, as well as contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatments and practices, and how these were shaped by wider concerns in society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elmer?s contribution is illustrative of something else, too. It confronts head-on the tension present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everywhere in ?translating? medical ideas and practices of the past to students in the present: how do we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile our own categories and knowledge with those of people in the past? In the case of mental illness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do we adopt the categories of the modern psychiatric profession, and reduce past experience to these, or do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we rely completely on the definitions and views of \(in this case\) our early modern forbears, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconvincing or radically different some of them may now be? The former approach risks being overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiggish, judging the past at the expense of a superior present or trying to set the record straight. The latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, which sees madness as cultural and historically specific, risks straying into an extreme form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relativism and social constructionism, in which mental dysfunction does not actually exist but is the product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a specific political system. Elmer?s own preference, and that of most social historians, is to avoid an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentialist view of madness, which would regard it as an unchanging phenomenon, opting instead for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of the categories and perceptions of the time. In clearly and concisely highlighting the terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate, and the historians and other scholars involved in it, before proceeding to his own discussion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elmer provides readers with a useful framework for understanding the often troubled relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and practice ? both in terms of historical actors in the past, as well as historians? representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s greatest strength, however, lies in the place it gives to religion. Most textbooks on early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine do now stress the important place religious belief and practice had in the medical sphere, but only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pass quickly on to other \(more secular\) things. )] TJ ET BT 271.988 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Healing Arts)] TJ ET BT 354.656 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( restores religion to is proper place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of medicine, reconstructing a world that its contemporaries might have recognised. This does not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean looking at, say, healing miracles \(anybody can do that\); rather it explores religion-medicine links in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of different contexts. The essay by Ole Peter Grell, on medicine and religion in sixteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe \(chapter four\) is, not surprisingly, entirely devoted to the subject. Grell takes us from the impact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutheran Protestantism may have had on Vesalian anatomy, through the spiritual rationale behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paracelsian chemical medicine, to the impact both Reformations had on the provision of health care. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process we learn more about religious reform in Denmark than is the case in most history of medicine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys. But what of the rest of the book? The religion-medicine link is explored in detail earlier in the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a section by Kusukawa \(in chapter one\). It resurfaces later in De Renzi?s discussion of hospitals \(chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six\) and in Elmer?s treatment of Richard Napier \(chapter nine\). Otherwise, the link gets all but lost in later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, so it is difficult to trace its changing nature during the course of the period. The exception to this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Jenner?s intriguing discussion of the secularisation and commercialisation of wells and springs as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places as sites of healing, in the context of an essay on environment and health \(chapter 11\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 9595 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book comes to a close with Laurence Brockliss?s essay on organisation, training and the medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketplace in the eighteenth century \(chapter thirteen\). It is refreshing to read a survey of eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century changes and developments from a French, as opposed to English, perspective. It may be that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brockliss?s contribution goes too far in presenting France as a sort of template, at the expense of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European regions about which we now just as much \(such as Germany and Italy\). There is no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France was a model in many areas during this period, surgery being one obvious example \(to say nothing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Enlightenment itself\); but the changes in the structure of medical practice and provision in France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to in detail, could have been compared to patterns elsewhere. Physicians, their knowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, figure prominently in the chapter, as do surgeons and surgery. Indeed both branches of the medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community have an understandably important place throughout )] TJ ET BT 341.648 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Healing Arts)] TJ ET BT 424.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Thus surgeons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surgical techniques also feature in Grell?s essay on war, medicine and the military revolution \(chapter ten\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, apothecaries, pharmacy and materia medica figure hardly at all. New World remedies make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very brief appearance in Andrew Wear?s essay on medicine and health in the age of European colonialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter twelve\), but that is about all. Wear is one of the few scholars to have looked at remedies in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of medical knowledge and practice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.296 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.296 583.491 m 257.288 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.288 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Otherwise the numerous recent monographs dealing with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern medicine and health have little to say about either apothecaries and their practice or the materia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medica of the period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.992 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.992 554.979 m 149.984 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.984 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This neglect is reflected in textbooks dedicated to early modern medicine, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible exception of )] TJ ET BT 139.004 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Western Medical Tradition)] TJ ET BT 290.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which does discuss botany and medicine, though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apothecaries )] TJ ET BT 96.992 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 125.984 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.984 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.984 526.467 m 142.976 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One other gap in )] TJ ET BT 117.332 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Healing Arts)] TJ ET BT 200.000 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( regards what we might call popular, domestic or local medicine, for lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of better labels. I admit to having my own \(longstanding\) axe to grind here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.636 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.636 485.955 m 409.628 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.628 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But in a book such as this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sets out to examine every aspect of medical care, it seems unhistorical to ignore such a large slice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical provision ? the first, often only, port of call for many sufferers. That there has been debate among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians about whether something we can call ?popular medicine? actually existed in the early modern past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikes me as all the more reason to have it included it somewhere in the book. Personal axes aside, this pair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of books represents a masterful contribution to the teaching of the history of medicine. It succeeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully guiding students through a complex and \(relatively\) new field, paying close attention both to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes and perceptions of contemporaries, as well as the range of historiographical approaches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodologies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge has produced two very different collections, the )] TJ ET BT 352.292 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Roy Porter \(Cambridge, 1996\), and )] TJ ET BT 260.324 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Western Medical Tradition, 800 BC to AD 1800)] TJ ET BT 511.988 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Conrad et al. \(Cambridge, 1995\). Shortly after these, Oxford?s own contribution appeared, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled )] TJ ET BT 103.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western Medicine: an Illustrated History)] TJ ET BT 300.992 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited by Irvine Loudon \(Oxford, 1997\). Roy Porter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(put his own stamp on the field in two separate general works, in addition to his own numerous )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs on the subject: )] TJ ET BT 199.340 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: a Medical History of Humanity from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Antiquity to the Present)] TJ ET BT 177.680 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\) and, more succinctly, )] TJ ET BT 321.320 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blood and Guts: a Short History of Medicine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2002\). Directed more particularly at medical students is Jacalyn Duffin?s )] TJ ET BT 422.276 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Medicine: a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandalously Short Introductio)] TJ ET BT 214.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n \(Toronto, 1999\), which, despite its title, manages 432 pages on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 178.083 m 155.000 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Lindemann, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 378.296 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Cambridge, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.616 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.616 163.827 m 532.604 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One happy exception consists of the vivid and often poignant memoirs of a Dutch midwife, translated )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and annotated by Hilary Marland, )] TJ ET BT 229.316 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother and Child Were Saved: the Memoirs \(1693?1740\) of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frisian Midwife Catharina Schrader)] TJ ET BT 241.028 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Amsterdam, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 341.012 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 341.012 121.059 m 395.000 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Wear, )] TJ ET BT 116.324 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knowledge and Practice in English Medicine, 1550?1680)] TJ ET BT 394.640 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2000\), pp. 46?103.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 92.547 m 118.004 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discussed in David Gentilcore, ?Apothecaries, ?Charlatans,? and the Medical Marketplace in Italy, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1400?1750?, introduction to ?The World of the Italian Apothecary?, monograph number of )] TJ ET BT 505.268 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pharmacy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in History)] TJ ET BT 112.352 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 \(2003\), 91?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.672 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.672 49.779 m 251.660 49.779 l S endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.2957 583.8055 257.2877 595.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.9917 555.2935 149.9837 567.1735 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.9837 526.7815 142.9757 538.6615 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.6357 486.2695 409.6277 498.1495 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.0117 178.3975 154.9997 190.2775 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.6157 164.1415 532.6037 176.0215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 341.0117 121.3735 394.9997 133.2535 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 92.8615 118.0037 104.7415 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.6717 50.0935 251.6597 61.9735 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 1865 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Andrew Wear?s chapter, entitled ?Early Modern Medicine, 1500?1700?, in Conrad, )] TJ ET BT 482.912 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medical Tradition)] TJ ET BT 151.688 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, especially pp. 298?310.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.004 780.819 m 324.992 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I grind it further in ?Was There a ?Popular Medicine? in Early Modern Europe??, )] TJ ET BT 458.912 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Folklore)] TJ ET BT 500.240 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 115 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2004\), 151?66.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 140.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 140.336 752.307 m 194.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/433)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2400)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2402)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.0037 781.1335 324.9917 793.0135 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 140.3357 752.6215 194.3237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/433) >> endobj xref 0 59 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000634 00000 n 0000003917 00000 n 0000004026 00000 n 0000004136 00000 n 0000004245 00000 n 0000007806 00000 n 0000007934 00000 n 0000008018 00000 n 0000008116 00000 n 0000016618 00000 n 0000016648 00000 n 0000016776 00000 n 0000016812 00000 n 0000016842 00000 n 0000016970 00000 n 0000017006 00000 n 0000017036 00000 n 0000017164 00000 n 0000017200 00000 n 0000017265 00000 n 0000024974 00000 n 0000025114 00000 n 0000034762 00000 n 0000034792 00000 n 0000034920 00000 n 0000034956 00000 n 0000034986 00000 n 0000035114 00000 n 0000035150 00000 n 0000035180 00000 n 0000035308 00000 n 0000035344 00000 n 0000035374 00000 n 0000035502 00000 n 0000035538 00000 n 0000035666 00000 n 0000035721 00000 n 0000035849 00000 n 0000035904 00000 n 0000036032 00000 n 0000036087 00000 n 0000036213 00000 n 0000036268 00000 n 0000036394 00000 n 0000036449 00000 n 0000036547 00000 n 0000038465 00000 n 0000038593 00000 n 0000038648 00000 n 0000038776 00000 n 0000038831 00000 n 0000038959 00000 n trailer << /Size 59 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39054 %%EOF