%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827144440+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827144440+01'00') /Title (The Indian Princes and their States) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4380 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Indian Princes and their States)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Ramusack bases her study of indirect rule under British imperialism mainly on research, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her own, which has been done since the 1960s. As she reiterates throughout the book, the topic of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Native States? is not one which has attracted widespread scholarly attention. The main weight of research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the colonial period lies in British India, the three-fifths of the sub-continent which was under direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial administration. With the development of relatively new understandings and theories during the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25 years concerning the structure and nature of indigenous rule, it seems possible that new generations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students of India will want to know how pre-colonial political institutions fared under European domination. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Signs of movement in that direction include Marzia Balzani?s study of ritual of the Jodhpur royal court, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Indian Kingship: Tradition, Legitimacy and Power in Rajasthan)] TJ ET BT 383.696 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.696 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.696 172.137 m 400.688 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the meantime, Ramusack?s book provides a serviceable overview of major issues to take into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable when approaching the topic of indirect rule and its consequences. The task is daunting, partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because there were different kinds of pre-colonial states, because British policy was not clear-cut or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent, and because most archives of the princely states are incomplete. Ramusack is to be commended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for sorting through a wide range of issues and finding ways to illustrate her points with the literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival sources which are at hand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How many princely states were there? Ramusack reports \(p. 2\) that the )] TJ ET BT 377.600 49.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Gazetteer of India)] TJ ET BT 509.252 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(434)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Ramusack)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521267277X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(323pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pamela Price)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.6957 172.4515 400.6877 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7051 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1909, listed 693, including Nepal and the Shan states in Burma, but that the Report of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian States Committee of 1929 gave a total of 562. Of the latter, 327 were described as estates, )] TJ ET BT 502.268 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jagirs)] TJ ET BT 530.276 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type of estate\) and ?others?. Estates numbering 108 rated inclusion in the imperial advisory body, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamber of Princes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author follows her introductory chapter with one which includes categorisation of princely states before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1800 as: 1\) antique, including Rajput states; 2\) successor, including Hyderabad and Awadh; and 3\) warrior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or conquest states, including Bhopal and Mysore. She briefly outlines the evolution of major princely states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the British accelerated processes of imperial incorporation in the early nineteenth century. Overall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book focuses on those states which were still in existence in 1858, which were able to retain some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of sovereign status and which were recognised as having superior rank in the twentieth century by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being included in the Chamber of Princes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ramusack endeavours to show that during the period of British imperialism these polities represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing processes of state formation and that their rulers exerted considerable powers, enjoying authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their domains. Her intention is to undermine the perception that the princes were only creatures of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, engaging in meaningless ritual displays, at the same time as she points to their loss of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileges and responsibilities of defense, external affairs and communications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 3, Ramusack discusses the political and diplomatic tools and frameworks of indirect rule, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlining how this form of imperial governance evolved. She argues that, while she can devise a scheme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three major periods in which client states were incorporated, these are not clear-cut in outline. Imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of annexation existed in tension with impulses for incorporation under indirect rule. Similarly, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were many and varying reasons for British officers to intervene or not to intervene in the affairs of princely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states. There was no clear and direct evolution of policy, but officers acted pragmatically and/or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunistically, depending on the circumstances. The general pattern was from treaties to subsidiary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances to indirect rule. Her major periods are: 1\) 1765?85, the leadership of Robert Clive and Warren )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hastings; 2\) 1798?1805, the governor-generalship of Lord Wellesley; and 3\) 1813?23, the governor-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalship of Lord Hastings. After Hastings, annexation continued simultaneously with the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indirect rule, extending into a new period under Lord Dalhousie. Ramusack illustrates processes with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicious use of examples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the construction of imperial governance occurred pragmatically and not with consistent policies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British officials felt keenly the need to produce documents which would explain what they had been doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and what precedents they could follow. Ramusack treats this topic in chapter 4, ?The theory and experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of indirect rule in colonial India?. Here she is concerned to explain the erection of ?the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of indirect rule? \(p. 88\). In so doing, Ramusack also discusses the role of imperial ritual ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the Imperial Assemblage of 1877 and the Imperial Durbars of 1903 and 1911 ? as British officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted both to express and to create the desired political order. They wanted a ?feudal hierarchy? and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set the princes off as ?natural? leaders, who were to support the paramount power and benefit the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state economically \(p. 92\). The activities of compiling documents and forming legal arguments bore fruit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, after 1858, the British were able to maintain hegemony in India without further annexation. The system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was devised had the advantages of providing the imperial government with inexpensive means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governing areas of relatively low agricultural productivity and often inaccessible populations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 5?7 focus on selected princely rulers and states. Ramusack persuasively argues against notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the princely states as areas where an unchanging India remained intact under the empire. She illustrates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various and changing relationships between princes and the paramount power gave differential room for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvre for princes, depending on their personal strengths and the resources ? material and symbolic ? at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their command.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 5, ?Princes as men, women, rulers, patrons and oriental stereotypes?, Ramusack writes that her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim is to expand on ?what it meant to be a ruling prince?, concentrating on the period 1870?1947 \(p. 132\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She takes up important themes, including princely life cycles, sources of legitimacy, activities of patronage )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7473 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and various constructions of the princes, positive and negative. Ramusack points out, for example, that, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accordance with common assumptions, princes played an important role as patrons of indigenous arts during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colonial period. However, what has not been generally recognised, she argues, is that they also played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culturally innovative roles with regard to establishing museums or promoting photography. Students of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian monarchy who are accustomed to interpretations of symbolic uses and changes in symbolic usage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with reference to monarchical meaning will be disappointed with the author?s approach. Her discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tends toward the practical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The presentation of administrative and economic structures in the following chapter illustrates that radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in governance took place in princely states such as Travancore, Mysore and Baroda. Still, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British India, state administration rarely penetrated past district governance into villages. To a wide extent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, some states copied the revenue practices and legal system of direct rule. Public works and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education could be targets of princely attention. With growing bureaucratisation in some states came the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importation of high caste, western-style educated officials from British India. They tended to arrange for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of other ?outsiders? at lower levels of the princely state administration, a practice that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resented by local aristocracies. Employment in the states attracted ambitious men who could not find similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope for their talents in the directly ruled provinces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important issue which Ramusack addresses is that of the purported economic backwardness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(princely states, compared to directly ruled areas. In a comparison of ninety-eight states \(89 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total princely population in 1931\) with fifty-four ?comparable? British districts, John Hurd argued in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s that princely states lagged behind \(pp. 196?97\). Hurd found one explanation for this to be British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies hindering growth. Another reason was historical development in the states themselves, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing presence of )] TJ ET BT 146.324 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jagirdari)] TJ ET BT 189.668 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( estates which, he argued, undermined the strength of state treasuries. Citing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later research which conceptualised the subcontinent as an indivisible economy, Ramusack argues that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given India?s heterogeneity, a method of investigation which focuses on developmental history in discrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political units is desirable. Given the present paucity of research on the economy of areas under princely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule, her suggestion appears sound. From the work which we do have, British policy appears to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently protective of the interests of the imperial state in the area of explicit or implicit economic policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toward the princely states. Officials interfered in undertakings only when the interests of the imperial regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be affected. They did not rush to the assistance of princely governments when ?unscrupulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investors concluded questionable deals?, even when the investors were British \(p. 199\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In approaching the topic of society and politics in the princely states, the author finds some of Benedict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andersen?s formulations useful.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.656 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.656 317.139 m 203.648 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.648 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She refers specifically to issues of mapping and census-taking. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the latter, Ramusack follows a common line of interpretation in recent years in the field of South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asian studies. This interpretation finds ?colonial sociology? \(what she refers to as ?British Orientalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructions?\) stimulating ethnic mobilisation in the production of censuses, gazetteers, religious writings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and newspapers \(p. 212\). Princes also contributed to ethnic mobilisation, she states, through patronage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caste histories and religious translations, to give two examples. Caste, religious and linguistic identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became more tightly defined in the princely states, while the nationalist mobilisations found in British India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took longer to develop.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idealist focus on British Orientalist constructions neglects the impact of greater centralisation through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratisation on state?society relations in both the directly and the indirectly ruled areas of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subcontinent. During the modern period, ethnic mobilisation has been the effect of greater state penetration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as communities have undergone reorganisation and re-identification in attempts to influence governing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and the distribution of state resources; this process is not just evident in the Indian Empire, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more generally across the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mobilisation took place in the princely states in three phases, the first phase emerging mostly during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1910s and 1920s among literate groups. The latter were preoccupied with issues of government employment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social benefits and freedom of expression. The second phase, beginning in the late 1920s and early 1930s, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by urban lites taking a more confrontational style, engaging in public demonstrations as they )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.6557 317.4535 203.6477 329.3335 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 4792 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded greater popular representation and expanded political rights of organisation. Peasant movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged in the 1930s and 1940s, seeking changes in relations of land tenure. In none of the phases was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to princely rule expressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Opposition to princely rule was also slow to emerge in the nationalist mobilisations in British India. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ramusack outlines the ambivalent relationship between the Indian National Congress and princely regimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving a decisive role to M. K. Gandhi, who advocated non-interference in the states until the late 1930s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part of Gandhi?s purported positive attitude toward the princely states may have been due, the author states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his desire to maintain ties with conservative Indians. She puts to rest the common perception that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outsiders from British India initiated political mobilisation in the states. While nationalist activities in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India had an impact on political development, local figures dominated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final full chapter \(followed by an epilogue\), Ramusack outlines major events in the negotiations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s and 1940s which led to the princely states being incorporated into independent India and Pakistan. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She points out that the princes were at a disadvantage in that they did not have long and broad experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective negotiations. They had difficulty in deciding what their mutual best interests were and in staying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ramusack?s assertions that the princely states were not imperial creations, that princes continued to rule in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major ways and that processes of state formation continued to take place under the empire are valuable as we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think in terms of agendas for future research in this area. Now that much necessary ground has been covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the appearance of this book, one hopes that it will be possible for more emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 463.964 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(processes)] TJ ET BT 510.620 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and ideological change in indigenous adaptations to conditions of European imperial rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 424.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marzia Balzani, )] TJ ET BT 143.660 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Indian Kingship: Tradition, Legitimacy and Power in Rajasthan)] TJ ET BT 493.340 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 408.435 m 149.000 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 395.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedict Andersen, )] TJ ET BT 161.660 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism)] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.008 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.008 379.923 m 152.996 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 355.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author appreciates this thorough and thoughtful review and hopes to be able to respond in a few months.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 309.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 292.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 292.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/434)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 290.649 m 322.316 290.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 265.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2404)] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 408.7495 148.9997 420.6295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0077 380.2375 152.9957 392.1175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 290.9635 322.3157 302.8435 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/434) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000538 00000 n 0000000627 00000 n 0000005059 00000 n 0000005168 00000 n 0000005278 00000 n 0000005387 00000 n 0000008948 00000 n 0000009076 00000 n 0000009160 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009317 00000 n 0000009353 00000 n 0000009418 00000 n 0000016522 00000 n 0000016606 00000 n 0000024132 00000 n 0000024162 00000 n 0000024290 00000 n 0000024326 00000 n 0000024424 00000 n 0000029269 00000 n 0000029396 00000 n 0000029451 00000 n 0000029578 00000 n 0000029633 00000 n 0000029761 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29856 %%EOF