%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R 46 0 R 66 0 R 82 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081829+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081829+01'00') /Title (The Character of Credit. Personal Debt in English Culture, 1740?1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4307 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit. Personal Debt in English Culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1740?1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margot Finn?s book )] TJ ET BT 134.348 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit: Personal Debt in English Culture, 1740?1914)] TJ ET BT 479.024 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume in a new series published by Cambridge University Press \(Cambridge Social and Cultural Histories\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which seeks to draw social and cultural history more closely together. In this respect the book is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resounding success, charting the ways in which economic and social relations were mediated through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural forms. Many of the themes will be familiar to readers of Craig Muldrew?s work on credit in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern England, which revealed the extent to which economic transactions took place within a web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social relationships.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.344 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.344 179.265 m 143.336 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.336 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is Margot Finn?s achievement to demonstrate conclusively that the social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural relations created by credit continued to play a major role in the lives of all classes between 1740 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914. Economic activity remained a fundamentally social activity, embedded in historically specific cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(norms and expectations that profoundly limit the usefulness of analytic categories derived from classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far from this period seeing a transition from status to contract as the economy became more recognisably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modern?, Finn?s account reveals ?the protracted nature and partial effects of the eighteenth century?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernising impulses? \(p. 327\). ?Formal and informal loans, gifts of money and of goods, begging, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowing, cadging and ultimately flight were essential economic strategies ? and remained integral to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(435)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margot Finn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521823420X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(364pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Griffin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.3437 179.5795 143.3357 191.4595 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7447 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer culture in the Victorian and Edwardian years? \(p. 2\). Focusing on these credit relations reminds us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that customers and traders were bound together by more than a cash nexus: they were often also friends or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours, and these ?networks of mutual lending ? encouraged all parties to surround their contractual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements with a scaffolding of extra-legal customs, obligations and expectations? \(p. 95\). )] TJ ET BT 476.936 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Credit)] TJ ET BT 77.024 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents a mass of fascinating evidence which brings the cultural meanings of exchange to life in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably vivid way, demonstrating how considerations of status shaped the way that consumers, creditors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and judges saw and engaged in economic transactions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finn?s book explores this theme through three separate but interconnected perspectives: representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt in novels, diaries and memoirs; the transformation of imprisonment for debt; and the use of the small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims courts to mediate disputes between creditors and debtors. The argument begins with a discussion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of novels, from Samuel Richardson?s )] TJ ET BT 246.980 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 283.640 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to John Galsworthy?s )] TJ ET BT 396.632 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Chancery)] TJ ET BT 456.284 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which illuminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models of economic behaviour that cannot be described in simple contractual terms. Finn?s readings are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both subtle and suggestive. For example, she shows that the concern with paper credit and financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculation in )] TJ ET BT 104.012 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 140.672 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( coexists with a multiplicity of ?highly traditional personal credit relations centred on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gifting activities?, thereby undermining those interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 340.652 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pamela)] TJ ET BT 377.312 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which see the novel as resting on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of market-oriented individualist mentalities \(p. 27\). The evidence from the novels demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these forms of exchange are laden with meanings which render them anything but impersonal. Pamela?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions to accept or refuse gifts from her mistress, or her suitor Mr B repeatedly demonstrate that gifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviours served to locate both donor and recipient in social, sexual and moral hierarchies. Attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these forms of exchange blurs the boundaries between public and private, market and home, and sheds new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light on women?s role in the circulation of goods. Indeed, the sustained engagement with the representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and practice of women?s economic activity throughout the text will make it required reading for anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in gender history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From fictionalised accounts, Finn turns to diaries and autobiographies in order to study the ?shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualisation of the individual?s personhood in the consumer revolution? \(p. 9\). The presentation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self was a crucial element of access to credit, and throughout Finn?s account one encounters people making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strenuous efforts to accumulate the symbolic capital needed to make ends meet. Given that shopkeepers only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely had precise knowledge of an individual?s economic assets, ?[c]reditors sought constantly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessfully to read debtors? personal worth and character from their clothing, their marital relations, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spending patterns and their perceived social status? \(p. 21\). In this way ?tradesmen not only responded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers? efforts at self-fashioning but also helped to position these individuals within hierarchical social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations? \(p. 10\). Finn uses her material to probe not just the public presentation of the self, but also how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people saw themselves. Her account of these processes, based on a wide range of novels, diaries, letters, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison and court records, is ambitious, original, and occasionally startling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finn argues that ?in keeping with centuries of Christian doctrine, literary and historical texts of this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typically denote debts as ?misfortunes? and describe debtors as ?unfortunate?? \(p. 28\).)] TJ ET BT 64.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By underlining the inevitable vicissitudes of the human condition, representation of personal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt as a species of misfortune emphasised the power of charity and divine providence ? not the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force of individual economic volition ? to release debtors from their obligations \(p. 28\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Misfortunes could befall anyone of whatever rank, and no distinction could be drawn between the moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtue of the debtor and the creditor. For example the painter Benjamin Haydon, who relied on access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit and gifts from aristocratic patrons to mitigate his perpetually precarious economic situation, refused to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify his indebtedness as a marker of moral worth. Throughout his life he interpreted the credit extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by patrons as a particular manifestation of divine providence, and personal indebtedness was seen as a trial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which his moral character would be redeemed. For Haydon ?unpaid debts were the ?proper correctives? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of worldly man, mechanisms of moral regeneration rather than tokens of lapsed economic virtue? \(p. 73\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this respect, Finn suggests, he tended towards the pre-millenialist evangelical understanding of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8011 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atonement described by Boyd Hilton, in which ?Providence always acted miraculously, and it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumptuous to expect to comprehend its dispensations, or to seek, by rational and prudential calculations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of one?s behaviour, to avoid its blows in future?. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.652 766.563 m 285.644 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book Finn demonstrates the persistence of this view of debt as a misfortune, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation which distanced debtors ?from the rigid conceptions of personal agency, responsibility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culpability associated with modern economic individualism? \(p. 128\). Some of the most remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples come from the study of imprisonment for debt in the second section of the book, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of personal insolvency as a species of misfortune served to distinguish imprisoned debtors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the criminal population. The account of how these perceived differences shaped distinct penal regimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for debtors significantly extends Joanna Innes?s earlier work on the King?s Bench Prison by studying a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of metropolitan and provincial debtors? prisons. This is in many ways the best part of the book, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superb social history which conveys a great deal of detail about the organisation of the prisons and the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the prisoners within them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea that imprisoned debtors were victims of misfortune is reflected in the fact that technically they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisoned not for punishment, but for safe custody, and could demand maintenance from the creditors who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had imprisoned them. It is also reflected in the widespread charitable activity designed to support or liberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisoned debtors which Finn uncovers: between 1772 and 1831 the Thatched House Society freed 51,250 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debtors at an average cost of 2, 19)] TJ ET BT 203.972 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s)] TJ ET BT 208.640 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6)] TJ ET BT 220.640 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d)] TJ ET BT 226.640 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p. 162\). However, it is in the prisons that we start to see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation in the culture of credit towards the end of the eighteenth century. The distinctive cultures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of debtors? prisons rested on the foundations of the custodial tradition of confinement and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tendency of high legal costs at common law to focus debt litigation disproportionately on the wealthier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portions of society \(p. 150\). )] TJ ET BT 170.336 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 286.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates that changes in the legal system flooded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons with tens of thousands of plebeian debtors, and suggests that this combined with new theories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penal discipline to challenge the interpretation of debtors as victims of misfortune. Under these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances the debtors? prison was transformed from ?an asylum capable of protecting its inmates from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the full wrath of their creditors into a more punitive institution intended to exact retribution for economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misbehaviour? \(p. 154\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The process of reform revealed here was highly uneven and prompted intense debate over whether or not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment for debt should be abolished, leading to a number of Acts of Parliament between 1838 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1846 which fundamentally reshaped the system. Particularly significant was an act of 1842 which redefined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of fraud. Whereas it had previously been held that credit transactions were fraudulent if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debtor contracted without ?reasonable or probable )] TJ ET BT 277.952 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(expectation)] TJ ET BT 333.272 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? of rendering payment, henceforth a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraudulent transaction would be one where debtors had contracted without ?reasonable assurance? of making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full payment to their creditors. The Small Debts Act of 1845 allowed judges to imprison small debtors for up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to forty days if they proved to have contracted their debts fraudulently, and, in a major departure from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice in the courts of requests, such imprisonment did not liquidate the debt. Perhaps most significantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Small Debts Act of 1846 replaced the courts of requests with the county courts, which could imprison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debtors for up to six weeks at a time, and could do so repeatedly for contempt if they failed to pay their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debts. This was a dramatic transformation. As one Home Office official explained in 1845, petty debtors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were no longer ?imprisoned for safe custody alone, or in satisfaction of their Debts ? But as a punishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either for fraudulent or dishonest conduct, or for a wilful disobedience of the orders of a Court of Law? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(174\). These new attitudes to the imprisoned debtor prompted a steady stream of changes to the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons treated of both small-claims debtors and those who owed more substantial sums, as traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privileges were removed and debtors were exposed to penal discipline. Yet the newness of the concept of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?penal debtor? meant that it was not accepted by all, and Finn pays careful attention to the resistance to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea found among prisoners, prison governors, the public and government officials. The 1860s saw a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burst of reform which, as Gerry Rubin and Paul Johnson have shown, effectively restricted imprisonment for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt to the working classes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 167.000 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 167.000 89.043 m 180.992 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.992 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This state of affairs lasted until 1970, with imprisoned debtors remaining at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the margins of the penal system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section of the book moves on from the study of imprisonment for debt to examine the courts as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.6517 766.8775 285.6437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.9997 89.3575 180.9917 101.2375 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8075 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locus in which debtors? identities were contested. The eighteenth and nineteenth centuries saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of summary small-claims courts, and the story of these courts is a compelling one, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weaves together the history of consumption, the development of the law and the growth of the state. We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only given details about who sued in the courts, but the different strategies deployed by debtors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creditors and judges. Finn is absolutely right to stress the importance of the fact that married women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed to give evidence in these courts, and the gendered dynamics of courtroom performance are explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with enviable subtlety. Finn concludes that although these small claims courts were established ?to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernise legal processes of debt reclamation by liberating them from customary constraints?, they instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?repeatedly registered and affirmed entrenched social beliefs, identities and practices that constrained fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contractual consumer behaviour? \(pp. 3?4\). This was facilitated by the fact that the small-claims courts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly enjoined to draw upon ?equitable? reasoning, whereby the strict letter of the common law was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mitigated by taking account of the particular personal circumstances of each case.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The suggestion is that the common law upheld the ideals of the autonomous individual and contractual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liability, whereas ?equitable? reasoning allowed judges to insist upon ?the legitimate role played in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic transactions by social relations? \(p. 309\). The ability of county court judges to order payment by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instalments, for example, gave them a means of mitigating the severity of the common law. There can be no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that county court judges often departed from the letter of the common law, and this is an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, but the argument does seem overstated in some respects. In the first place, as Michael Lobban has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown in his book )] TJ ET BT 124.688 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Common Law and English Jurisprudence)] TJ ET BT 345.020 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1760?1850 \(Oxford, 1991\), common law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judges were able to exercise considerable discretion in their interpretation of the law: it did not operate as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strict body of rules. Secondly, some of the examples Finn gives of ?equitable? reasoning are perfectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compatible with common law judgements. Take, for example, the two cases described on page 269. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, a judge is described as deviating from the common law by suggesting that a husband?s liability for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife?s contracts might depend on the sufficiency of any allowance he gave her. In fact this was a disputed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point at common law, not a deviation from a firm point of law.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.324 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.324 440.931 m 349.316 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.316 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the second case a county court judge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruled that a husband remained liable for his wife?s debts even though they were separated. This sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement, it is suggested frustrated the superior-court judges and legislators who sought to substitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomous individuals for social individuals. However, this interpretation ignores the longstanding rule of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the common law that if a husband forced his wife to leave the marital home by his misconduct \(as in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular case\), she had authority to pledge his credit and he could not revoke it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.940 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.940 369.651 m 435.932 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.932 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To associate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common law with a straightforward liberal individualist position can therefore be misleading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This small quibble aside, )] TJ ET BT 157.016 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 273.356 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( presents a sweeping and powerful argument, bringing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together a huge body of exceptionally interesting source material from an impressive number of archives. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells a story of how judges, debtors and tradesmen successfully resisted the march of ?modernisation?, seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the emergence of the freely contracting autonomous individual and strict contractual liability of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic theory, by continuing to see economic transactions through the lens of social relationships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations and pressures. It is an important story, and one told with great skill, although the overarching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanatory framework is based on such large generalisations that it sometimes sits awkwardly with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle analysis of the details.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers of this book will find themselves in no doubt that throughout the period in question indebtedness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was interpreted as a misfortune rather than a sign of moral failing, but this idea is pursued so relentlessly that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative ways of thinking about debt are largely ignored. The result is that it is difficult to see the themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in the book in any sort of perspective. Rival interpretations of credit and debt surface only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentarily, as when we are told in passing that ?Gentlemen, Clergy, Merchants, Manufacturers, Traders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Farmers? from Halifax who signed petitions in the third quarter of the eighteenth century ?associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit with luxury, dissipation and vice? like ?adherents of the classical republican tradition? \(p. 216\). What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was this tradition? Who else held these ideas? What happened to them? Such questions are never posed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce the uncomfortable feeling that the reader is being treated to a restricted view of a much broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vista. Consider again the case of Benjamin Haydon. We are told that his indebtedness caused him ?acute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame?, and that in 1834 he described his lot as a ?state of degradation, humiliation, & pain of mind?, while )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.3237 441.2455 349.3157 453.1255 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9397 369.9655 435.9317 381.8455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 8282 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he called imprisonment for debt a ?disgrace? \(pp. 69?70\). Such language does not fit comfortably with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of a morally innocent debtor fallen prey to misfortune. ?Degradation? and ?disgrace? suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebtedness did have consequences for one?s moral character, while ?shame? surely suggests some notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of culpability. The idea that debt might result from moral failings features prominently in Margaret Hunt?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of ?the middling sort?. She found that seventeenth- and eighteenth-century traders persistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ascribed commercial failure ?to immoral acts on the part of parties to business transactions.? Such men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?were almost unanimous in believing that failure came as a result of extravagance, lack of industry, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially inattention to one?s accounts, keeping bad company, ? drunkenness, illicit sexual activity, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining extravagant family members, especially sons?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.308 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.308 681.027 m 332.300 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.300 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This divergence between the findings of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians working on overlapping periods requires some explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One possible cause of this problem is that )] TJ ET BT 237.332 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 353.672 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tends to ignore differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different kinds of debt. The cultural meanings of debts owed to banks, for example, are not necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable to debts owed to family members.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.316 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.316 612.003 m 270.308 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 270.308 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More importantly, it is not immediately obvious why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of someone incurring debts in order to tide their business over a short-term cash-flow problem should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen as equivalent to the case of someone who owes gambling debts incurred at the card table. Observers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will surely attach very different moral valuations to the debtors in these two cases. Consider Hogarth?s series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of prints )] TJ ET BT 77.348 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rake?s Progress)] TJ ET BT 179.336 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1735\), which chart how a wealthy young gentleman?s extravagant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure and gambling led ultimately to the debtor?s prison and madness. Hogarth?s message here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally moralistic, associating gambling and indebtedness with moral decline, but such voices are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent from )] TJ ET BT 94.004 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 210.344 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In practice, the book focuses almost exclusively on retail credit, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this only begs the question of how representations of other kinds of credit interacted with these discourses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of the material Finn has assembled, I am in no doubt that an important way of conceptualising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebtedness was as a misfortune, imputing no moral deficiency to the debtor, but I am less certain of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important this trope was compared to alternative languages, because the alternatives are not discussed. Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(am I sure of the limits beyond which the language of misfortune could not be deployed to describe a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debtor?s situation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overwhelming emphasis on the idea that debt was seen as a misfortune has the unfortunate effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making the perspective of those seeking to enforce strict contractual liability seem rather alien: their values, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas and expectations are presented as completely opposed to the dominant beliefs of the society they lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in. This limits the explanatory force of the account, because it is by no means clear how or why the liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualist perspective gained ground if it was so marginalized. With the exception of the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how imprisoned debtors and criminal prisoners were forced into the same penal regimes, the causes of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift away from the language of ?misfortune? are left remarkably vague. ?Financial panics provoked by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of credit trading, mounting antagonism to aristocratic habits of indebtedness, hostility to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Debt and the rising cost of administering the Poor Laws? are all mentioned as rendering Georgian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women ?increasingly sensitive to issues of credit and debt? \(p. 152\). No doubt these are all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important developments, but little or no evidence is offered to establish any kind of causal relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linking these factors to the developments charted in the book. In fact, the penultimate page suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental changes in debt and credit relations did not occur until the interwar period, outside the time-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frame of the book. )] TJ ET BT 125.660 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 242.000 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not reject the idea of a transition from status to contract in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic relations, but in focusing on the status part of the question, the overall process is left thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysterious.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.684 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.684 186.579 m 103.676 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Finn might reasonably respond that the history of the liberal individualist perspective has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustively studied by others, but one still wishes that she had paid more attention to the ?modernising? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces assailing the traditional moral economy that she describes in such detail. Framing the narrative in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of this conflict has the unfortunate effect of anachronistically forcing people into one of two camps ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modernising? or ?traditionalist?. As a heuristic device, this has obvious merits, but it underestimates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity within each category. The ?liberal? camp which saw economic relations in terms of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy, and which sought to enforce contractual rigour, can readily be associated with the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill, but this group also contained those Christian political )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.3077 681.3415 332.2997 693.2215 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.3157 612.3175 270.3077 624.1975 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [35 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.6837 186.8935 103.6757 198.7735 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R 58 0 R 61 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 7654 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economists described by Boyd Hilton, whose perspective was very different. As Hilton has shown in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Atonement)] TJ ET BT 140.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there was an influential body of economic thinkers in the early nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose outlook had been shaped by post-millenialist evangelicalism, and who ?regarded debt as sinful?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.276 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.276 766.563 m 544.268 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For them, financial failures ?were not ?mysterious visitations, inscrutable as potato-rot or rinder pest,? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the logical outcome of sin.? Moderate evangelicals supported free markets not because they were simply the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best mechanism for allocating resources, but because interference with the free play of market forces would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure the ?clockwork providence? by which men were tested and punished by God for sins like avarice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 695.283 m 54.008 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In this respect the distinction between ?useful? and ?false? credit becomes important, because it was ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(false)] TJ ET BT 56.684 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prosperity ? )] TJ ET BT 119.672 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(undue)] TJ ET BT 149.000 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Credit, and )] TJ ET BT 208.328 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(over)] TJ ET BT 229.652 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-trading? which were punished by providence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.264 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.264 681.027 m 472.256 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton?s work suggests that the place of debt in religious discourses was more contested than )] TJ ET BT 484.292 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Credit)] TJ ET BT 77.024 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( allows, and it is unfortunate that various denominational and theological differences are so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularly subsumed under the label ?Christian?, and that religion barely features in the account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Consideration of this Christian political economy also reminds us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who supported the strict enforcement of contracts did so for a variety of reasons and should not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily be classed together. It is highly significant, for example, that these evangelically influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economists opposed the introduction of limited liability, while Liberals like J. S. Mill and Robert Lowe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported limiting liability for debt.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 206.360 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 206.360 554.979 m 226.352 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For this reason, the changes in the credit laws in the 1840s, at least, need to be contextualised in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates within liberal political economy, rather than seen as the authoritative statement of a reified liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism. It is surely important that many of the changes in credit law were made while Sir Robert Peel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Prime Minister ? a man closely associated with Christian political economy \(and whose banking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforms surely affected attitudes towards credit\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.284 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.284 471.699 m 287.276 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.276 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is regrettable that )] TJ ET BT 386.924 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 503.264 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really explores the motives of legislators, when changes in the credit laws and penal reforms lie at the heart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book. It is surely not enough to cite Patrick Polden?s view that the story of small debt legislation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?profoundly unedifying? when the book raises so many interesting questions about the interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal reform offered by Polden and Lester \(p. 236\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.284 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.284 414.675 m 299.276 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.276 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Consider how the legislation of the 1840s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly treated debtors as having contracted fraudulently. Lester presents this as a common sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform to help tradesmen, but in the context of Finn?s argument it becomes something more problematic: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolt against the culturally dominant representation of debtors as simply unfortunate. The ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intentions of legislators might shed some light on the nature of these reforms, but they are ignored and one is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left wondering why the law was changed at all, yet alone why the law was changed in the way that it was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A recognition of the diversity within each group complicates the dichotomy between ?liberal individualist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ?modern? and ?social? or ?traditional? interpretations of debt, but a more fundamental problem is that it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely difficult to assign individuals to a particular side in the conflict between these perspectives. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man?s creditor was often another man?s debtor, and while tradesmen may have shared the values of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral economy, they also had to enforce contracts in the courts if they were to remain in business. )] TJ ET BT 509.264 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 129.356 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not blind to this, and is often at its most interesting when probing these tensions, but a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more explicit recognition of the conceptual difficulties involved would have been welcome. It is not clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why tradesmen were so anxious to assess the character of their customers if debt was not seen as the result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal failings, and this is a problem created by the author?s polarisation of ?liberal individualist? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?social? interpretations into a dichotomy.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.2757 766.8775 544.2677 778.7575 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 695.5975 54.0077 707.4775 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.2637 681.3415 472.2557 693.2215 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 206.3597 555.2935 226.3517 567.1735 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.2837 472.0135 287.2757 483.8935 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [46 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.2837 414.9895 299.2757 426.8695 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 69 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R ] /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 9194 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take the case of Thomas Falconer, one of the county court judges described by Margot Finn as adhering to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?classical liberal conceptions of economic exchange and personal autonomy?, in contrast to the equitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards upheld by many of his colleagues \(p. 259\). Now there can be no doubt that Falconer was a devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciple of Bentham, but in many respects he held ideas which clearly align him with the ?equitable? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. He described court orders for payment by instalments as ?a wise and most humane provision?; he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ?the greatest repugnance? to imprison women due to the ?almost certain loss of character? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attended imprisonment; and he mocked those who sought to replace credit with cash-only transactions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.948 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.948 697.539 m 547.940 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considerations of equity and the social circumstances of the debtor are most clearly evident in the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a merciful provision of the County Courts Act, 1846, that a Judge may anticipate default in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the payment even of instalments ordered, and limit the amount for which an execution on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods may be levied. By section 105 also, of the same Act, if from sickness or other sufficient )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause the defendant is unable to pay the debt, or damages, or instalments ordered, the Judge may )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspend any judgement, order, or execution, on terms from time to time. Mercy may be thus )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shown to poor people when overwhelmed with or suffering from sickness, accident, or poverty.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 545.235 m 84.008 545.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Finn?s account of the clash between liberal individualism and traditional moral economies based on social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ties, Falconer is presented as fighting for the former when he was, in fact, playing for both teams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously, and there is no reason to believe that he was unusual in this respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A single volume cannot hope to provide a comprehensive history of personal debt, but each of the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections in The )] TJ ET BT 109.676 439.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 205.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illuminates important aspects of a vast subject. The questions it raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the social and cultural embeddedness of economic relations are of major importance to economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, the history of the debtors? prisons is an outstanding piece of social history, and the work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plebeian encounters with civil law is of considerable significance. If the book raises more questions than it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers about how these three aspects of personal debt are connected, and how they changed over time, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is only because it has set out to map )] TJ ET BT 230.672 368.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(terra incognita)] TJ ET BT 303.008 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is not just a book that deserves to be widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read, but a book which ought to prompt and guide a great deal of further research by historians following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paths opened up by Margot Finn. )] TJ ET BT 196.340 339.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Character of Credit)] TJ ET BT 312.680 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sets a high standard which future books in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge Social and Cultural Histories series will do well to match.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 259.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 259.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Craig Muldrew, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 259.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economy of Obligation: the Culture of Credit and Social Relations in Early )] TJ ET BT 64.016 245.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern England)] TJ ET BT 145.676 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.336 245.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.336 244.131 m 302.324 244.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 231.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyd Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 129.692 231.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Atonement: the Influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought )] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1785?1865)] TJ ET BT 118.016 217.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1988\), pp. 14?15.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 249.992 217.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 249.992 215.619 m 303.980 215.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 202.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 202.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. R. Rubin, 'Law, poverty and imprisonment for debt, 1869-1914' in G. R. Rubin and David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 188.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sugarman,)] TJ ET BT 115.676 188.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Law, Economy and Society, 1750-1914: Essays in the History of English Law)] TJ ET BT 491.000 188.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Abingdon, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984\), pp. 241-99; Paul Johnson, 'Class law in Victorian England', )] TJ ET BT 386.324 174.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 468.320 174.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 141 \(1993\), 147-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 159.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(169; Paul Johnson, 'Creditors, debtors, and the law in Victorian and Edwardian England' in ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 145.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willibald Steinmetz, )] TJ ET BT 166.352 145.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Law and Social Inequality in the Industrial Age. Comparing Legal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 131.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures in Britain, France, Germany and the United States)] TJ ET BT 352.004 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2000\), pp. 485-504.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.648 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.648 130.083 m 548.636 130.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 117.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John William Smith, )] TJ ET BT 166.700 117.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leading Cases in Various Branches of the Law)] TJ ET BT 393.044 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols, London, 1832\) vol. ii, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 421, 423?24. See in particular )] TJ ET BT 228.992 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liddlow)] TJ ET BT 268.340 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 280.340 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wilmot)] TJ ET BT 315.008 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 Stark. 88 \(1817\); )] TJ ET BT 414.668 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Emmet)] TJ ET BT 447.992 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 459.992 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Norton)] TJ ET BT 494.000 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8 C. & P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(506 \(1838\); )] TJ ET BT 123.344 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Johnston)] TJ ET BT 166.676 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 178.676 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sumner)] TJ ET BT 215.336 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27 )] TJ ET BT 236.336 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law Journal Report)] TJ ET BT 333.008 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(N.S.\) Exch. 345 \(1858\); )] TJ ET BT 458.324 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beale)] TJ ET BT 485.648 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 497.648 88.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arabin)] TJ ET BT 530.984 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Law Times )] TJ ET BT 119.360 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(N.S.\) 249 \(1877\); )] TJ ET BT 211.016 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eastland)] TJ ET BT 253.688 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 265.688 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burchell)] TJ ET BT 307.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3 Q.B.D., 436 \(1878\); and )] TJ ET BT 442.004 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Debenham)] TJ ET BT 493.988 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 505.988 74.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mellon)] TJ ET BT 539.984 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H.L. \(E.\) 34 \(1880\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.328 60.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.328 58.803 m 214.316 58.803 l S endstream endobj 68 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.9477 697.8535 547.9397 709.7335 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [66 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 545.5495 84.0077 557.4295 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.3357 244.4455 302.3237 256.3255 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 249.9917 215.9335 303.9797 227.8135 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.6477 130.3975 548.6357 142.2775 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.3277 59.1175 214.3157 70.9975 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R ] /Contents 83 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Length 6769 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Bacon, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A new abridgement of the law)] TJ ET BT 290.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(7th ed., 8 vols, London, 1832\), vol. i, p. 719. See also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Boulton)] TJ ET BT 102.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( v )] TJ ET BT 114.020 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prentice)] TJ ET BT 154.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 Strange, 1214 \(1745\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.328 780.819 m 328.316 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Margaret R. Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 175.328 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Middling Sort. Commerce, Gender and the Family in England, 1680?1780)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, Ca., 1996\), p. 37.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.660 752.307 m 254.648 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunt, p. 29. On the widespread existence of debts to family members see Hunt, pp. 23?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.284 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.284 738.051 m 546.272 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dror Wahrman makes some perceptive comments about how cultural histories struggle to account for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in ?The new political history: a review essay?,)] TJ ET BT 323.624 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Social History)] TJ ET BT 395.624 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 \(1996\), 352?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.944 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.944 709.539 m 540.932 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 100.688 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Atonement)] TJ ET BT 186.008 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 263.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.008 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.008 695.283 m 278.996 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 100.688 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Atonement)] TJ ET BT 186.008 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 69.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.008 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.008 681.027 m 278.996 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 100.688 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Atonement)] TJ ET BT 186.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 135.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.008 666.771 m 284.996 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 100.688 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Age of Atonement)] TJ ET BT 186.008 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 259?60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.336 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.336 652.515 m 302.324 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boyd Hilton, ?Peel: a reappraisal?, )] TJ ET BT 234.320 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 323.324 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22 \(1979\), 585?614; Boyd Hilton, ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallows and Mr Peel? in ed. T. Blanning and D. Cannadine, )] TJ ET BT 353.648 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Biography: Essays in Honour )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Derek Beales)] TJ ET BT 140.660 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\), pp. 88?112.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.308 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.308 609.747 m 357.296 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Polden,)] TJ ET BT 137.348 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( A History of the County Court, 1846?1971)] TJ ET BT 345.356 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1999\); V. Markham Lester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Insolvency: Bankruptcy, Imprisonment for Debt, and Company Winding-up in Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cntury England)] TJ ET BT 141.020 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.668 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.668 566.979 m 279.656 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Falconer, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On County Courts, Local Courts of Record, and on the Changes Proposed to be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Made in Such Courts in the Second Report of the Judicature Commissioners)] TJ ET BT 430.328 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1873\), pp. 94, 98, 102.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 524.211 m 124.004 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Falconer, p. 21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.004 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.004 509.955 m 198.992 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 439.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 422.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 422.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/435)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 420.681 m 322.316 420.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 395.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2406)] TJ ET BT 34.016 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