%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150727130027+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150727130027+01'00') /Title (The Winchester Pipe Rolls and Medieval English Society) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1958 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Winchester Pipe Rolls and Medieval English Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(437)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Britnell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843830299)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(222pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=12917)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Briggs)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7597 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Winchester pipe rolls are among the very greatest monuments to medieval English administration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record-keeping. As a source for economic and social history between the thirteenth and the fifteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries they are without equal, since even documents of roughly comparable structure and purpose cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer anything like the same quantity and variety of information, or coverage of such a long chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Each bulky pipe roll consists of a summary of income and expenditure during the Michaelmas to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michaelmas accounting year from each of the bishop of Winchester?s 50?60 manors, properties which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dotted across seven counties of southern England. The individual accounts that make up a pipe roll also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide detailed documentation of the management of the demesne within each manor, that is, of the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farmed directly by the bishop. The records were modelled on the royal administration, and the earliest relates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the accounting year 1208?9. Thereafter the series of rolls runs with some gaps until 1454?5, from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date the accounts were recorded in large registers rather than rolls. Although the later fifteenth and sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century records continue to provide a sizeable and important source, the essays in )] TJ ET BT 428.600 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Winchester Pipe Rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Medieval English Society)] TJ ET BT 176.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( follow historiographical tradition by concentrating on the riches contained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the first two centuries of the pipe rolls. This volume originated in a conference held in 1999, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several of the papers present findings from major research projects based on the documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Richard Britnell?s introduction to the volume demonstrates, the story of historical study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester pipe rolls is inseparable from the wider story of the development of English medieval economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social history as a field of research. The pipe rolls attracted surprisingly little attention in works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in the second half of the nineteenth century and the first decade or two of the twentieth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though there were notable exceptions to this, such as a series of important early contributions to the classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate on the economic consequences of the Black Death of 1348?9. However, it was only in the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the twentieth century that the pipe rolls came into their own, as historians became dissatisfied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the largely disconnected local investigations that had characterized the field up to that point, and sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead to chart and understand the broader shape of medieval economic and demographic change affecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country as a whole. To do this, statistics on fundamental matters like population growth, prices, rents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wages and crop yields were needed, and to obtain these researchers such as W. H. Beveridge and later J. Z. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Titow and D. L. Farmer turned to the unrivalled information found in the Winchester accounts. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester evidence dominated discussion of the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century economy even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully from the 1950s as a consequence of the fact that the investigations of Titow, as collaborator and student )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of M. M. Postan, came to form a major part of the evidential basis for the famous ?Postan thesis?, a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of medieval economic change which saw the balance between population and agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources as the decisive factor. Britnell?s introduction shows just how fully this highly influential view is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulated in Titow?s studies of the Winchester data, as well as in Postan?s own writings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Today, research on the Winchester pipe rolls is no longer primarily concerned with gathering data on basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic indicators such as prices and wages. Instead, investigations using these records are now much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more diverse. This is reflected in the contributions to the volume under review, most of which use the pipe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rolls to shed light on topics that have come to particular prominence in medieval economic history in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two or three decades, such as the peasant land market, and the objectives and techniques of landlords? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural production.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The description of this book on its frontispiece states that it is both a ?celebration? of the pipe rolls as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical source, and an attempt to question how far the evidence they contain is representative of England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole. The second, cautionary theme is developed most fully in Bruce Campbell?s essay, ?A unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate and a unique source: the Winchester pipe rolls in perspective?. Historians of the Winchester pipe rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have never been able to avoid the disconcerting objection that their records were produced by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionally powerful landlord operating a highly unusual agrarian regime in a relatively restricted area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country, and hence that they are wholly inadequate as a guide to the characteristics of the typical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval manor, landlord or peasant tenant, however full of detail they might be. Campbell investigates this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim by placing the Winchester estate and its archive in perspective, drawing on the national database of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manorial accounts used in his earlier study of seigniorial agriculture, and on evidence assembled in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration with Ken Bartley for a forthcoming historical atlas of the early fourteenth century. Access to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7214 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this wealth of comparative material from all over England allows Campbell to show strikingly that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?territorially, tenurially, agriculturally, managerially, commercially and financially, the Winchester estate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in a class of its own?. He stresses the vast size of the estate controlled by the bishop, whose 50?60 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manors far outstripped the holdings of all but a handful of other lords. A large estate would naturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engender a type of management policy wholly different from that practised on the small estates consisting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just a couple of manors that were the norm across the country. Large estates also tended to feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionally large, valuable manors, and there are numerous examples of such huge properties among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands of the bishop, the most obvious being East Meon \(Hampshire\) and Taunton \(Somerset\). The demesne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farms of such Winchester properties were predominantly worked using the labour services of unfree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary tenants, which again marked this estate out as atypical. For the vast majority of lords, Campbell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses, the use of labour services was not an option, simply because there were few, if any, customary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants attached to the predominantly small manors in which their demesnes lay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are no easy solutions to the dilemma facing historians wishing to use the rich seams of evidence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester pipe rolls without losing sight of doubts about its wider significance. Campbell does, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer some intriguing suggestions in a concluding section of his essay headed ?the methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge?, several of which are exemplified in the studies that make up the remainder of the book. Most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those contributions also shed light on the problems involved in studying general questions of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history through the exceptional records of this exceptional estate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As already noted, ?celebration? of the pipe rolls is also a major theme of this volume, and Katherine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stocks?s investigation of payments made to the bishop?s manor courts in the first half of the thirteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century shows particularly well why this should be the case. Most of our knowledge of medieval village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society comes via the institution of the manor court, and it is very important to know how its procedures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed from as early a date as possible. However, the earliest court rolls containing written records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curial proceedings date from the mid-1240s \(these relate to manors of the abbey of Bec\), and examples of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this category of document do not become numerous until the last quarter of the thirteenth century. Without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Winchester pipe rolls, our knowledge of the operation of manor courts during an important formative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period would be scant indeed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The information analysed by Stocks takes the form of over 54,000 individual payments of court fines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by brief entries summarizing the reason for each payment. While these entries appear to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made primarily for financial accounting purposes, Stocks argues that it may also have been legally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficial for the bishop to have them recorded. A number of interesting discoveries are presented here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the operation of the courts of the Winchester manors. For example, the increasing use of juries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the entire body of court suitors in giving manor court verdicts has been thought particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of the latter half of the thirteenth century, but Stocks finds that juries were in operation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester courts as early as the 1220s. Interestingly, the juries Stocks identifies all appear to have acted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private land disputes. No indication is given of the existence at this time of the ?presentment? jury which by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1300 dominated most manor courts as the body responsible for reporting a wide range of ?public? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manorial offences, though it is possible that this apparent absence is actually a function of the distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(format of the court payment evidence contained in the pipe rolls.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Stocks?s essay, the next two pieces in the book \(by Mark Page and John Mullan\) are also concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with pipe roll information relating to the bishop?s peasant tenants. In their case, the focus is on the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market, which is studied through the entry fines paid and recorded whenever an unfree or customary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landholding changed hands. Page?s essay arises from an ESRC funded project on the transfer of customary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land on the Winchester estate before 1350, while Mullan?s presents preliminary findings from a second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project \(funded by the Leverhulme Trust\) which continues the investigation up to 1415.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After showing that most transfers between 1269 and 1349 took place by inheritance, Page considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the characteristic standard-sized holdings of customary land \(virgates, half-virgates etc.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in fact subdivided between more than one occupier. He presents examples of parts of standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenements being held as separate holdings, and of subletting, which show that the landlord?s opposition to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7557 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation of the standard units did not always prevent it happening in practice. In the absence of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to quantify such instances, however, it is difficult to assess just how far one should treat the pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of standard holdings with their individual tenants as an unreliable guide to the actual pattern of land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation. Page also looks closely at land existing outside the standard holding structure, either in the form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of leases from the demesne or of acres colonised from waste. He demonstrates that the availability of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land had different effects on land transfer on different Winchester manors, and argues that these variations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal a unique combination of local influences acting in each place. He rejects the idea of a unified estate-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide seigniorial policy on peasant landholding, casting doubt on any suggestion that the wider relevance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments on an individual Winchester manor is inevitably compromised by the fact that it formed part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a large and atypical estate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Mullan uses the Winchester entry fines between 1349 and 1361 to explore some of the key themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified in existing research on the post-plague peasant land market, including the growth in transfers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the family at the expense of transfers between kin, and the tendency for individuals to accumulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusually large holdings. Studies of other parts of the country show that such features did not all appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suddenly after the Black Death but rather tended to emerge gradually over a longer period, so, as Mullan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concedes, it is not possible to explore these issues as fully as one would wish through a preliminary study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering little more than a decade. Nonetheless, he is able to identify changes after 1349, including a trend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards non-family transfers, and the emergence of new legal devices used by peasants to dispose of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land. Closer integration of the pre- and post-1349 evidence generated by the two Winchester land market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects would have assisted the reader in assessing just how ?new? the post-1349 developments highlighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Mullan really were, but by turning back to Page?s Table 1 and comparing it with Mullan?s Table 3 it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible to obtain confirmation of a contrast between the 1340s and 1350s in proportions of extra-familial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transfers. Other features viewed as characteristic of the later medieval land market, such as the accumulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of holdings, had not really emerged to any significant extent on the Winchester manors by 1361, and Mullan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites notable examples of individuals acquiring several tenements who also shed substantial amounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property over the same period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In considering demesne crop yields, Christopher Thornton?s study of the manor of Taunton shifts the focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to an aspect of Winchester pipe roll research that has a much longer tradition than some of the other topics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in this volume. Yet his approach, giving close attention to innovation and regional variation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural technology and to the opportunities offered by the market, is characteristic of quite recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, and reflects in particular the influence of Bruce Campbell?s work and the framework )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted by other current investigators of demesne agriculture such as Thornton himself, who has also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published an important study of the Winchester manor of Rimpton \(Somerset\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.316 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.316 314.883 m 426.308 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thornton calculates arable productivity at Taunton and on each of the five sub-manors of this large manorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, making comparison with places elsewhere in the country. There is a particularly striking contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Taunton and the highly productive Norfolk manor of Martham, where the weighted aggregate crop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yield was over three times greater than on the Somerset manor. Poor yields at Taunton were not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of poor soil quality, but reflect a low seeding rate, the small acreage devoted to leguminous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crops and minimal integration of livestock and arable husbandry. The format of the accounts makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to calculate labour inputs at Taunton, but it is clear that its demesne was cultivated using a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of very heavy labour services, abandonment of which is just one of several steps that, if taken, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost certainly have raised productivity. In contrast to Page, Thornton implies that developments on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual manor \(in this case Taunton\) were significantly influenced by the fact that it was part of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusually large and bureaucratic estate, since he suggests that an inflexible centrally directed policy led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perpetuation of inappropriate techniques, such as the use of a three course rotation on the marginal land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Taunton?s two ?outlying? sub-manors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a highly original contribution, John Langdon, Jill Walker and John R. Falconer employ evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building expenditure on the estate to shed light on the ?crisis? of the early fourteenth century. In an attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to move beyond the traditional explanations for the difficulties of this period, such as increased feudal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surplus extraction or population pressure, the authors explore the proposition that the crisis should be seen in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.3157 315.1975 426.3077 327.0775 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of recession and consequent unemployment, using the building industry as their testing ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Data on sums spent on building across the entire Winchester estate are plotted to show chronological trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1297 and 1348. Perhaps the most striking feature is the growth in the late 1330s and early 1340s in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure on new building. These years are usually seen as a time of severe economic recession and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general hardship caused by high taxation levels, but Langdon and his co-authors suggest that this boom in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction in the early years of the Hundred Years War probably improved the lot of building workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed on the Winchester estate. Yet across the period studied the overall picture is one of marked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuation over time in building expenditure, which must have created a very uncertain employment climate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for craftsmen and labourers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The arguments of Campbell?s paper in this volume naturally lead one to ask how typical patterns of building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Winchester lands were of the industry in general. The authors claim that Winchester ?might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered typical of the majority of large estates in terms of its management and attitudes to building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment?, but at the same time they accept that the personal tastes and political ambitions of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops may account for some significant chronological shifts in outlay on building projects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just how close the bishops of Winchester were to the centre of political power is demonstrated in the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay in the volume, by Nicholas Vincent. Vincent?s study of five thirteenth century bishops furthers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s theme of ?celebration?, showing why the pipe rolls are such a valuable source not just for social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic historians but for political and religious historians also. As Vincent explains, the entries in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winchester accounts quite frequently offer an important supplement to evidence in royal sources on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops? relations with kings, magnates and leading churchmen and justices, and, on occasion, the pipe rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute the only evidence for a particular event or contact. Vincent exploited the pipe roll evidence in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996 book on Bishop Peter des Roches \(1205?38\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.328 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.328 459.699 m 288.320 459.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.320 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and in the present essay he concentrates on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episcopates of des Roches?s successors, uncovering the evidence pertaining to major political episodes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps most notably the baronial rebellion and civil war of 1258 to 1267. He also extracts statistics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning tallages and ?recognitions? \(forced levies\) imposed on tenants, and almsgiving by Bishop Aymer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Lusignan in 1258, evidence that sheds interesting light on the harshness or otherwise of the bishops as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, this is a high quality collection which contains several substantial and important pieces and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays by Britnell, Campbell and Vincent in particular, makes useful suggestions for future research on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pipe rolls. The contributors successfully achieve their aim of celebrating the pipe rolls by showing some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the unparalleled strengths of the source. Collectively, the last six essays in the book give at least implicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answers to some of the doubts and concerns about historians? reliance on the records of the Winchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate voiced by Campbell in his contribution. Clearly, however, challenges remain in this area, which must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part be met through greater efforts to track down and exploit the more fragmentary but arguably more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical manorial sources of smaller lay estates alongside those of the great ecclesiastical lords.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An appendix provides a handlist of the Winchester pipe rolls in the Hampshire Record Office, and there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated bibliography and detailed index.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 157.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher C. Thornton, 'The Determinants of Land Productivity on the Bishop of Winchester's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 143.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Demesne of Rimpton, 1208 to 1403', in )] TJ ET BT 256.508 143.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land, Labour and Livestock: Historical Studies in European )] TJ ET BT 64.016 129.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural Productivity)] TJ ET BT 185.684 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds. B. M. S. Campbell and M. Overton, \(Manchester, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.984 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.984 127.827 m 539.972 127.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 114.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Vincent, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 114.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peter des Roches: an Alien in English Politics)] TJ ET BT 375.320 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.640 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.640 113.571 m 526.628 113.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editor has no comment to add to this perceptive review by Chris Briggs, who accurately represents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content and the historical relevance of this collection of essays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 48.197 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.3277 460.0135 288.3197 471.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.9837 128.1415 539.9717 140.0215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.6397 113.8855 526.6277 125.7655 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/437)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2409)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/437) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000571 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000002663 00000 n 0000002772 00000 n 0000002882 00000 n 0000002991 00000 n 0000006552 00000 n 0000006680 00000 n 0000006764 00000 n 0000006829 00000 n 0000014479 00000 n 0000014544 00000 n 0000021811 00000 n 0000021895 00000 n 0000029505 00000 n 0000029535 00000 n 0000029663 00000 n 0000029699 00000 n 0000029797 00000 n 0000036951 00000 n 0000036981 00000 n 0000037109 00000 n 0000037145 00000 n 0000037273 00000 n 0000037328 00000 n 0000037456 00000 n 0000037511 00000 n 0000037595 00000 n 0000038321 00000 n 0000038449 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38544 %%EOF