%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 40 0 R 45 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416040412+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416040412+01'00') /Title (The Beginnings of a Commercial Sporting Culture in Britain, 1793?1850) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 17 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4590 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Beginnings of a Commercial Sporting Culture in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1793?1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever happened to the history of nineteenth-century British popular culture? In the 1970s and 1980s, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an exciting field that produced a series of invigorating and pioneering works. \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.608 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.608 250.545 m 438.608 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 441.608 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 455.600 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Fulfilling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise of E. P.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever happened to the history of nineteenth-century British popular culture? In the 1970s and 1980s, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an exciting field that produced a series of invigorating and pioneering works.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.612 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.612 195.777 m 439.604 195.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.604 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fulfilling the promise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of E. P. Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 137.348 182.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 338.684 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1963\), historians traced the patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture during the age of industrialisation as part of the project of reconstructing the voices of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor. Given that the personal was political, it followed that it was possible to recover a political project in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(folk song, sport or the ?rough culture? of the common people. Social historians described how, during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, the carnivalesque dimensions of popular culture were subject to increasing social control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Evangelicalism, the new police force, the middle class and by the capitalist social order with its emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on time discipline; all energies had to be harnessed towards the labour process. Respectability was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watchword of Victorian Britain, leaving little room for the often disorderly world of popular recreations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This essentially Marxist approach was also shaped by the interwar Frankfurt School of cultural critics which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to a focus on the ways in which the working class was essentially bought off by capitalism in the form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(438)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Harvey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843830299)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(269pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rohan McWilliam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.6077 250.8595 438.6077 262.7395 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/paper/mcwilliam.html#1) >> endobj 16 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6117 196.0915 439.6037 207.9715 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8035 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cheap and harmless mass culture which became dominant in the later Victorian period: the world of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music hall, professional football, fish and chips, vulgar Sunday newspapers and occasional trips to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seaside. This apparently pacified the working class and compensated for its political setbacks during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartist years. It induced a culture of fatalism and a belief that political solutions would not work; instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers focused on the brief pleasures that life offered, what Gareth Stedman Jones memorably labelled ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of consolation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 146.996 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 146.996 723.795 m 160.988 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 160.988 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Popular culture was no longer made by the people but was manufactured for them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the new culture industries. Football, for example, was driven off the streets by the police force and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively taken away from the working class. It was then remade by the public school system, provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with rules and returned to the people in a commercialised form, played in stadiums for mass enjoyment. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participatory popular culture that existed up to about 1850 had given way to a culture of spectatorship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within this Marxist historiography, a formative text was Robert Malcolmson?s )] TJ ET BT 416.324 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Recreations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society, 1700?1850)] TJ ET BT 168.344 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1973\) which represented the full flowering of the Thompsonian approach and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented the kind of thinking that went into )] TJ ET BT 274.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 476.012 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Malcolmson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might now be read as a contribution to the literature on uses of space. He lovingly described how recreations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his period took place in the open air on common lands, particularly during the numerous festivals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saints? days that dotted the calendar. But his was a tragic story. These traditional customs and sports were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reshaped first, by the coming of enclosure, which deprived the common people of leisure spaces, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second, by industrialisation which meant that their time was no longer their own. The elite, which had once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in popular culture, now withdrew and sought to tame the rowdiness of the working class. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Victorian years, a ?vacuum? had emerged in which the traditional sports that had provided people with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much pleasure had been removed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With some distinguished exceptions, the 1990s did not prove kind to the history of nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular culture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.000 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.000 457.443 m 123.992 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.992 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A lot of the energy that went into the field evaporated despite the relative vibrancy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship on early modern popular culture. The reduction of scholarly interest partly reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems that Marxism ran into as the whole world of the political left was challenged at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century. Furthermore, the high quality of a lot of the scholarship described above induced a feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the nineteenth century had been covered and pushed increasing numbers of historians into examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century. Moreover, Cultural Studies \(which might have nurtured new approaches to the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century\) proved heavily presentist as it developed in the closing decades of the last century. The time has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now come for a new assessment. That is the context within which we should view Adrian Harvey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginnings of a Commercial Sporting Culture in Britain, 1793?1850)] TJ ET BT 386.036 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The book quite simply places a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand grenade under the old approach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Harvey has written an important book that has implications far beyond his chosen theme of sport \(I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will return to this later\). The book bears the hallmarks of its origins as an Oxford University D.Phil. thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and does not feel as though it has been heavily revised. There are some laborious repetitions \(for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author outlines his aims for chapter two on page 7 and then does it again on page 8\). However, what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book lacks in elegance, it makes up for in clarity and scholarship. This is a major reappraisal based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive research in a wide range of archives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey?s argument is essentially contained in his title and can be simply stated. He finds that the world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialised sport was not something that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he detects a lively and popular market-based sporting culture in the first half of the nineteenth century. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore contradicts the approach of Malcolmson and also of Marxist historians who see this period as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?last hurrah? of a traditional popular culture. For Harvey, working-class people enthusiastically embraced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial sport in the form of horse racing, boxing and much else. In terms of sport, there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance to the market place. Nor was this sporting culture locally based. He documents the way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting events were followed all over the country. This is, of course, not entirely an original discovery. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have long been familiar with the world of Regency pugilism that Pierce Egan celebrated in his journalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Harvey takes in many kinds of sports that were organised on a commercial basis and demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these had developed sophisticated rules and codes which were not always put there by the public school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, as had been previously assumed. The obsession with sporting skills and with record keeping was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 146.9957 724.1095 160.9877 735.9895 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.9997 457.7575 123.9917 469.6375 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5468 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much in evidence in the early nineteenth century. At a time when we are used to hearing about the ?long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century?, Harvey provides us with a view of the early nineteenth century in which we see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern leisure culture emerging in a very distinctive form. The book implies that the period between 1793 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1850 witnessed a new leisure pattern. Although he refers to earlier examples of sport in the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, it is unclear from Harvey?s text as to whether there really was a major breakthrough to a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting culture. How much continuity with earlier forms of leisure was there? And if there was a change, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what exactly produced it? Harvey is suspicious of economic determinism and sticks to simply tracing how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sport changed but he lacks a broader explanation of what forces really unleashed this culture that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes so impressively. What I infer from his book is that his is a market-based approach in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce gave the people what they wanted. In this sense, his approach is not all that different from Golby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Purdue?s )] TJ ET BT 101.336 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization of the Crowd)] TJ ET BT 223.028 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, although they come in for some mild criticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst Harvey signals his distance from the Marxist school, he has no problem with the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. However, his approach could be described \(in an inversion of Edward Thompson?s celebrated article\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as ?class without class struggle?. His is a relatively consensual world in which all classes \(but particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the upper and working classes\) enjoyed the thrill of sport. This, I think, accurately captures the atmosphere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the sporting world. Harvey goes on to show that there was little social mixing and, to this extent, leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was marked by class differentiation. Moreover, many criticisms of sport at the time had class dimensions, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we will see.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst he employs different kinds of sources, the book is predominantly shaped by extensive reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers. Indeed, it is his contention that one way of measuring popular interest in commercialised sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the way it generated and was fed by a specialised sporting press. Harvey?s decision to start his book in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790s appears to have been determined by the launch for the first time of specialist periodicals such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sporting Magazine)] TJ ET BT 125.684 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1792?1815\) and the )] TJ ET BT 230.996 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Racing Calendar)] TJ ET BT 313.328 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1793?1815\). He employs periodicals such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bell?s Life in London )] TJ ET BT 140.696 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the later period. These newspapers provide the data that allow him to measure the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume of sporting activity and subject it to quantification. He commences the book with an impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of tables that show the increase in sporting events as well as the expenditure upon them and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional variations. This culture of commercial sport was initially more evident in the south of England but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly spread and was distinguished by its independence from the traditional calendar for recreations. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new weekly pattern for events was established as opposed to one based on local customary days for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreation. After 1816 sport became a truly national affair. Harvey is not insensitive to the local dimension. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He produces statistics about expenditure on sport in Manchester and Oxfordshire. The Manchester evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows him to critique the notion that the growth of industrial society reduced the time available for leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as sporting activity increased in the city between 1793 and 1850. Data from Oxfordshire allows him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest there was no strong rural/urban divide in sport \(the weekly pattern of events took over after 1816 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from annual or customary meetings across the country\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8150 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We can get some sense of the proportions and importance of commercialised sport from the way it attracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime and corruption. Gambling often led to heated arguments about the outcome of events or, in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases, to actual sabotage. The links between the criminal underworld and sport were dramatised by the press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which meant that some sports, such as horse racing, often had a ?low life? image even when patronised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aristocracy. The press was integral to the way that sport was perceived. Journalists such as Pierce Egan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped create a cult of sporting celebrity \(though I was surprised that Hazlitt?s great essay ?The Fight?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1822, did not rate a mention, despite being one of the most admired pieces of sporting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalism\). The press not only created a national sporting culture but enhanced sport?s commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viability. Harvey argues that the focus on criminality \(as well as complaints about cruelty to animals\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepened upper class disapproval of commercial and professional sport and led to the promotion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateur ideal. This, he argues, led to a fragmentation in sport in the twenty years after 1850 which impeded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its growth, although the later nineteenth century witnessed an accommodation between the amateur ideal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialised sport. We find this set out in a very brief epilogue to the book of less than one page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although it is prefigured at various points in the text\). This interesting argument \(beyond the chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of this book\) remains an assertion as he does not have room to document it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s critique of the older Marxist account is most evident in its treatment of the law, the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two chapters. Harvey argues that Marxists have overestimated the impact of the repression of sport by either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government or by local forces. By and large, parliament was supportive of sport because it was believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to uphold the social structure and barely attempted to provide any kind of supervision. The army came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value sport and increasingly provided facilities. Local government also supported sport except when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted criminal elements \(as in the case of pugilism, although even here very few fights were actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevented\). This contrasts with the old picture of the middle class trying to repress the pleasures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common people. Perhaps the most startling piece of revisionism in the whole book comes when Harvey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critiques Anthony Delves?s well known article about Shrove football in Derby.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.296 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.296 443.187 m 428.288 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 428.288 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This memorably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounted how Shrove football was a popular pastime in the streets of Derby played with few rules. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truly democratic game, in which all could participate, was suppressed by local authorities \(in Delves?s view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a blatant attempt to control the customs of the people\). However, Harvey has found that many who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petitioned against street football were themselves working class, whilst there is evidence that not all of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players were proletarians. Remarkably, even the Chartist )] TJ ET BT 309.620 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Northern Star)] TJ ET BT 376.628 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( newspaper approved of suppressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street football. What we should take from this is an understanding that episodes like the suppression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shrove football were never clear cut in social terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey acknowledges that there were many groups who were out to suppress sport \(including Sabbatarians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialists and purveyors of rational recreation\) but even these people admired certain kinds of sport such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as cricket for their alleged character building qualities. There were attempts to restrict sport but they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually unsuccessful and easily evaded by the working classes. Despite a vigorous offensive against cruelty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to animals in sport, activities such as dog fighting survived in Lancashire. Harvey does, however, hold that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class was very important. He criticises Brian Harrison?s argument that the campaign against cruel sports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacked class bias because of the way hostility to mistreatment of animals was diffused throughout society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Harrison, the cruel sports issue was a ?culture-conflict? rather than a ?class-conflict?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.232 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.232 217.347 m 477.224 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 477.224 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Harvey argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we cannot ignore the fact that the vast majority of people who were prosecuted for involvement in cruel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sports were working class whilst aristocrats who overrode their horses when hunting were never acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against, despite being the object of popular hostility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey also defends sport in his period from accusations of being primitive and lacking the sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of rules that would be the gift of the public school system. He has little time for the argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(codification was a form of social control from above whose purpose was to civilise or tame the unruly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working classes by teaching them to literally play by the rules \(although the book oddly does not engage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the well known critiques of social control by Gareth Stedman Jones or F. M. L. Thompson\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.976 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.976 91.299 m 513.968 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.968 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we find that rule-based sport had long preceded any intervention by the public school system. Even before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1793, there were elaborate sets of rules that were promoted by aristocratic patronage, specialist clubs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading experts, the press or by reference to older customs of ?unknown origins?. However, even if these )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.2957 443.5015 428.2877 455.3815 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.2317 217.6615 477.2237 229.5415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.9757 91.6135 513.9677 103.4935 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R ] /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7689 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceded the heyday of the Victorian public school system, it is difficult to deny the role of the elite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determining the rules and indeed in shaping the culture of sport. Harvey offers a typology of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of rules from informal verbal agreements to rendering the agreements in manuscript and then to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their formal printing by sporting clubs. Surprisingly, he finds that attempts to construct national codes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different sports had less impact in the 1816?50 period than they had during the Napoleonic Wars. Attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rules and concern to avoid disputes led to the creation of various kinds of referees or supervisors for sport. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In turn, Harvey argues that the understanding that rules should not be broken led to a concentration on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of skill and expertise through a focus on training and \(where relevant\) animal breeding. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early part of the period, referees came from higher social groups but the elite began to withdraw from this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role, evincing a distaste for commercialised activities \(part of Harvey?s overall thesis\) leaving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of sporting culture unsupervised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spectatorship receives a chapter to itself as Harvey considers how sport became a form of mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment. Archery and tennis were the only sports predominantly patronised by the middle and upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes alone. In any case, there was little social mixing. Working-class spectators at horse races from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1740s onwards led to the construction of grandstands to prevent the elite from having to mix with the plebs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rise of entrepreneurs \(such as promoters of boxing\) demonstrates that there was clearly a market for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial sport and explains how sport expanded in the period. From the 1830s, more sports grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to appear. Railways and greater ease of travel facilitated the growth of a national sporting culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing amounts of ephemera and equipment came on the market for the sports enthusiast. Harvey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the distinction between ?traditional? and ?commercial? sports is frequently difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make as festival events became increasingly sophisticated in their provision of sports. Many non-commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of sport continued. The book does confirm that gambling was intrinsic to the growth of sport \(as was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol\). People would apparently bet on anything from horses to sack races. Harvey assembles several sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of data to show the amounts staked on the most popular events. However, the book does not really attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe the process of spectating. What kinds of pleasure did it offer \(apart from the obvious\)? What shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spectator?s gaze? To what extent did people attend because of ancilliary attractions \(the prospect of a day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, the possibility of sexual encounter, the lowlife atmosphere of many events\) as opposed to the desire to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply watch sport. These things are no doubt difficult to reconstruct but it should be said that spectatorship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a more complex matter than is implied here. Sport had a cultural politics that needs to be analysed further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social class was also important when it comes to the players themselves. The middle classes rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competed against working-class players. As Harvey puts it on page 191, the ?different social orders played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same sports, but separately?. He argues that the distinction between ?amateur? and ?professional? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not clearly made before about 1830 but also criticizes the leading sport historian Richard Holt for placing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of the distinction in the later nineteenth century when it was clearly in use in the early Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. He elaborates on the different ways in which sportsmen could turn professional and the various ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they supported themselves from providing tuition to putting on displays of their talent in theatres. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also some tantalising but rather brief material about the participation of women in sport. Only wrestling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically excluded females. Otherwise, Harvey finds evidence of working-class females participating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most sports. There were at least eighteen female prize fights during the Napoleonic Wars. A Mrs. Thornton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won a horse race at York in 1804 making her apparently the ?only woman to have beaten a top class jockey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a horse race? \(p. 198\). Mary Drake \(known as ?Scotch Moggy?\) was a champion rower in the 1830s. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakness of the book is that it makes no attempt to contribute to the literature on the construction of gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the nineteenth century. Harvey does argue that middle-class women were expected to be spectators for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most part, although they could participate in gymnastics, archery and fox hunting; sport therefore had its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own separate spheres to some extent. One might imagine that Harvey?s material could have been reworked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to offer a reading about the role of sporting identities in the making of masculinity. Other historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the connections between sport and masculinity but few have Harvey?s exemplary knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporting history. This was an opportunity missed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.352 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.352 101.043 m 285.344 101.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book as a whole lacks any explicit attempt to describe or theorise cultural change. In particular, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications of Harvey?s work suggest that historians need to rethink the way they periodise and think about )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj [40 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.3517 101.3575 285.3437 113.2375 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 9937 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass culture. This volume implies that it began to shape everyday life much earlier than usually thought and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that its nature was more complex than models derived from the Frankfurt School would allow. Another point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reference that is missing is any engagement with the history of consumerism itself. How did sport relate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the provision of goods more generally? To what extent was a new kind of consumer mentality at work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enjoyment of sport? If anyone cares to restart the ?standard of living during the Industrial Revolution? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate, Harvey?s book could be ?Exhibit A? for the Optimists. In his account, the social and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes between 1790 and 1850 created new opportunities for leisure and thus presumably signal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvements in standards of living. Is this a reasonable inference? Harvey is not saying. A proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of this question would need to focus on what kinds of working-class people were actually able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afford commercialised sport. Many would have been too poor to be able to attend ticket-only events. Even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early twentieth-century Salford, many working-class people could not afford the delights of mass culture, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Davies?s research shows. The Pessimists are not quite out for the count.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.280 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.280 638.259 m 435.272 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.272 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As it is, it requires a real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort of will to recall that the volume covers virtually the same period as Thompson?s )] TJ ET BT 452.288 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 144.692 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Can there be two more contrasting accounts of proletarian life?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book does signal the possibility of new arguments about the trajectory of popular culture that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly different from the generation of the 1970s. On the other hand, the older arguments are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely banished by this work. Class clearly remains central. Furthermore, Harvey?s assessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial sport can easily be squared with a Marxist interpretation that emphasises the way sport became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodity. In terms of the history of sport, Harvey implies that the notion of a ?sporting revolution? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later nineteenth century needs to be substantially rethought. This is clearly going to be a central text for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sports historians but, as I emphasised earlier, it deserves a wider readership as well. We should hope that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume?s price will not restrict access to this subtle and challenging work. Ashgate have backed a winner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here and should be congratulated for publishing it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. Peter Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 151.340 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure and Class in Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 342.356 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\); Hugh Cunningham, )] TJ ET BT 481.352 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Industrial Revolution, 1780?1880)] TJ ET BT 226.352 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1980\); )] TJ ET BT 267.680 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture and Class Conflict, )] TJ ET BT 445.040 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eds. Eileen Yeo and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Yeo \(1981\); )] TJ ET BT 167.000 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture and Custom in Nineteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 460.340 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Robert Storch )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\); )] TJ ET BT 102.344 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure in Britain)] TJ ET BT 187.688 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds. John Walton and James Walvin \(Manchester, 1983\); J. Golby and A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Purdue, )] TJ ET BT 104.012 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civilization of the Crowd: Popular culture in England, 1750?1900)] TJ ET BT 446.036 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.028 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.028 346.899 m 538.016 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Stedman Jones, ?Working-class culture and working-class politics in London, 1870?1900: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notes on the remaking of a working class? in his )] TJ ET BT 301.316 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Languages of Class: Studies in English Working-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class History)] TJ ET BT 129.692 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1832?1892 \(Cambridge, 1983\), p. 237.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.340 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.340 304.131 m 376.328 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For recent examinations of the historiography of popular culture, see Peter Bailey, ?The politics and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetics of modern British leisure: A late twentieth century review?, )] TJ ET BT 390.296 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 481.292 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 37 \(1999\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(131?75; Emma Griffin, ?Popular culture in industrializing England?, )] TJ ET BT 397.316 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 486.320 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45 \(2002\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(619?35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 247.107 m 156.332 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Delves, ?Popular recreation and social conflict in Derby, 1800?1850? in )] TJ ET BT 458.276 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Popular Culture )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Class Conflict)] TJ ET BT 153.368 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 89?127.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.696 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.696 218.595 m 269.684 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Harrison, ?Religion and recreation in nineteenth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 419.276 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 501.272 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38 \(1967\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(98?125; Brian Harrison, ?Animals and the state in nineteenth-century England?, )] TJ ET BT 451.952 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 88 \(1973\), 786?820.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.992 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.992 175.827 m 255.980 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Stedman Jones, ?Class expression versus social control?: A critique of recent trends in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social history of ?leisure?? in )] TJ ET BT 207.656 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Languages of Class)] TJ ET BT 302.336 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.76?89; F. M. L. Thompson, ?Social control in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 281.648 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd series, 34 \(1981\), 189?208.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.292 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.292 133.059 m 493.280 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Tranter, )] TJ ET BT 128.996 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sport, Economy and Society in Britain, 1750?1914 )] TJ ET BT 376.652 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.972 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.972 118.803 m 524.960 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Davies, )] TJ ET BT 144.992 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure, Gender and Poverty: Working-Class Culture in Salford and Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1900?1939)] TJ ET BT 118.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Milton Keynes, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.672 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.672 90.291 m 287.660 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 65.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.2797 638.5735 435.2717 650.4535 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.0277 347.2135 538.0157 359.0935 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.3397 304.4455 376.3277 316.3255 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 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