%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141025002721+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141025002721+01'00') /Title (Invisible City: the Architecture of Devotion in Seventeenth-Century Neapolitan Convents) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4408 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Invisible City: the Architecture of Devotion in Seventeenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Neapolitan Convents)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrow streets of ancient Naples are like the bottoms of chasms that meet at right angles. Once past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shops and market stands, or the kitchen chairs and laundry outside the door of the ground-level apartments \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bassi)] TJ ET BT 58.688 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), there are long stretches of narrow streets flanked by high, unarticulated walls to either side, streets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sinister because of their silence, the gloom of the dark stone \()] TJ ET BT 328.628 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pozzolana)] TJ ET BT 377.300 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) walls, and their isolation. One can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine mysteries behind those walls, but from the street there is little hint of what they might be, or what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained within those impenetrable and vertical stone surfaces. There are moments, however, when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doors to a convent church or access to a cloister are open, and the dark and almost threatening world outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaks open into a paradise of pleasures, to cloisters of green grass and palm trees, or to churches decorated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like ballrooms, to worlds, in short, of natural and man-made beauty that take your breath away. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of monastic life in Naples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the sensation of narrowness and oppression of Neapolitan streets has to do with the ancient Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city plan, and especially with the constrained dimensions of its north-south )] TJ ET BT 396.656 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(viccoli)] TJ ET BT 428.648 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But Helen Hills's recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invisible City: the Architecture of Devotion in Seventeenth-Century Neapolitan Convents)] TJ ET BT 491.636 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reveals that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tight channeling of urban space also has a lot to do with its monastic foundations, which were numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and enormous, and which rose high above the streets as mute walls of stone. So our sense of Naples as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(439)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Hills)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(195117745X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Bruzelius)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8211 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysterious, hidden and impenetrable is not only the result of the city's ancient roots, grid plan, and the dark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volcanic stone used for building, but comes also from its particular interpretation of the monastic vocation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women, whose great convents were planted in the very heart of the city, and whose walls are like those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fortresses or prisons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The number and proportion of monastic establishments in Naples is quite extraordinary, and was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon harshly criticised by seventeenth-century contemporaries, who found that the convents created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the kind of urban environment that can be unsettling today. Hills quotes Francesco Paolo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caracciolo describing the city as 'indicated by big black palaces, high walls similar to those of fortresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which hide convents and gothic churches'. Convents went to considerable lengths to acquire entire city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blocks so that their establishments could not be overlooked, or compromised, by contact with the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city. Small streets were swallowed up to make larger complexes and, as Hills notes, the convents \(and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course many male monasteries as well\) 'turned their backs disparagingly on city streets ... declaring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional indifference to the cities that sustained them'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hills's study concentrates on the development and change of conventual architecture in Naples after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Council of Trent. She situates her work in the context of the family and economic structures of sixteenth- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and seventeenth-century viceregal Naples, and particularly within the framework of family strategies for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance of prestige and preservation of aristocratic patrimonies. Her remarkable book is an 'unpacking' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the role and character of aristocratic women's religion in baroque Naples. Her meticulous and dense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of family and economic structures, and the social relations between old nobility, new nobility and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the viceregal administration, provide an extraordinary narrative on how national, class and family politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kingdom created a particular environment for women religious. Women's monasticism was entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic, yet the aristocracy was deeply under threat because the kingdom had become a Spanish colony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the old aristocracy trying desperately to assert its prerogatives against the Spanish administration and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(henchmen \(viewed as)] TJ ET BT 137.984 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( arrivistes)] TJ ET BT 186.320 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and opportunists\), and the complicated and often disastrous finances of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal nobility. Above all, monasticism in Naples was particular because of the relationships between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families and the units of local government \(the )] TJ ET BT 261.320 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggi)] TJ ET BT 287.984 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to 'their' convents, in some of which, as Hills has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noted, generations of women from the same family, nieces, aunts and great-aunts, lived together. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vertiginous rise in dowries for daughters, and the resulting dispersion of property, made the consecration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('surplus' daughters to a monastic profession an imperative element of strategic 'family planning' for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy of Naples, yet the possible discomforts of these arrangements were mitigated by the familial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments of the institutions. The )] TJ ET BT 214.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nouveau riche)] TJ ET BT 282.332 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and recently ennobled aristocracy could also programme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social ascendance through the placement of daughters in certain prestigious convents, reframe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parameters of social mobility by founding new houses, or lavishly patronise and thus 'co-opt' important older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic establishments. So the proposition was twofold: on the one hand, it provided a solution for excess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughters in order to preserve patrimonial estates; on the other, it created the public aura of familial virtue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the strategic placement of daughters at convents of ancient tradition and prestige.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author interprets the entrance into, and patronage of, convents within the political structures of Naples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all the )] TJ ET BT 98.336 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggi)] TJ ET BT 125.000 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The )] TJ ET BT 152.660 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggi)] TJ ET BT 179.324 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Naples had been intimately tied to the religious establishments within their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdiction from the Middle Ages onwards, and the close connections between the nobles of each )] TJ ET BT 506.600 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggio)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the monasteries and convents of their zone is a central fact of Neapolitan monasticism. Here, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one might observe that the )] TJ ET BT 164.336 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggi)] TJ ET BT 191.000 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also had equally powerful roles in relation to male monasticism, for, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in the Middle Ages, a select group of the nobles from the )] TJ ET BT 335.972 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggio di Montagna)] TJ ET BT 433.304 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( controlled the finances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Franciscan house of San Lorenzo, and the elite )] TJ ET BT 292.292 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seggio di Nido)] TJ ET BT 363.632 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( held its meetings in San Domenico, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over which it also had considerable au thority of different kinds. This brings out a central issue with Hills's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, for it may be that the focus on female monasticism alone suggests a level of patriarchal concern that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may not have been unique to women's houses. The reader yearns for some comparative evidence of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically women's monasticism, its support structures and its patronage differed from that of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, or that of hospitals and orphanages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hills's analysis of virginity \(chapter 2\) and part of the conclusion \('Virginity fortified'\) is especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting in relation to the prescriptions of the Council of Trent. As she notes, the Council had run out of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8522 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steam when it turned its concerns to the issues of women's monasticism, and to a large extent it simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reiterated the strictures of Boniface VIII's bull Periculoso. But Carlo Borromeo's )] TJ ET BT 423.608 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Instructiones et )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(supellectilis ecclesiasticae )] TJ ET BT 164.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1577 had much to say about the positioning of choirs and the separations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between women religious and the clergy and lay public. The convents of Naples were modified accordingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in particular with the extraordinary phenomenon of raised upper choirs on the far side of the altar. A fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though now modified\) example is Giovanni Guarini's new church and convent of S. Maria Donnaregina, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built between 1620 and 1649, where the choir was a deep raised space above and behind the main altar \(it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was truncated in the twentieth-century restorations of the medieval church directly behind it, but still exists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in abbreviated form\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is Hills correct, however, in stating in chapter 6, that the choirs directly above and behind the altar permitted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nuns better to watch the Mass 'from up above, unimpeded by columns and aisles'? My own experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those upper choirs is that it is difficult to see the altar at all without pitching one's head over the balustrade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and looking straight down, something that is difficult for a group of nuns to do, physically impossible when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the original screens are in place, and in any event, undignified even when they are not. It is true, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the )] TJ ET BT 72.680 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gelosie)] TJ ET BT 106.676 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(openings in the upper walls along the flanks of the nave\) permitted views of the side altars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lay worship down below, but the )] TJ ET BT 214.664 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(collective)] TJ ET BT 260.648 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and above all )] TJ ET BT 330.632 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(visual)] TJ ET BT 359.300 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( participation of the nuns of the Mass, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and especially the Elevation of the Host, from their upper choir behind the apse, is hard to imagine. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author provides no longitudinal sections of the buildings discussed in this volume, a mode of architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description essential for any reader not personally acquainted with this material \(for Donnaregina these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily available in Rosa Anna Genovese's )] TJ ET BT 236.804 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Chiesa Trecentesca di Donna Regina)] TJ ET BT 431.792 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.792 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.792 512.211 m 448.784 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 448.784 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Sections of churches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the seventeenth-century church of Donna Regina reveal that at least some of the choirs were directly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above and behind the altar, too close but also too far above it to be able to provide any vision of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eucharist. In this matter, Queen Sancia of Mallorca's convent of S. Chiara, founded in 1310, was by far the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most effective solution, for there in the medieval plan the choir was behind the altar but at )] TJ ET BT 469.280 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(exactly the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(floor level)] TJ ET BT 83.012 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( so that there was a direct line of sight from choir to altar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, Hills's observation of the elevation of the choirs as signifying the 'aristocratisation' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventual spaces is certainly correct, and the unique character of this kind of disposition to southern Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and particularly to Naples is striking. In this regard one might be tempted, however, to make analogies here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with much earlier precedents, such as the convent churches of Gernrode or Essen, or even with the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stratification implied by the palatine chapel at Aachen, though it is also true that in all these examples the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper choir is facing, not behind, the altar. In Naples, in addition, the lavish decoration of these spaces, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their 'halfway to heaven' position in relation to the clergy and lay public, certainly must have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profoundly important: though now difficult to re-experience as the numbers of nuns are so dramatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced and most of these churches have no monastic communities present at all any more, the 'angelic' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voices of the choir, raised and invisible, would have been a powerfully evocative aspect of these spaces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relation to the author's discussion of the aristocratisation of conventual space, her reflections on social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status and sanctity are deeply interesting. Blue blood was in some way 'holier' blood, and the aggregation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic blood-lines in a conventual house meant many things, among them the greater sanctity of the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led there, and thus the greater efficacy of the intercessory prayers of the nuns for the afterlife of its patrons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from bringing to our attention a series of striking buildings that have never before been considered as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a coherent group, one of Hills's major contributions is her archival work and her fascinating analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convents in the context of urban life and the social and economic structures of seventeenth-century Naples. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussions of property acquisition and the expansion of conventual complexes, and the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these projects reflected negotiations for power between monastic institutions and their surrounding urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, including other convents, is compelling. Her observations on the way in which patronage was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a form of preserving privilege and status, often through the use of the nuns' own private resources \()] TJ ET BT 510.080 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vitalizi)] TJ ET BT 542.756 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is central. With such rich documentary information, the reader might desire a little more analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorative programs that, integrated with the architectural settings, were intended to convey such status, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to whom. The author's stimulating remarks about the meaning and function of the raised choir, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('viewing screens' \()] TJ ET BT 122.312 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gelosie)] TJ ET BT 156.308 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), might have been enhanced by a longer discussion of the iconographic themes )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.7917 512.5255 448.7837 524.4055 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5410 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in the decorative programs of these choirs and the other private spaces of the conventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author of this marvelously interesting book was not served well by her editors in relation to the images. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The figures are often muddy and fuzzy. Is it reasonable to expect a reader to get out a magnifying glass in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to follow the author's descriptions of plans? Could these not have been redrawn so as to be legible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible? Frequently, the argument is undermined by the paucity of the visual documentation, or the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality and small scale of the images. It would have been one thing if these monuments were well known to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general public and could easily be called to mind, like, say, St. Peter's Basilica. But adequate and rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustration is especially important for monuments that are often difficult of access \(many of these churches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Naples are closed, or opened only on a few weekends in May designated as )] TJ ET BT 411.260 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chiese Aperte)] TJ ET BT 478.916 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convents are not even known to Neapolitans who have spent their lives in the city. The choirs richly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorated by major artists deserve to be illustrated with plates and figures that do justice to their splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorative programmes. Interior views, plans and sections could have been coordinated in order to assist the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader, rather than setting up fairly intractable barriers to the comprehension of the author's descriptions. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have helped greatly to have the plates in the text. This book, subtitled the 'The Architecture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devotion,' is, after all, a study of buildings. Indeed, Hills is writing about startlingly beautiful monuments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown to most readers, and it seems extraordinary that Oxford Press could not do greater justice to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject by a less 'anorexic' approach to the visual documentation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this, however, is to diminish Helen Hills's very important accomplishment in this volume. )] TJ ET BT 510.164 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invisible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City )] TJ ET BT 57.020 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is architectural history close to its best: it is a 'thick' history that considers monuments in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban context and social structures. Although here and there theoretical issues seem to take precedence over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the buildings themselves, and although this reader, at least, wanted a little more by way of description and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of specific sites as well as a summary catalogue including the names of the architects, painters, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a list of the decorative programs and their iconography, Hills's broad theoretical and social frame also does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to illuminate the particular perplexities and the contradictions of the fate ? or the choice ? of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and )] TJ ET BT 99.344 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(many not so religious women)] TJ ET BT 240.008 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in early modern Naples.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosa Anna Genovese, )] TJ ET BT 173.324 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Chiesa Trecentesca di Donna Regina)] TJ ET BT 368.312 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Naples, 1993\), plate 34.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.956 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.956 349.155 m 543.944 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 279.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 261.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 261.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/439)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 259.881 m 322.316 259.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 234.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2413)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.9557 349.4695 543.9437 361.3495 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 260.1955 322.3157 272.0755 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/439) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000005132 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000005351 00000 n 0000005460 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009149 00000 n 0000009233 00000 n 0000009298 00000 n 0000017562 00000 n 0000017646 00000 n 0000026221 00000 n 0000026251 00000 n 0000026379 00000 n 0000026415 00000 n 0000026506 00000 n 0000031969 00000 n 0000032097 00000 n 0000032152 00000 n 0000032280 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32375 %%EOF