%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831023856+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831023856+01'00') /Title (The Sense of the People: Politics, Culture and Imperialism in England 1715-1785) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4172 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Sense of the People: Politics, Culture and Imperialism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England 1715-1785)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Wilson's fine study complements earlier work by Peter Borsay and Nicholas Rogers which seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitate the role of urban provincial centres as sites of popular political politics with an oppositional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus. Reassessments of the long years of Whig oligarchy in the middle of the eighteenth century are now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing thick and fast and giving refreshing insights into the energy and vitality of politics during years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally presented as static and stifled. A more complex picture is emerging of oppositionist politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composed of disparate, conflicting and fragmented elements which converge at several flashpoints \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excise crisis, the mid-century wars, the Wilkes' affair and so on\) to form an effective discourse of resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the established Court-Whig ministries. By the 1760s Wilson notes that these opposition groups had come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with a political ideology to challenge the elite orthodoxy that had effectively contained them during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reigns of the first two Georges. However the book is more than a narrative of extra-parliamentary politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Walpole to Pitt years, it also acts as a companion volume to Britons: Forging the nation 1701-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1837, Linda Colley's majestic and stimulating analysis of British nationhood. Wilson has enhanced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate about national identity in the eighteenth century by accentuating the role of empire in creating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national consciousness. The empire, which plays a minor role in Colley's survey of the components which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 December, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Wilson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521340724)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(479pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521340724)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Richardson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7650 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped in the construction of a national identity in the eighteenth century, is centre- stage in Wilson's study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of political culture. Trade, empire and war supported the political and cultural infrastructure of the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renaissance. War was not only good for business but the expansion of the market and influx of new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumables linked ordinary people with the fortunes and favours of the military adventurers, the merchant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distributors and retailers. In this way the smallest community was intrinsically connected with Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience overseas. Wilson's multi-faceted approach to examining the content and context of urban politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and culture includes an in-depth study of two important centres ? Newcastle and Norwich ? giving sharp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local definitions to her wider picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson is rightly cautious about her definitions and is sensitive to the debate about what constitutes 'urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics', writing: '"urban" is not to be regarded in this study as the antonym of "rural", neither is it to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken as a synonym for "modern".' [p. 8] However, it is difficult to see what is distinctive about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of the urban communities to popular politics apart from the providing the space in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political action could take place. Indeed in her analysis of Vernon's popular adulation following his defeat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish at Porto Bello in 1741 Wilson illustrates the paradox by claiming that the Vernon campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted upon a '"commercialised", accessible and largely urban political culture' [my italics] following this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the very next sentence by listing the demonstrations for Vernon in, among other places, 'tiny villages'. [p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(151] It is surely significant that these myriad village voices were raised in support for Vernon indicating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range and extent of communications during this period than that the larger populations of towns and cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregated to advocate his cause. Whilst I have sympathy with the notion that employing an 'urban versus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural' paradigm extends a notion that equates urban with sophisticated and rural with backward; a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban identity could surely only be created by emphasising the 'otherness' that towns represented borne out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their daily interactions and negotiations with the worlds outside their boundaries. After all the populations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of most eighteenth-century towns often owed higher allegiances to the villages from whence they came than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the troubled streets that they now inhabited. The towns could only win over the loyalty of their inhabitants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by offering them a status as members of a sophisticated, learned and important local community, comparing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves favourably with both the communities that made up their hinterland and competing urban centres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the vicinity and beyond. To a large extent this was a class identity created by an increasingly assertive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middling group of citizens who monopolised the cultural and social spaces distinguished by Wilson as areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where people perceived themselves as independent political subjects. [p. 11] It was this group that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated the memberships of voluntary associations, who made up the audiences of debating societies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatres and assemblies and who were the contributors to local charities. Wilson herself writes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residents of towns as 'engaged... in a more politicised world' [p. 7] but perhaps the correct term should be 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently politicised world'. She could have articulated these different worlds more clearly if she had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined the role of towns within shire politics as well as their actions as parliamentary boroughs on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own behalf. For example, Norwich hosted the Norfolk county elections as well as its own borough contests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a substantial number of citizens of the town were eligible to elect members for the shire. In this way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town and country politics collided and as Cannon has shown urban electorates could be subsumed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass of village voters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson is more successful in arguing for the development of a 'national' political culture which was shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by villages, towns and cities in the eighteenth century. This counters the traditional \(both Namierite and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiggish\) view which claims that politics was intensely local in this period in contrast to the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century when the establishment of a 'modern' democratic state sustained by mass communications and a vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational infrastructure ensured that engagement in political action filtered down the social scale. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling illustration of this 'national' outlook is skilfully demonstrated by Wilson in her discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of opposition groups in hi-jacking the political calendar for their own ends. Thus official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentments of loyalty to the government or Hanoverian monarchy were effectively confronted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaffected groups by the establishment of their own anniversary celebrations complete with the display of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbols such as the white rose \(the badge of loyalty to the Stuarts\) or the chalking up of the number '45' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of Wilkes. The presence of 'alternative royals' giving opportunities to celebrate competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversaries and to display rival symbols and colours whilst professing similar expressions of loyalty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism was a feature of the eighteenth-century which has recently been echoed by the twentieth-century )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7736 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crowds mourning Diana, Princess of Wales. Diana, like the Stuarts and successive estranged Hanoverian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heirs to the throne, set up her own court on the periphery of the establishment to great popular effect and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a powerful force mobilising opposition to that establishment. It is the scope and extent of these exhibitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of opposition \(in addition to the thousands involved in 'official' commemorations\) which convey the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression that there was a national flavour to politics in the eighteenth century and further that it evinced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive popular support. That is not to reject the hypothesis which emphasises the intense localism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century politics, merely to paint a more complex picture where national occasions and issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were intertwined with local events and concerns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another definition that causes problems for me is Wilson's use of "popular". She sums up her approach thus: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The term "popular" is used like "populist" to describe language or arguments that are supported by, or that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion the rights of, "the people" in political debate and activities. Hence she writes that 'my [Wilson's] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of "popular politics" is an investigation of socially inclusive or accessible forms of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity'. [fn. p. 12] She is determined to adopt an inclusive definition, positing that a dichotomous approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising high versus low, patrician versus plebeian etc. only exaggerates the role of the middling sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conceals the extent to which popular culture was a shared culture. However, if members of all social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups could 'appropriate' all aspects of political activity the question has to be 'what is popular politics?' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The danger with Wilson's definition is that although it seeks to be inclusive it is so extensive that it ceases to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have any meaning at all. Elite politics remains the prerogative of the aristocracy and the middling sorts _ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics where the mass of the population are excluded by dint of their illiteracy, status or poverty _ popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, using this definition, can also be the domain of the elite with the rest of the population appropriating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural forms when and if the context was right. There is also a suspicion that by adopting this definition it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is possible to pay lip service to the social historians' vision of the 'popular' whilst in reality describing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world populated by those more familiar to 'traditional' political historians. This suspicion is reinforced when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at Wilson's specific examples. Her first chapter entitled: Print, people and culture in the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renaissance describes a world familiar to readers of Peter Borsay, R J Morris and John Money: an urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape with a developing print culture, a network of political, literary and social clubs and societies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evolution of a voluntary welfare system. Of course, the mass of the population were in contact with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world but as recipients of its various outputs rather than participating members. The 'people' are not activists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this vision of eighteenth century politics: the political and cultural initiatives come from above. Similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the "people" are defined as 'a rational, libertarian political public to which the state was to be held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accountable...' [p. 20] \(although she acknowledges that this is but one construct among many disputed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory versions\) rather than the mass of the population who, one suspects, may fall outside this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson criticises the psephological approach to the analysis of political behaviour for putting forward a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of popular politics 'solely in terms of conformity to elite party definitions'. [p. 14] However, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to imagine an analysis of electoral behaviour without reference to the fortunes of political parties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their ability \(or inability\) to attract voters to their cause. It is certainly something that Wilson herself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not attempt to do in her analysis of Newcastle and Norwich elections. For example she writes of Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in the 1722 election in terms of the pulling power of a local hero which transcended party loyalties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noting that 'many who split their votes in 1722 between a Tory and Carr [the Whig candidate in 1722] voted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for two Tories in 1741'. [p. 324, n. 26] Moreover, the psephological assessments of eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics do not purport to be studies of 'popular politics' but studies of a particular community within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political system. Many studies do address the question of interactions between the electors and the non- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting population as well as connections between patrons and voters but none would argue that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations would give a panoramic view of popular politics. It must also be an irritation to those writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on electoral behaviour that Wilson first categorises assessments of party politics as having 'led to a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of conceptual blind alleys' [p. 14] and then proceeds to give descriptions of urban electorates which ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the methodological tools they have carefully developed. For example, she regularly gives figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for turnout: 'in Ipswich an overwhelming 99 percent voted for [Admiral] Vernon in a 92 per cent turnout' [p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150]; 'the [Newcastle] contests of 1722, 1734, 1741, 1774, 1777 and 1780 were hard fought and bitter with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently high turnouts of about 85 per cent' [p. 302]; 'in the 1735 [Norwich] by-election... in another )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7625 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large poll with a high turnout' [p. 395] There is no information about how these figures were arrived at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(incidentally they appear suspiciously high especially for the earlier period\) neither is there a warning about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the large margin of error that should be taken into account with any calculation of turnout before 1832 when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters first began to be registered. She compares a number of disparate sources on various occasions in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of political behaviour, for example: 'the [Newcastle] freemen's petition was signed by 900 men, 526 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whom were electors...' [p. 341] but there is no acknowledgement of the difficulties inherent in such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison \(indeed psephological and demographic historians have uncovered an a large range of problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with linking the same sources together over time let alone adding unconnected data\) or an indication of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology employed. Finally her occupational analyses follow the traditional but problematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorisations of: professionals, merchant/manufacturers, retailers, crafts/artisans and agricultural \(even her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of women's occupations in the appendix\) rather than employing a multi-dimensional approach in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to bypass the myriad difficulties associated with such groupings recently identified by a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psephological historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilson's book is a multi-layered analysis of political society during the mid eighteenth century and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important sub-theme to her work is the role of women in politics. She adds much to the hitherto rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic debate by uncovering the paradoxical treatment of women in the public sphere. At times of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national crisis or war for example, as has been noted by historians examining the wars of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, women were important players on the home front articulating the patriot cause, raising subscriptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and billeting troops. At these times active women were lauded by the state. However, the empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial adventurers were simultaneously presented as the antidote to aristocratic effeminacy and weakness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presenting a masculine vision of citizenship which excluded women. Thus the mid-century wars presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for women to participate more widely in the public sphere but at the same time exposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations of their participation. The contradictions continued in the Wilkite ideology of the 1760s. Wilson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates how the Wilkites, in order to promote their vision of a wider and more inclusive male and middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class political nation, sought to exclude women and confine them to the domestic sphere. The attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(petticoat politics of the Princess Dowager, the definition of wives and daughters as male property and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the aristocracy as effeminate and weak were all elements of Wilkite propaganda which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted citizenship to the propertied, male Englishman. That is not to say that this rhetoric was successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in excluding women from public life. Like Colley, Wilson notes that the emergent 'separate spheres' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology was more pronounced in periods of intense female political activity and thus was as much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of male anxiety than a description of public life. Her book is littered with examples of active female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants in all political, social and cultural arenas. Women produced, distributed and consumed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgeoning print culture, they were often pivotal in the credit and money lending networks that financed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial and commercial revolution, they participated in demonstrations, celebrations and festivals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were active in all aspects of electoral politics from canvassing to treating \(everything that is, except voting\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, women were subject to public pillorying and private vilification if they transgressed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of accepted behaviour. The familiar example of the Duchess of Devonshire in the 1784 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster election is one example of this and Wilson also presents the case of Catherine Macaulay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ostracised after her marriage to a younger man of lower social status. In an aside [p. 50, n. 59] she notes how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far political news and views penetrated women's \(and men's\) private lives by pointing to role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive correspondence \(to which might be added oral/gossip\) networks which were pivotal in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange of ideas and the distribution of information. These relatively informal methods of communication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where women could participate fully were in contrast to the more closed, male worlds of clubs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations where their role was often passive and strictly defined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Wilson has added much to our knowledge of extra- parliamentary politics in the mid-eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century by her skilful analysis of both familiar and less well known sources. [A note to the publishers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press: the author's detailed and careful examination of prints, paintings and artefacts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was often marred by restricting the illustrations to one half of the page] The fortunes of opposition politics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newcastle-upon- Tyne and Norwich offer alternative perspectives to the views from the metropolis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other more noted provincial centres. It would have been interesting to know more about the reasons for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choosing these two cities. Wilson states that they were chosen 'as prosperous provincial centres with lively )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political traditions...' [p. 26] but does not add that they were losing their places in the pecking order of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial regional centres as the century progressed. Norwich for example had been England's second city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in terms of population\) from 1520, dropped to third place in 1750 and by 1801 could only manage tenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place, its population having stabilised at 36,000 whereas other urban centres experienced dramatic increases. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newcastle followed a similar trajectory, it was fourth or fifth in the schedule of great towns between 1600 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1750, but by 1801 had sunk to ninth place, in spite of a population rise of 13,000. A contrast with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the rising stars may have proved illuminating as would a placement of the two towns more firmly in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local context: uncovering their relationship to their hinterlands as well as their rural outreaches. She puts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flesh on a model of eighteenth- century politics partially uncovered by earlier writers and ensures that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can never return to the Namierite or Plumbian vision of mid-century stability and stagnation. Finally, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructs a narrative of opposition politics in Hanoverian England, based on the people's inalienable rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to resist and to call governments to account for their actions, which she convincingly claims still have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 553.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 536.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 536.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/44)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 534.729 m 316.316 534.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 509.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/333)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 535.0435 316.3157 546.9235 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/44) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000004895 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000008784 00000 n 0000008912 00000 n 0000008996 00000 n 0000009061 00000 n 0000016764 00000 n 0000016829 00000 n 0000024618 00000 n 0000024683 00000 n 0000032361 00000 n 0000032445 00000 n 0000035151 00000 n 0000035279 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35373 %%EOF