%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819133841+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819133841+01'00') /Title (The Amiens Truce. Britain and Bonaparte, 1801?1803) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3987 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Amiens Truce. Britain and Bonaparte, 1801?1803)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book charts the ?experimental? peace between Britain and France in 1801?1803, often regarded as little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than an interlude in the twenty-year struggle between the two. Grainger makes clear in his introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that these eighteen months deserve more attention than they have hitherto received, as the two wars that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sandwich this peace are given different names yet the continuity in the struggle is often taken for granted. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essence, there is a teleological issue which needs to be addressed: as the peace failed and lasted such a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while it has been consigned to history as a mere truce. Yet to do this is to deny a thorough exploration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic. Although Amiens was an Anglo-French treaty, it was Britain who decided to break the peace, so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work focuses on Britain. It uses a generally chronological framework, working from the armistice through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peace negotiations and onto the almost immediate arguments that broke out after the treaty was signed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then proceeds to the final breakdown and descent into war. This is not, however, a purely diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the international relations between Britain and France as it shows a wider awareness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and strategic differences between the two, and seeks to show how both countries were in unstable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite its wider remit, first and foremost this is a good diplomatic history. The treaty is often seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(442)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 March, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Grainger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843830418)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=6764)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Linch)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8009 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?defective? from a British viewpoint due to French skill and persistence and the Addington government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distraction and weakness. Grainger does much to undermine this position. The work shows that the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not skilful negotiators, quite the opposite in fact. Had the French been prepared to negotiate sensibly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grainger shows that a peace could have been had much quicker ? the treaty as signed was not that much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from initial British proposals. Throughout the account of the negotiations, Grainger has a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the Addington government had consistent attitudes towards Napoleon: in the negotiations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hawkesbury \(the foreign secretary\) came to realise that there was only one way to deal with French tactics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that was to ?stick to your own set of terms and ignore the Bonapartist flummery? \(p. 37\). More generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government was prepared to give Napoleon the opportunity for peace and although it is true that a lot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was given up in the Treaty, an experimental peace had to be tried.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The details of the negotiations in the rather complex world of European diplomacy are dealt with effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without particularly presenting information for information?s sake. On a general level, Grainger skilfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets out the different diplomatic situations of Britain and France, particularly highlighting the long ?not war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but not peace? condition between the Preliminaries and the actual treaty. At the other end of the spectrum, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent and certainty with which the Malta problem is handled is excellent. Grainger guides the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the Malta problem in sufficient depth to show the complicated nature of the question, involving as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did the Order of the Knights of St. John, the Maltese, a Grand Master who resided in Austria and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resignation had not been accepted, the Pope and, of course, the Tsar, all of which had to be taken into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration by Britain. It was not surprising that the clause on Malta was the longest and most complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the treaty. Usually, the British retention of Malta is given as the reason for the resumption of hostilities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but through this careful study of the problem )] TJ ET BT 251.996 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Amiens Truce)] TJ ET BT 339.320 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that Britain was prepared to give up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malta if the guarantees in the clause were fulfilled. Essentially Malta, and the eastern Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally, provided a litmus test for French intentions and, coupled with Napoleon?s disregard for other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clauses in the treaty and the exploitation of the Treaty of Lunville with Austria, the Addington government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt war was necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Amiens Truce)] TJ ET BT 121.340 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides much more than this diplomatic account. Firstly there is a prologue on the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonaparte and equal time is devoted to the formation of the Addington government. Throughout the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grainger deals with the complex military and strategic situation, particularly focusing on the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat in Ireland within its international dimensions, and the relation with the French expeditions that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparing \(which eventually sailed for the Caribbean\). Moreover, in the limbo state between war and peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that existed during 1802, Grainger continues to chart the military situation. Such information adds to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general scene of the negotiations and, for the most part, is useful particularly in the case of military actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as they were often used by the French as part of their negotiating tactics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work also focuses on the leading British personalities who have often been treated quite unfairly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elsewhere Cornwallis has been described as ?inexperienced?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.260 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.260 274.371 m 341.252 274.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.252 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but Grainger is emphatic: ?quite clearly he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Cornwallis] knew what he was doing, had confidence in his work, and was responsible for the treaty as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as anyone? \(p. 76\) and, more generally, Cornwallis?s long service to Britain as a general/administrator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is highlighted, and rightly so. In a similar view, Hawkesbury?s abilities are pointed to although he was rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inexperienced when he took the seals as Foreign Secretary in 1801, but his political career was already 10 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years old and, despite changes in title which mask his continuity in office, he went on to become Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister after a successful stint as Secretary of War. In this sense )] TJ ET BT 350.276 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Amiens Truce)] TJ ET BT 437.600 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be seen as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more general attempt to rehabilitate the Addington administration and its personnel, in line with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Addington by Philip Ziegler and Christopher Hall?s article on the government?s conduct of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war up to 1804.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.340 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.340 146.067 m 123.332 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This challenge to some historical views stems from Grainger?s close reading of the British diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, rather than relying on the contemporary opinions of the treaty that were, at best, lukewarm. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close work with the diplomatic sources provides both strengths and weaknesses. As to the strengths, that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear by the outline in the above; but as to the weaknesses, two in particular emerge. The first is that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing almost exclusively on British diplomatic sources, in places the other side of the story feels like it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(missing. Often French intentions are guessed through studying the material the British received \(and is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.2597 274.6855 341.2517 286.5655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.3397 146.3815 123.3317 158.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8545 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available today\) and so there are occasional allusions that Napoleon might have been directing events which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are without any evidence. By a little more research \(if only Napoleon?s )] TJ ET BT 379.604 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Correspondence)] TJ ET BT 458.924 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) some of this could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be cleared up more satisfactorily. To the author?s credit, he admits that the book concentrates on the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side to the exclusion of others, as it would be easy to produce a much more voluminous work on the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(side alone \(and he hopes that one day this will be produced\). However, such awareness does not remedy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiency. The second problem resulting from such a close relationship to the sources is that it occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reads like a report on the sources, rather than weaving the material into a history; sentences such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cornwallis?s report is optimistic as to an early conclusion? \(p. 60\), although not seriously questionable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does pose questions about the dialogue between the sources and the work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this is most clearly shown in the account of the outbreak of war. Details are provided of the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondences between Hawkesbury and the French government, but nothing is really shown as to why, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that particular point, the British government decided to take a much firmer stand against France. Grainger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly lists the concerns that Britain had, and equally clearly shows the escalation of tension in 1803; what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not emerge that succinctly is why a war was averted in March 1803 yet not in May. This is the pitfall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly straightforward narrative account ? it is not always that clear on the whys or the changes over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, the larger scale analysis is left to the conclusion, and within this is the biggest statement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole book: that support for war in 1803 was unanimous and continued throughout the war because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s actions during the peace. This is a very bold and contentious statement to make and, in part, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered by an analysis of the accounts of those who went to France during 1801?1803. The research on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these travel accounts is interesting and opens up an appealing avenue of historical inquiry, particularly useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this case as the Amiens Treaty was not being judged purely in a diplomatic/political arena: for Britain it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also subject to public scrutiny \(at least the scrutiny of a politically aware class in Britain\). His work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this does ensure that the book moves beyond a purely political account of Amiens, and for this he is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praised. However, it is clear that there is potentially much more here and, in particular, by focusing solely on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of those who went to France, it necessarily misses more general accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France/Bonaparte/Amiens. Such research would have been an enormous addition to the book, and may well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have supported the author?s contentious proposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grainger?s assertion that the support for the war was unanimous is not supported by the evidence that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents, and he falls into line with the rather tired historical clich that patriotic Britain rose as one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defiance of Napoleon, united in the will to defeat the Corsican upstart. This interpretation would need a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious variety of sources to be credible and to overturn recent historical inquiry. From the material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented it would, at best, be fair to say that the British government was agreed at the time that it must fight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon. Even then, this consensus was never unanimous nor continuous: there were peace proposals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1806 by the Ministry of the Talents \(albeit half-hearted, but at least it indicates that there was still pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for peace\); serious parliamentary debate over the wisdom of continuing the war in the Peninsula; and outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament a more general campaign for peace, despite the unrealistic expectations that the peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigners had of Napoleon. In the latter case, J. E. Cookson?s )] TJ ET BT 348.284 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friends of Peace)] TJ ET BT 451.268 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that anti-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals were agreed that ?the cause of liberty was being upheld in Great Britain? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.252 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.252 231.603 m 439.244 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.244 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the resumption of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in May 1803, but this support was conditional on the war being defensive and so they often glossed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the responsibility for the outbreak on the war and instead concentrated on Napoleon?s invasion plans. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, as the war went on, their support for the conflict declined and they returned to opposing the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with France, not out of any regard for the Emperor, but due to an interpretation of the realities of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and the changed world order. Britain, seeing continental allies smashed time and again by the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(armies between 1805 and 1809, was fighting a purposeless war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 340.292 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 340.292 146.067 m 354.284 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 354.284 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The anti-war liberals may have got their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation wrong ? the massive fleet building programme initiated by Napoleon points towards a return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a ?defensive? war for Britain at some stage )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.292 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.292 117.555 m 270.284 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 270.284 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? but by ignoring later history, for instance the 150,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who supported a peace petition in 1808 from Yorkshire and Lancashire and the subtleties of the support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 72.668 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 72.668 89.043 m 86.660 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.660 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Grainger demonstrates a lack of historical context and his position on the support for the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not stand up to scrutiny. Furthermore, a closer examination of early stages of the war clearly shows a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government cajoling a nation into action: the best example of this is the volunteers ? who gained exemption )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.2517 231.9175 439.2437 243.7975 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 340.2917 146.3815 354.2837 158.2615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.2917 117.8695 270.2837 129.7495 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 72.6677 89.3575 86.6597 101.2375 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 6637 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the militia ballot and were raised under the threat of compulsory training and with so hardly a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicator of unanimous political support.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.676 780.819 m 243.668 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is quite correct to highlight the peace period as important in the wider context of the wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1792 and 1815. Grainger is right to state that Napoleon?s actions during the peace indicated that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon did not see treaties as a final settlement. Napoleon also viewed Amiens as an experiment but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different terms: he was trying expansion through peace. This lesson might not have been taken on board )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite as readily as Grainger suggests \(as the peace proposals in 1806 hint at and the consideration of peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with Napoleon in 1813 and 1814 both indicate\). Grainger clearly and in great detail shows that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period was not merely a temporary truce caused by military and financial exhaustion and strategic stalemate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the Amiens truce demonstrates it to be an important break between the Revolutionary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleonic Wars and, although Grainger may have overstated his case on some issues, the work is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed for providing a detailed account of the eighteen months when there was peace between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleonic France and Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul W. Schroeder, )] TJ ET BT 160.328 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Transformation of European Politics 1763-1848)] TJ ET BT 414.008 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\), p. 227.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.656 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.656 546.483 m 556.316 546.483 l S BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 532.227 m 90.344 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher D. Hall, ?Addington at war: unspectacular but not unsuccessful?, )] TJ ET BT 438.956 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 535.280 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 61 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1988\), 306?15; Philip Ziegler, )] TJ ET BT 216.008 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Addington: a Life of Henry Addington, 1st Viscount Sidmouth )] TJ ET BT 515.348 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 118.004 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. E. Cookson, )] TJ ET BT 136.688 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friends of Peace: Anti-war liberalism in England, 1793?1815)] TJ ET BT 457.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1982\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 173.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 460.947 m 151.004 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cookson, )] TJ ET BT 112.688 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friends of Peace)] TJ ET BT 215.672 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 182?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.000 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.000 446.691 m 325.988 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Glover, ?The French Fleet, 1807?1814: Britain?s Problem; and Madison?s Opportunity?, )] TJ ET BT 508.976 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 153.344 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39 \(1967\), 233?52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 250.664 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 250.664 418.179 m 304.652 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cookson, )] TJ ET BT 112.688 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Friends of Peace)] TJ ET BT 215.672 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 190.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.672 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.672 403.923 m 308.660 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. W. Fortescue, )] TJ ET BT 144.668 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The County Lieutenancies and the Army 1803?1814 )] TJ ET BT 397.652 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1909\), pp. 30?34, 64?65; K. B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linch, ?A Geography of Loyalism?: The local military forces of the West Riding of Yorkshire, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1794?1814?, )] TJ ET BT 128.672 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Society)] TJ ET BT 207.992 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 19 \(2001\), 1?21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.312 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.312 361.155 m 347.300 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 291.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 273.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 273.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/442)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 271.881 m 322.316 271.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 246.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2418)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6757 781.1335 243.6677 793.0135 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.6557 546.7975 556.3157 558.6775 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 532.5415 90.3437 544.4215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 489.7735 118.0037 501.6535 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.0157 461.2615 151.0037 473.1415 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.9997 447.0055 325.9877 458.8855 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 250.6637 418.4935 304.6517 430.3735 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.6717 404.2375 308.6597 416.1175 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.3117 361.4695 347.2997 373.3495 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 272.1955 322.3157 284.0755 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/442) >> endobj xref 0 59 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000004674 00000 n 0000004783 00000 n 0000004893 00000 n 0000005002 00000 n 0000008563 00000 n 0000008691 00000 n 0000008775 00000 n 0000008866 00000 n 0000016928 00000 n 0000016958 00000 n 0000017086 00000 n 0000017122 00000 n 0000017152 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000017316 00000 n 0000017421 00000 n 0000026019 00000 n 0000026049 00000 n 0000026177 00000 n 0000026213 00000 n 0000026243 00000 n 0000026371 00000 n 0000026407 00000 n 0000026437 00000 n 0000026565 00000 n 0000026601 00000 n 0000026631 00000 n 0000026756 00000 n 0000026792 00000 n 0000026939 00000 n 0000033629 00000 n 0000033659 00000 n 0000033787 00000 n 0000033823 00000 n 0000033951 00000 n 0000034006 00000 n 0000034132 00000 n 0000034187 00000 n 0000034314 00000 n 0000034369 00000 n 0000034496 00000 n 0000034551 00000 n 0000034679 00000 n 0000034734 00000 n 0000034862 00000 n 0000034917 00000 n 0000035045 00000 n 0000035100 00000 n 0000035228 00000 n 0000035283 00000 n 0000035411 00000 n trailer << /Size 59 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35506 %%EOF