%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724113520+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724113520+01'00') /Title (English Society and the Prison: Time, Culture and Politics in the Development of the Modern Prison, 1850?1920) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4486 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(English Society and the Prison: Time, Culture and Politics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Development of the Modern Prison, 1850?1920)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until 1975 those who wanted to study the history of English prisons turned to the standard work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject which was first published in 1922, )] TJ ET BT 239.336 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Prisons Under Local Government)] TJ ET BT 441.992 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by the two pioneers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of English Social Policy Sidney and Beatrice Webb.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.660 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.660 207.777 m 352.652 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.652 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This carefully researched account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised the evolution of the system since the early eighteenth century as an example of social progress, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving from a time of local corrupt malpractice towards the Fabian socialist model of rational knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based national regulation which the Webbs advocated as their alternative to the Bolshevik model of violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary overthrow of capitalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first edition of Michel Foucault?s )] TJ ET BT 219.332 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discipline and Punish )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.000 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.000 124.497 m 342.992 124.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.992 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appeared in 1975, and quickly acquired a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide readership among a generation of students for whom the Webbs were a distant memory and impatience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with what was known as social control a marked characteristic. Foucault described the modern history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European prison as but a minute part of the development of a vast system of incarceration. For Foucault, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new social sciences were a foundation for disciplinary administrative structures which demarcated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined newly identified and classified categories of humans who were said to differ from the rational and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(443)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alyson Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843830175)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(212pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=8517)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bill Forsythe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.6597 208.0915 352.6517 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.9997 124.8115 342.9917 136.6915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically desirable character type. Foucault warned that a carceral nightmare was unfolding upon earth with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity caught, like a fly within a web, as disciplinary institution built upon disciplinary institution, all on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the false, lurid promise of a fabricated knowledge promising a rational, liberated and beneficent future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There followed a number of thought provoking and valuable studies, and two major trends emerged in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting reappraisal of the historical development of English prisons. In the first place the Foucauldian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis of discipline and regulation was developed with great skill and knowledge by Michael Ignatieff and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Garland who, from differing perspectives, advanced the idea that the modern British state hugely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased the reach of the penal system; Ignatieff saw it as facilitating the onward march of factory based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism, while Garland highlighted the growing regulation and subordination of ever-increasing numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social deviants by newly developed institutions of confinement, based on the new categories apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered and revealed by the social sciences. In a not dissimilar vein was Martin Wiener?s work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural development in British society, emphasising the spread of neo-Darwinian ideas about the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the criminal and the corollary growth of specialist institutions to measure, confine and control such beings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 546.956 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 546.956 612.003 m 560.948 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second tradition which emerged was that of meticulous research into the day to day workings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century prison. This involved close encounters with the immense quantity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government papers, many hitherto unread, in the archives of both central and local government. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted some formidable contributions to our knowledge, including the work of Sean McConville, Sir Leon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radzinowicz, Roger Hood and Victor Bailey, who all depicted in fascinating detail the intentions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of contemporary penal administrators and the actual operation of the systems which they created.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.584 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.584 514.467 m 551.576 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This tradition was also represented in some excellent local research depicting the development of prisons in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties such as Warwickshire and Lancashire.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.284 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.284 485.955 m 275.276 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 275.276 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, so great did interest in the history of the prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become that in the mid 1990s there appeared a magisterial )] TJ ET BT 316.628 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History of the Prison)] TJ ET BT 454.628 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with contributions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from distinguished political thinkers and historians all over the world, and the )] TJ ET BT 410.324 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Oxford Dictionary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Biography )] TJ ET BT 132.692 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is littered with biographies of prison reformers and administrators of the past.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.644 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.644 443.187 m 518.636 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.636 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the great interest in prison history has been the republication of large quantities of original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source material. Examples of this are the republication of some thirty titles by well known contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English writers of the nineteenth and early twentieth century by the New York publishers Garland, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further eight titles including the seminal work of the late eighteenth century prison explorer John Howard by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge/Thoemmes in 2000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 182.348 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 182.348 371.907 m 196.340 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alyson Brown has written a book which aims to concentrate on the origins, causes and effects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbances in prisons between 1850 and 1920. The more significant of these were often referred to as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mutinies? by contemporaries who were keen to portray them as unjustified insubordination and riot rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than as having any legitimacy as acts of protest. Brown?s concern is with the position and reaction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoner in such events rather than with the actual form or extent of each disturbance, and her main interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the theme of collective resistance and defiance ? an aspect which she believes Foucault in particular under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised in his account of the growth of the seemingly invincible panopticon.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 546.9557 612.3175 560.9477 624.1975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.5837 514.7815 551.5757 526.6615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.2837 486.2695 275.2757 498.1495 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.6437 443.5015 518.6357 455.3815 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 182.3477 372.2215 196.3397 384.1015 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 7172 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown notes that although major disturbances were rare in the English prisons of these years, in each year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1865 and 1875 there were over two thousand offences against prison regulations in each of the large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convict prisons and therefore, she argues, resistance was much more widespread than the rare major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreaks which resulted in intervention by local military and newspaper headlines. It should be noted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1850 there were essentially two types of prison in England. There were the convict prisons, some 12 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number by 1870. These were set up to hold those who had previously been sentenced to transportation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long periods up to life but who, following the end of transportation in the 1850s, now had to be held in what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was known as penal servitude in new institutions called convict prisons administered by a central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government body, the Directorate of Convict Prisons. The second type of prison was the combined gaol and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house of correction run by the local magistrates and subject to central state inspection. There were 68 of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these in 1878 in which year a new Prison Commission took over all the local prisons of England and Wales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thereby effectively nationalising them. At the same time the Directorate of Convict Prisons effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merged with the new Prison Commission, although the Directorate did retain a theoretical separate legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alyson Brown is particularly interested in prisoners? perceptions and experiences of their imprisonment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because they were often forced to spend twenty-two hours a day in the solitude of their cells in conditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great privation and suffering. She has a particular interest in how ?time? was perceived and distorted in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime where each day was a monotonous lonely and deprived repetition of the day before. She cites a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of well known Victorian prisoners who subsequently wrote of their experiences. Florence Maybrick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very controversially convicted in 1889 at Liverpool Assizes for the arsenic poisoning of her husband and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reprieved from the death penalty, spoke of the ?voiceless solitude, the hopeless monotony, the long vista of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tomorrow, tomorrow, tomorrow? \(p. 17\). Prisoners therefore dwelled on a past life before prison in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had an identity and an individuality, and they deeply feared that the inexorable routine of the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would lead to a future in which they would merely mark time as their minds decayed and became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanently vacant. Similarly prisoners would dream of life after prison, where time would no longer be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage of day after day of imposed suffering but would be under the ex-prisoner?s control and would offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilment. Therefore death in prison was particularly feared for it ended the possibility of a different kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?time? to the present undifferentiated and extended misery of ?seclusion, silence, shame, separation ? minute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pedantic control? \(p. 26\). Hence Brown?s theme of disturbance and prison indiscipline as resistance is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based upon the idea of the expression of individuality in opposition to perceived imposed collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown examines the outbreak at Chatham Convict Prison in February 1861 in this context. Here prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protested at what they saw as the unjust punishment of some of their number, and around 850 convicts rioted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and took over the prison. Troops and police were sent to the prison but by the time they arrived the warders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had driven the prisoners into their cells with great force and the incident was over. As a result around 50 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners were sentenced to three dozen lashes with the cat o?nine tails.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown?s is a well researched and well evidenced account of this episode, and particularly valuable is her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the various events within the prison which combined to make for a highly volatile situation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She also convincingly points up a number of trends in the convict prisons generally at that time which made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instability in the system as a whole. One of these was a sense of injustice among prisoners in regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new regulations governing release on licence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown turns from a large convict prison to a local prison, that of Hull, set up in 1829 and closed 50 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later. She discusses in detail the debate which De Lacy, in particular, has had with Foucault and others as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree to which the new prison model did actually replace the disorganised, poorly regulated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undisciplined local prisons of John Howard?s day. Her conclusions about Hull are that, although there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persisted plenty of archaic idiosyncrasies at the prison, it did incorporate many of the new methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated by the reformers such as uniformed warders, cellular confinement and so forth. Resistance in Hull )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison was much less spectacular than the Chatham riot. Here the population of prisoners was made up of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local people often regularly in and out of prison who were part of the same local community as the staff, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 7427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their defiance of the regime was more muted, consisting of refusal to work on the treadmill or disobeying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders of staff.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author turns next to the convict prison generally between 1865 and 1895, a period which she rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes as ?the most deterrent period in the history of the modern prison? \(p. 83\). Under the Chairman of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Convict Prison Directors \(and subsequently the first Chairman of the English Prison Commission\) Edmund )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Du Cane, the prison system was stripped of all remaining vestiges of early Victorian zeal for the reform of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the individual prisoner, and opted for a bleak, pessimistic, purposefully inflicted severity with a very poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diet, severe hard labour and all amelioration of regime won under a system of marks awarded for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformity, with intensive and rigid enforcement of the rules. Under this regime it was not long before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegations of institutionalised brutality of inmates by staff began to be made, notably by witnesses to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kimberley Commission, set up by the government in 1877 to enquire into allegations made by some staff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prisoners against the convict prisons. A picture emerged, denied by the majority of official witnesses, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular violence to prisoners, degrading and cruel conditions, protesting staff quickly ushered out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system and torture of prisoners by some staff, particularly at Dartmoor. Indeed labour had become so severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at Chatham 33 surgical amputations of limbs were necessary after prisoners had thrown themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under locomotives at their workplace in order to render themselves unfit for labour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown notes correctly that in the Du Cane era the idea grew up that ?the hardened criminal character was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly perceived as primitive and unresponsive to reformatory opportunities and therefore could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discouraged from crime only through the imposition of the most severe of punishments? \(p. 108\). This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part the result of the growth of neo-Darwinian positivist social science which emphasised that the pauper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal, lunatic and vagrant were constitutionally and characteristically inferior to the adapting, successful, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striving and competitive. This way of thinking came to exert a strong general influence over policy makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Du Cane, and he and many other officials, such as Arthur Griffiths, an influential prison inspector of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time, were openly contemptuous of the zeal for conversion and reformation of prisoners which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised the 1830s and 40s. However, times change, and after 1895 the pendulum began to swing again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards a relaxation of severity and a more reformatory focus. Brown surveys the debate which has taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place between Martin Wiener, Victor Bailey, David Garland and myself about this )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.268 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.268 400.419 m 447.260 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 447.260 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and explicitly links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relaxation of discipline which did occur to incidents of defiance and resistance at Wormwood Scrubs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1907 which resulted in confrontation between prisoners and staff. As noted, amelioration of severity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accelerated in the 1920s and 30s with close cropping of convicts? hair ending in 1921 and routine initial total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cellular isolation for all convicts suspended in 1922 and ended in 1931.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally Brown turns to political prisoners. These were prisoners who defined themselves as servants of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause and therefore not moral defaulters deserving of the punishment legitimately bestowed on criminals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were sent to prison either for refusing to undertake certain actions, such as anti-vaccinationists, or for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking action against the law, such as so-called Fenians blowing up public buildings with dynamite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pursuit of Irish independence. There were many different shades of opinion represented amongst these, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including as they did conscientious objectors to military service in the First World War, Salvation Army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers, Socialists, Irish Nationalists, Suffragettes and others. Numbers of these could be large. Indeed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June 1917 there were around 600 conscientious objectors in prison in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a rich vein of protest literature which resulted from imprisonment of political prisoners, for these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often articulate, literate people with the resources of highly organised and vocal groups to ensure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their voices were heard. They also had to deal with governments which knew that the cause in question )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might ignite into revolution and political catastrophe if handled wrongly. Therefore reaction to such groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was by no means consistent and on occasion ? as with the Birmingham Six in our time ? the prisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves chose ways of brutalising them rather than complementing the more lofty goals of distant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians and administrative supremos.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Brown points out, there was often extreme cruelty resulting in death and injury. This was without doubt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent in the mid-Victorian period at Chatham convict prison where commissioners heard evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustained beatings, deprivation of food, sleep and other necessities of life with regard to Fenians, and it must )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.2677 400.7335 447.2597 412.6135 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be recalled that between 1868 and 1870 seven of these died in prison, four committed suicide and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became insane. But other reactions were calculated to prevent political unpopularity or alienation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public. For example, the liberal government before the First World War knew that the force feeding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunger striking suffragette prisoners was unpopular and risked causing deaths which would add great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength to the suffragette cause. As Annie Kenny remarked in 1913, ?we say ?let us die we are prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(die? ? they know perfectly well that if one woman dies in prison those women who do not approve of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militancy today will come out to be militant tomorrow? \(p. 160\). The government therefore reacted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cat and Mouse legislation by which hunger striking suffragettes were released from prison but could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rearrested once they had restored themselves to health outside. Another device was attempted appeasement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as that of Winston Churchill in 1910 when as Home Secretary he introduced rule 243a. This denied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffragettes the official first division status which was available to political prisoners \(such as Dr Jameson in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1896 following the Jameson raid on the Transvaal\) and which the suffragettes demanded as recognition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their political status. However, rule 243a set up a division where the comforts were equivalent to the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division, yet suffragettes were not awarded the status of political prisoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusions which Brown draws from all this are that the institutional routine and the prisoners? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception and experience of it are essential components of any account of disturbance and resistance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons. In particular she highlights ?empty time and long hours? \(p. 175\) and the perception of an extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present resulting in distortion of past and future. She also emphasises the importance of a lack of belief in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legitimacy of the conditions in the prisons amongst prisoners and especially so among political prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who, in her view, were often more organised and educated than other prisoners \(p. 170\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first point I would want to make about this book is that it is based on a good range of source material, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both published and unpublished and, indeed, it is in part the result of many years of research which led to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent award of a PhD by Hull University. Second, the author has uncovered material which has not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely used bearing on both Chatham convict prison and Hull local prison. Interestingly Brown?s account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of Hull prison is closely consistent with the account that Margaret De Lacy gave of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons of Lancashire, and we may now safely conclude from these studies that there were significant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locally influenced divergences from the awesome Foucauldian total institution said by Foucault to dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the penal landscape from the mid-nineteenth-century. Third, Alyson Brown has a good grasp of the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the history of English prisons and her survey of the debates between historians over the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirty years is most reliable, her conclusions balanced and well informed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, I would like to comment on the focus of the book. I have no doubt that Alyson Brown is right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to focus initially on the experience and meaning of time to prisoners. She cites a good deal of prisoner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material in regard to this, but I would have valued a more systematic discussion of the inner world of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoner who spent such long and lonely time in reflection, and I think that this would have strengthened her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument about prisoners? use of time. We have a large store of literature written or dictated by prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning their perceptions of their lives before, during and after prison, and there are consistent themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which emerge from this literature including those of emotional turmoil \(bereavement, loss, abuse, fear\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social relationships \(with authority and family for example\). Through such literature we gain deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into Victorian society and these themes are well illustrated by reflections of prisoners who had so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much time to think and reflect. There is also a good deal of official material which bears on this. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840s and 1850s officials such as prison chaplains were intensely preoccupied with the inner lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners because they wished to restock their minds with religious truths in place of presumed sinful and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-indulgent preoccupations. They therefore devoted considerable time to recording the thoughts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troubles of prisoners, often in great detail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My final point about this valuable book concerns the need to recognise that very many prisoners who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present at riots or episodes of defiance did not participate in them. Indeed we know that such episodes can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbing and frightening to them and, on occasion, may serve to trigger acts of violence from prisoner to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoner and acts of heroism, such as prisoners protecting other prisoners or staff. An example of the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of such events on prisoners was the reaction of some prisoners at Wormwood Scrubs prison to the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defiance of conscientious objectors to the regime in 1919, which was accompanied by continuous shouting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 8417 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and singing throughout the night by the objectors. Other prisoners found this intolerable and complained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about it. An example of prisoners actively helping staff who were in danger in very frightening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances was the insurrection at Dartmoor prison in January 1932 which falls outside Alyson Brown?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 51.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 51.668 752.307 m 65.660 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s daily average prison population now sits at around 80,000, and at least one major political party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has it in mind to build more prisons as the word ?super-prison? becomes part of the English language. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are no ready-to-hand solutions to the very serious issues with which this expanding prison population faces )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us. We now imprison a higher proportion of our citizens than almost any country in Europe. This book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains much food for thought on the part of all who work in, administer or inhabit modern prisons, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triggers to insurrection and defiance in prisons do not change greatly from one era to another, and here is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity at least to reflect on some of the lessons from history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. and B. Webb,)] TJ ET BT 142.676 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( English Prisons Under Local Government)] TJ ET BT 348.332 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(repr. 1963\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.644 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.644 574.995 m 465.632 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Foucault, )] TJ ET BT 128.684 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discipline and Punish)] TJ ET BT 235.352 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth, 1977\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.332 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.332 560.739 m 411.320 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Ignatieff, )] TJ ET BT 128.000 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Just Measure of Pain)] TJ ET BT 240.656 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1978\); D. Garland, )] TJ ET BT 384.632 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punishment and Welfare: A History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Penal Strategies )] TJ ET BT 158.348 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Aldershot, 1985\); M. Wiener, )] TJ ET BT 307.988 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reconstructing The Criminal: Culture, Law and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policy in England 1830-1914 )] TJ ET BT 208.676 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.996 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.996 517.971 m 356.984 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. McConville, )] TJ ET BT 140.024 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A History of English Prison Administration, vol. i, 1750?1877 \(London, 1981\); S. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McConville, )] TJ ET BT 127.352 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Local Prisons 1860?1900: Next Only To Death)] TJ ET BT 394.352 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1995\); L. Radzinowicz )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and R. Hood, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Emergence of Penal Policy)] TJ ET BT 282.980 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1986\); and V. Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 439.964 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Delinquency and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizenship: Reclaiming the Young Offender)] TJ ET BT 276.680 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.328 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.328 460.947 m 409.316 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. De Lacy, )] TJ ET BT 127.664 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prison Reform in Lancashire, 1700?1850. A Study in Local Administration )] TJ ET BT 491.012 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stanford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calif., 1986\); J. Saunders, ?Institutionalised Offenders. A Study of the Victorian Institution with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Special Reference to Warwickshire? \(unpublished University of Warwick PhD thesis, 1983\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.924 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.924 418.179 m 549.920 418.179 l S BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 403.923 m 78.008 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Morris and D. Rothman, eds., )] TJ ET BT 224.336 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Oxford History of the Prison)] TJ ET BT 383.336 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York and Oxford, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 375.411 m 118.004 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin J. Wiener, ed., )] TJ ET BT 171.992 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime and Punishment in England 1850?1922)] TJ ET BT 395.660 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and New York, 1984\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. J. Forsythe, ed., )] TJ ET BT 160.340 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The State of the Prisons in Britain 1775?1905 )] TJ ET BT 384.356 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.680 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.680 346.899 m 516.668 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 101.348 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Delinquency and Citizenship)] TJ ET BT 240.008 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Garland, )] TJ ET BT 290.660 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punishment and Welfare)] TJ ET BT 409.316 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, W. J. Forsythe, )] TJ ET BT 491.312 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prison )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discipline, Reformatory Projects and the English Prison Commission 1895?1939)] TJ ET BT 455.684 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Exeter, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.996 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.996 318.387 m 558.656 318.387 l S BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 304.131 m 90.344 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Report by Mr Herbert Du Parcq KC on the Circumstances Connected With The Recent Disorder at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dartmoor Convict Prison \(Parl. 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