%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 50 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930095020+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930095020+01'00') /Title (The Church of England in Industrialising Society. The Lancashire Parish of Whalley in the Eighteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4171 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Church of England in Industrialising Society. The Lancashire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Parish of Whalley in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the essentially voluntary world of religious practice that was brought into being by the Toleration Act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1689, the Church of England was compelled to compete for the allegiance of its members. The situation that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailed in the parish of Whalley at the beginning of the nineteenth century suggests that the eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Church of England lacked both the competence and the resources to rise to this challenge in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialising areas of Northern England \(p. 198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus concludes this fascinating survey of Anglican life in the north-east Lancashire parish of Whalley. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a conclusion fixes Dr Snape?s work firmly in the context of the debate between ?optimistic? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pessimistic? historians of the eighteenth-century Church of England that was characteristic of the late 1980s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 1990s. The persistence of the preoccupation with issues of success and failure measured against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially Victorian benchmarks has recently been criticised by Mark Goldie as leaving the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanoverian church ?overcast by what must be the longest shadow in modern historiography?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.268 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.268 81.729 m 498.260 81.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 498.260 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If this is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case with Michael Snape?s study of Whalley, it is important to recognise that this is not entirely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility of the author. The book is based on a Birmingham University PhD thesis completed in 1994, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(444)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Snape)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843830146)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=7714)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.2677 82.0435 498.2597 93.9235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7884 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the questions it raises were fresh ones; and had the author not been the victim of lengthy delays with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an earlier publisher, it would have constituted a timely and provocative contribution to a very live debate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, belated though its appearance may have been, there is still much to be gained from a careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of this text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As befits a contribution to a hard-fought debate, )] TJ ET BT 267.644 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Church of England in Industrialising Society )] TJ ET BT 507.320 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemical in intention. Snape suggests that ?optimistic? historians of the Hanoverian church ?have followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lead of nineteenth-century sociologists and of contemporary churchmen who were reluctant to look too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard at the underlying causes of their own pastoral problems? \(p 198\). In a thoroughgoing attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refurbish the ?pessimistic? case, he instead chooses to highlight the critique offered by later Hanoverian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicals from both inside and outside the church. Here Snape has the advantage of possessing, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of the Evangelical topographer and vicar of Whalley, Thomas Dunham Whitaker, a locally focussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of such a critique. Indeed, much of the book might be considered as a commentary on parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitaker?s great work, )] TJ ET BT 149.312 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An History of the Original Parish of Whalley and Honor of Clitheroe)] TJ ET BT 481.652 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackburn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1801\), and, in particular, on Whitaker?s criticism of earlier generations of clergy ?too often contemptible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their poverty among the rich, their ignorance among the refined, and their bad morals among the devout; so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that for the want of a well-informed, respectable and respected ministry, a country antecedently superstitious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stupid has never been thoroughly evangelised to the present day? \(p. 136\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.612 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.612 554.979 m 424.604 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An introduction sets the scene by sketching in both the terms of debate and the social, economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic context in which the church had to work. Whalley, probably the largest parish in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained at the start of the eighteenth century 71 distinct townships under the care of a mother church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17 chapels. Stimulated by the growth of textile manufactures, Snape estimates that the population doubled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1720 and 1778, and had more than trebled by 1801. This presented a considerable challenge to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, which was reflected in the growth, after the middle of the century, of alternatives to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment ? especially Baptists and Methodists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter examines the issue of popular attachment to the church, arguing that patterns of practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the services provided by the clergy were powerfully shaped by the preferences of the laity. This was bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news for practices like the teaching of catechism and public baptism in church which were not well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported. A range of other indicators of popular adherence to Anglicanism is considered. These include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish feasts, rush bearings, bell-ringing, and Church and King riots, all of which were flourishing in the mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, but most of which were in decline or becoming detached from the church by its end. The difficulty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of raising Church Rates is noted, and the resort to private subscriptions for schemes to increase seating is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed, concluding that the primary motive was the provision of seats for the well-to-do rather than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altruistic desire to increase accommodation for the poor. Popular attachment to the church was on the wane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the last quarter of the eighteenth century and the remainder of the book sets out to discover why. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshing that Snape?s first resort on this quest is not an investigation of ecclesiastical structures but of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the church and folk Christianity. The people of Whalley, he argues, inhabited a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universe rich in invocations of the supernatural, which the clergy tended to regard as superstitious but which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the people saw as entirely compatible with their Christian allegiance. This ?discrepancy between the tenets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Anglican orthodoxy and the needs and aspirations of ordinary Anglicans? tended to put the church at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disadvantage in competition with rivals, especially Methodists and Roman Catholics, who were more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to confront popular supernaturalism on its own terms. This is an important conclusion which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirms an existing body of work on folk religion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.328 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.328 174.579 m 294.320 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.320 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also suggestive of the potential difficulties that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spread of certain kinds of Enlightenment rationalism may have introduced into the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy and people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The determination to analyse the church from the point of view of its parishioners, which is one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable features of Snape?s work, also shapes the two central chapters of the book. These consider the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church?s role in philanthropy and education and in the regulation of morality. In relation to the former, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snape charts a gradual change, in line with general trends in eighteenth-century philanthropy, away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-term relief to benefactions aimed at longer-term improvement. Older charities declined over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century as a consequence of inflation and poor management, while the vagaries of charitable endowment left )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.6117 555.2935 424.6037 567.1735 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.3277 174.8935 294.3197 186.7735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7924 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some chapelries much less well off than others. The tendency to appropriate charitable endowments to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplement poor relief further alienated the poor. All of these were damaging developments for a church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously seen as the guarantor of communal charity. The area did see an expansion, backed by the church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in charity school provision ? especially in the second half of the century. However, a combination of expense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and curricular conservatism limited the impact of charity schools, while the resources poured into them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably hampered the introduction of Sunday schools. These, in contrast to the general pattern in the region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole, did not begin to take off in Whalley until towards the end of the eighteenth century. The analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the role of the church in regulating morality, especially via the church courts, also reveals a story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline. The courts? functions were gradually narrowed by the intrusion of Statute Law, their sanctions fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into disrepute, and changing popular attitudes to sexual mores eroded the moral consensus which made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical justice operable. This was not a linear process and either national crises, like the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, or dynamic episcopal leadership, like that offered by Samuel Peploe, might have produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival. The process was inexorable, nonetheless, and the withdrawal of lay support ultimately spelled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end for a system which had given the institutional church a central role in the life of the community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters begin to shift the focus a little away from the point of view of the parishioners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though this remains a vital consideration\) and on to an analysis of the capacity of the clergy to respond to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the situation with which they were faced. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, most of the livings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the parish were of small value but nevertheless maintained a mainly resident clergy. The rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century saw an improvement in the value of the livings via the mechanisms created by Queen Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bounty, but this had two disadvantages. First, the augmentation of the livings occurred via a scheme that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in much of the patronage of the rectory falling into private hands, and second, the better paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incumbents of the second half of the century had a greater tendency to non-residence. Neither arrangement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved to be satisfactory. In the earlier period, Whalley?s curates were largely local and undistinguished. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this had advantages in reducing the social distance between clergy and people, the participation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy in a common recreational culture centred on the alehouse, for example, created many opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for delinquency. At the same time, their marginal social position left them open to the pressure and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malice of their neighbours. Of the 96 clergy who served in the parish of Whalley between 1689 and 1789 at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least 11 or 11.5 per cent were the subject of serious complaint or prosecution ? most of these cases occurring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1750. This cannot have helped the cause of the church, and while the more respectable clergy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second half of the century may have been less vulnerable in this respect, their greater degree of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residence and seduction by polite culture tended to make them less than ideal pastors for a parish like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whalley. A brief conclusion introduces material from an episcopal visitation of 1804 to demonstrate a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further deterioration in popular adherence to Anglicanism as represented in church attendance and attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to assess the significance of the findings presented in the book as a whole. These, Snape argues, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant in two respects: they qualify the optimistic revisionist literature on the eighteenth-century church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, by introducing the consideration of new issues little touched upon by optimists, they call for a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more gloomy verdict on the performance of the church as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snape certainly deserves a good deal of credit for addressing a range of new issues in a novel and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging manner. However, a few reservations remain about both the methodology and the conclusions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work. First, the author has an occasional tendency to give a rather minimalist account of alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views. For example, in describing on his final page a more optimistic account of eighteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicanism in northern England, he suggests that its ?claims? rest ?on a limited range of evidence, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprises the regularity of religious services, the popularity of some of the local clergy and a high incidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of church-building work.? In fact, in the case of the example cited, the conclusions rest not just on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularity of religious services, but their development in the face of demographic expansion, not just on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity of local clergy but on evidence of high rates of residence and devoted pastoral care, not just on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high rate of church-building work but on the nature of its financing and its effect on the accommodation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poor. They rest too on examples of pastoral innovation in areas such as catechising and the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sunday schools and also on sustained and active popular involvement with the church via, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provision of music. \(This latter issue is surprisingly absent from Snape?s work given the appearance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially of southern parts of the parish in other published work on the subject.\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.624 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.624 58.275 m 436.616 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 436.616 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such an approach is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 422.6237 58.5895 436.6157 70.4695 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8097 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable given the demands of space and a desire to point up the novelty of one?s own conclusions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the construction of straw men is unlikely to advance the debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, there is sometimes an apparent tendency to reductionism ? perhaps especially when assessing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes of the middle-class and gentry supporters of the church. Snape is surely right, for example, to draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our attention to the potentially self-interested dimension of schemes for re-pewing churches, which could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an expression of a desire on the part of the local middling-sort to see their social status properly reflected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church. However, even if we were to conclude this was the primary motivation, it does not follow that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the only one. In 1788, Thomas Whitaker, acting in the character of a local gentleman, entirely rebuilt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilapidated chapel at Holme, with the aid of some subscribers and at a personal cost of 470. Since he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously acquired the advowson and was to present himself to the curacy when it became vacant in 1797 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 640.515 m 48.008 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is possible that Whitaker?s motives, like those of other subscribers to church-building and seating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schemes in the parish, were mixed, but it is implausible to suggest that a desire to improve church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodation for the inhabitants of his chapelry did not form part of the mixture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar problem arises from the extensive use made of material relating to legal disputes and court cases. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This material is certainly well deployed and adds substantially to the novelty of the work, as well as giving a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain picaresque quality to the narrative. However, the reader is not always clear that the author has fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed for the fact that such material generally reflects the pathology of parochial life rather than its normal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condition. That some parishioners were prepared to go to law to assert proprietorial rights over pews, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, is predictable given the complex of eighteenth-century attitudes to property and social status. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents do not, however, provide a )] TJ ET BT 211.988 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(straightforward)] TJ ET BT 288.008 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( indication of general attitudes to the use of pews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when their owners were absent. Similarly, it is certainly appropriate to discuss in detail the 11.5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of Whalley clergy who were the subject of serious complaint by their parishioners, but we discover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively little about the 88.5 per cent who were not. Again, this is entirely understandable, given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the available source material on these clergy, but it will influence the weight attached to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions drawn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both these methodological problems are compounded by a further one ? that in this work at least, Snape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tends largely to steer clear of a systematic presentation of potentially quantifiable evidence which might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have allowed a more rigorous assessment of the significance of the illustrative material which he includes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To take the issue of seating as an example again, it would have greatly assisted an evaluation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?progress? of the church in eighteenth-century Whalley, had the author been able to make an estimate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which church accommodation increased over the period, what the balance between free and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriated seating might have been and whether and at what level rents were charged for appropriated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seats. We know from studies elsewhere that neither appropriation nor seat rents )] TJ ET BT 418.268 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(necessarily)] TJ ET BT 472.256 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( excluded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.012 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.012 288.627 m 73.004 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.004 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and, clearly, disputes over proprietorial rights would be more or less significant according to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequacy of seating provision elsewhere in church. It is entirely possible that the absence of this material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply indicates a lack of evidence, but it would have been useful to have had the author?s reflections on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this point. A second example is the issue of the deployment of the clergy. As noted above, the issue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerical residence is important to Snape?s argument especially in relation to the state of the church after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1750. However, the lack of a systematic presentation of the changing deployment of Whalley?s resident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy )] TJ ET BT 67.004 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 85.004 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the arrangements made to cover cases of non-residence over the whole period makes it difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluate the significance of the examples he provides \(p. 145\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the overall argument of the work is somewhat vitiated by the rather slender evidence for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial disaffection to the church in the eighteenth century. The main evidence cited for such disaffection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes from replies to bishop Porteus?s visitation queries of 1778 concerning church attendance. Snape twice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes that these indicate a )] TJ ET BT 160.328 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(significant)] TJ ET BT 211.004 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( number of non-attenders in the parish \(pp. 24, 194\) and he refers to five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitation returns to support this conclusion. Four of these are quoted, three make reference to the size of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem, two use descriptive terminology:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?a few of ye lowest order? and ?few in number?, one makes an estimate of the actual number of non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attenders: ?may be about twelve?. This last example is from the small chapelry of Downham whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population is given by Snape as 428 in 1778. If, on this basis, one conservatively estimated the eligible )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 640.8295 48.0077 652.7095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.0117 288.9415 73.0037 300.8215 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican churchgoing population of the chapelry at, say, 240, that would give a figure for regular non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attendance of 5 per cent. It is rather difficult to see why it should be more )] TJ ET BT 389.612 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(significant)] TJ ET BT 440.288 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the glass was 5 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent empty than that it was 95 per cent full at Downham. Moreover, Snape?s attempt to use this material as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for decline is unsustainable given that there are no comparable figures for the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century ? they might be evidence of a growth in attendance for all the reader can tell. When we move into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early nineteenth century and compare the 1778 returns with similar estimates made in 1804, the results )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are patchy but there does seem to be evidence of a worsened, though stabilised, situation in some chapelries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That, however, might appear to fit better with the picture of an adequate or even ?successful? establishment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmed late in the century by a series of large-scale changes, especially in demography, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar from other studies, rather than Snape?s picture of a church suffering from a progressive disease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose major symptoms should have become visible rather earlier than this chronology allows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these reservations, this remains an extremely valuable work which, if we extract it from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework of the debate over success and failure, is richly suggestive of interpretative possibilities. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might, for example, see the long eighteenth century not so much in terms of progress or decline but of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation. On the one hand, as Snape himself notes, we see the gradual working out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of the Toleration Act as the church was transformed from being at least partially a coercive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure into almost entirely a pastoral one. On the other, we see the gradual evolution and the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interplay at parochial level and of at least three different models of Anglicanism. One was incarnated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy ? evolving over the century from a condition that was, at least potentially, stronger on affection than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect into one characterised by rising wealth and respectability, with all the potential dangers inherent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a position. The idiosyncrasy of the Whalley clergy is particularly suggestive of the value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigating and comparing )] TJ ET BT 173.672 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(local)] TJ ET BT 197.672 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( clerical cultures. A second was a popular model of the church combining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a minimalist understanding of the activity incumbent on a loyal supporter of the establishment with a robust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supernaturalism that sometimes clashed with the more secularised attitudes of the clergy. It might even be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worth exploring the possibility that the more widespread neglect of churchgoing detected by the clergy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early nineteenth century was, at least in part, a further development of this popular minimalism. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies have certainly demonstrated that by the nineteenth century there was a considerable body of opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that saw no necessary connection between regular churchgoing and being a good Christian. Finally, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the most potentially disruptive model of all ? that represented by the Methodists. The arrival and steady )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of Methodism may have threatened the easy-going relationship between popular and clerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicanism in the middle of the century. It certainly represented a critique of low expectations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards and a disruption of communal norms that could provoke a violent response. It was a particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital form of lay Anglicanism, nonetheless, and to regard its growth in the eighteenth century as an indicator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Anglican weakness would be perverse. There was no stable equilibrium in the relationship of these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(models. Most obviously, in the 1790s the Methodists began the long process of disengagement from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment, which, though far from complete in 1804, may account for some of the panic expressed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy responding to the bishop?s visitation. Ironically, this change was taking place at just the time that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism was assuming a position from which it might have an impact on the clerical model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicanism with the arrival of Whitaker as curate of Holme in 1797 and then as vicar of Whalley in 1809. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That, however, would be another story ? taking us beyond the chronological scope of this thought-provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Goldie, ?Voluntary Anglicans?, )] TJ ET BT 236.324 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 325.328 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 \(2003\), 977?990, at. p. 988.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.312 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.312 147.315 m 533.300 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Dunham Whitaker, )] TJ ET BT 200.660 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An History of the Original Parish of Whalley and Honor of Clitheroe)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1801; 4th edn., 2 vols., 1872?6\), i. 207.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.676 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.676 118.803 m 310.664 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See S. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 147.020 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religious Belief and Popular Culture in Southwark c.1880?1939 )] TJ ET BT 461.360 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1999\); and M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith, Religion in Industrial Society \(1994\) pp. 262-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.356 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.356 90.291 m 381.344 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, R. Elbourne, )] TJ ET BT 214.988 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Music and Tradition in Early Industrial Lancashire 1780?1840 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Woodbridge, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.996 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.996 61.779 m 218.984 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitaker, i. xiv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 47.523 m 196.328 47.523 l S endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 479.3117 147.6295 533.2997 159.5095 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.6757 119.1175 310.6637 130.9975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.3557 90.6055 381.3437 102.4855 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9957 62.0935 218.9837 73.9735 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 47.8375 196.3277 59.7175 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 1041 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Smith, pp. 34?40.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.000 795.075 m 289.988 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/444)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 322.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2421)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 235.9997 795.3895 289.9877 807.2695 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 322.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/444) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000000714 00000 n 0000004937 00000 n 0000005046 00000 n 0000005156 00000 n 0000005265 00000 n 0000008826 00000 n 0000008954 00000 n 0000009038 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000009193 00000 n 0000009229 00000 n 0000009320 00000 n 0000017257 00000 n 0000017287 00000 n 0000017415 00000 n 0000017451 00000 n 0000017481 00000 n 0000017609 00000 n 0000017645 00000 n 0000017729 00000 n 0000025706 00000 n 0000025736 00000 n 0000025862 00000 n 0000025898 00000 n 0000025989 00000 n 0000034139 00000 n 0000034169 00000 n 0000034295 00000 n 0000034331 00000 n 0000034361 00000 n 0000034487 00000 n 0000034523 00000 n 0000034635 00000 n 0000043188 00000 n 0000043316 00000 n 0000043371 00000 n 0000043499 00000 n 0000043554 00000 n 0000043681 00000 n 0000043736 00000 n 0000043862 00000 n 0000043917 00000 n 0000044043 00000 n 0000044098 00000 n 0000044189 00000 n 0000045283 00000 n 0000045411 00000 n 0000045466 00000 n 0000045594 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45689 %%EOF