%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221132803+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221132803+00'00') /Title (La premire Normandie \(Xe?XIe sicles\): sur les frontires de la haute Normandie: identit et construction d?une principaut) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4234 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(La premire Normandie \(Xe?XIe sicles\): sur les frontires de la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(haute Normandie: identit et construction d?une principaut)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1990s medieval historians were very preoccupied with border studies. No sooner had the dust settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the collapse of the Berlin Wall than medievalists were taking advantage of no frills air travel to jet off and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss borders, frontiers and marches. English interest in the history of Normandy predates the era of mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel, however, for the events of 1066 gave us an almost proprietorial interest in the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial principality on the other side of the English Channel that had provided the Norman kings and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman aristocracy. The publication therefore of this important new work by Pierre Bauduin, Matre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Conferences at the Universit de Caen, is to be warmly welcomed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early history of Normandy is a complex and well debated topic that has focussed on the survival of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish institutions in the area of northern France settled by the Vikings or Northmen, and on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assimilation of those Normans into Frankish society. Dominating the debate have been the two great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman historians of the second half of the twentieth century, Michel de Board and Lucien Musset. Board )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw the arrival of the Normans as a profound ?discontinuity? and, using the evidence of political institutions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he stated his case in, among other places, the pages of the )] TJ ET BT 313.292 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 535.292 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Board restated the traditional interpretation of Norman history, whereas the view that the old Frankish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estates had survived the disruption of the Norman settlement was advanced from 1945 by Musset, based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(445)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Bauduin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2841331458)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(469pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presses Universitaires de Caen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathleen Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his detailed archival research. It is this latter view of continuity that was taken up in 1982 in the first British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study devoted exclusively to the early history of Normandy by David Bates.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.308 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.308 780.819 m 413.300 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of the Norman border, where the emerging Norman polity came into contact with its neighbours, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly has much to contribute to this debate. At the very end of the Second World War, Jean-Franois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lemarignier published an investigation of feudal homage ceremonies that took place on borders, and Lucien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Musset himself has since discussed the frontier. The stimulus for Pierre Bauduin was, however, a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local studies which looked in detail at border zones. In the late 1980s Judith Green published a study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vexin, but it was the work of Grard Louise that inspired Pierre Bauduin. Louise spent more than twenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years studying the lordship of Bellme, where Normandy borders the county of Maine, and concluded that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?fentre ouverte? for the king of France. Bauduin?s ideas were also stimulated by a late intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuity debate by Eleanor Searle, who stressed the Scandinavian links of the Norman ducal family. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, in France an anthropological perspective has been used to great effect by Rgine Le Jan.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.228 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.228 626.259 m 538.220 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Bauduin has also taken account of much recent work on the text as construct. In this debate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important text is )] TJ ET BT 115.688 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De moribus et actis primorum Normanniae Ducum)] TJ ET BT 361.004 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the work of Dudo, a canon of Saint-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quentin in Picardy, who was commissioned at the beginning of the eleventh century by Duke Richard II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(996?1026\) to write a history of Normandy. There is no better description for what has happened to Dudo?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work than the neologism that it has been comprehensively ?rubbished?. The most damning critique was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Henri Prentout in the early twentieth century, but, as scholars have come to understand the cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literary context in which he operated, Dudo has to some extent been recalled from the depths of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disapproval.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 93.008 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 93.008 500.211 m 107.000 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In brief, Dudo presents a picture of a separate Norman people, who settled in an area deserted after years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to say generations, of Viking attack. After conversion to Christianity, it was the historic mission of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasty founded by Rollo, the Viking chief, to lead a new Christian people, the Normans. In their military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successes over their hostile Frankish neighbours, the newly Christianised Normans were presented as agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of divine punishment. Here we have the origin of the ?Norman myth?, discussed by R. H. C. Davis in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid 1970s, for the work of Dudo informs all the other Norman writers, such as William of Jumiges and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orderic Vitalis, both of whom developed the theme of the military prowess of the uniquely Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Normans. The image of Normandy that Dudo constructed has pervaded the historiography and still hangs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the early history of the principality.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.320 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.320 359.907 m 242.312 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After setting the historiographical and geographical contexts, Pierre Bauduin looks at the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers of upper Normandy. In the ninth century the name of one of the original Merovingian kingdoms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neustria, had survived and was still applied to the area west of Paris. Its administration had been revamped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to counter the power of the Breton rulers and, as Viking raids increased during the ninth century, expedients )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the fortified bridge at Ptres were devised to prevent Viking penetration of the inland areas. We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here in Marc Bloch?s first feudal age, when the castle is about to develop and defence is becoming localised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an additional perspective of the territorial strategies, pursued by individual families such as that led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert, marquis of Neustria.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Territory was ceded to the Viking leader Rollo by the Carolingian king, Charles the Simple \(893?922\), in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treaty of Clair-sur-Epte, conventionally dated to 911, although the earliest contemporary reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cession dates from 918. Bauduin sees this act in its Frankish context, as the king strove to maintain his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position against the increasing powers of the great lords. The king?s chosen ally, whom Bauduin describes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the ?king?s Norman? \(p. 134\), was admitted to the circle of Frankish lords, and the marriages of Rollo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his two children, William Longsword and Gerloc, into the families of the most important lords )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that acceptance. The foundation of Normandy was not a sign of Frankish weakness in the face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Viking attack, but a conscious act of policy, calculated to procure the services of a military leader of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proven worth, and those services were as likely to be used in internal power struggles as in repelling external )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The precise limits of the cession are unclear. Dudo indicates that the whole of the area now known as )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.3077 781.1335 413.2997 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.2277 626.5735 538.2197 638.4535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 93.0077 500.5255 106.9997 512.4055 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.3197 360.2215 242.3117 372.1015 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7384 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Normandy, together with Brittany was ceded, but there is no contemporary support for this. The annalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flodoard of Rheims in fact mentions three instances in which territory was ceded in 911, 924 and 933, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Bauduin?s research supports this view. His examination of material on the Evrecin, the area around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evreux in southern Normandy, could locate no satisfactory references to Norman influence there until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(980s, but he does identify coastal Picardy as an area of opportunity for the rulers of Rouen. After the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deposition of Charles the Simple in 922, the area was susceptible to rivalries. The counts of Flanders pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southward and the Norman rulers of Rouen moved east. The prize seems to have been, even at this early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage, the potentially lucrative connection with England. The counts of Flanders already had a family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection through the marriage of Baldwin II \(879?918\) to Aelfthryth, the daughter of King Alfred, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King Louis IV of France \(936?954\) was, of course, Louis d?Outremer, since he had been exiled among his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother Eadgifu?s people when his father, Charles the Simple, was deposed. The movement into Picardy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not without setback for the Normans, since the second member of Rollo?s dynasty, his son William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longsword \(933?42\), was killed at Picquigny by the agents of the count of Flanders, leaving a young son, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard I, and a lengthy minority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a hundred years from 888, the kingship of the Franks alternated between two families: Charles the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simple?s successors and the descendants of Robert, marquis of Neustria. Count Richard I of Rouen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(942?996\) developed an alliance with the latter family when he married Hugh the Great?s daughter Emma, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but after Hugh?s death in 956 that family lost influence. Some of their extensive property in the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neustria, particularly the area around Chartres and Chteaudun, slipped from their control into that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another family, whom historians describe as the Thibaudians after the family?s lead name of Theobald. Just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the marquises of Neustria had challenged the powers of the king, so now their own power was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmented. Rivalry between the newly-established Thibaudian family and the not-much-longer established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts of Rouen took off in the 960s as the Thibaudians sought the support of the Carolingian kings and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts of Rouen remained allied with the family of Hugh the Great.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the 980s and 990s the Evrecin was the site of their battles, and there was to be continued conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there right up to the 1060s, with Norman influence moving southwards only slowly. Pierre Bauduin has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measured this southward expansion of the counts of Rouen through claim and counter-claim to the town of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dreux and a meticulous examination of the history of local families and the strongholds they held. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assigns a particularly important role to Ralph, half-brother of Richard I, who held the castle of Ivry-la-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bataille on the River Avre. He suggests that Ralph was established here and at Pacy in the stand-off between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Normans and the Thibaudians at the end of the tenth century. He sees \(p. 210\) locally established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warriors gravitating to Ralph?s service at the castle, and bringing their customs with them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph of Ivry was among the first of the Norman lords to be given the title count. In contrast with the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inflation of the rest of northern France, where local lords started to call themselves counts, the Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts of Rouen kept the title for their own use until they adopted the style of dukes of Normandy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thereafter the title of count was sparingly conferred upon close family members, such as Ralph, who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given specific military tasks. The title thus retained, in some measure, the characteristics of the Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office of count: it was granted by the duke, it was revocable and it held the specific duties of defence and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration of the duke?s rights. Ralph of Ivry played an important role in the consolidation of ducal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, both on the southern frontier and further west in lower Normandy, and many of his interests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities descended to his son-in-law Osbern the Steward, and to his grandson, William fitz Osbern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the companion of the Conqueror. As pressure from the south again heightened in the 1050s, Duke William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built a castle at Breteuil, which he entrusted to William fitz Osbern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In considering the Norman/Picard border in the eleventh century, Pierre Bauduin notes a similar focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ducal influence at Arques, where William the Conqueror?s uncle William was established from the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1030s with the title of count. Another ducal cousin was established at Eu and by the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eleventh century a comital dynasty was in place. It was in this area that the Norman dukes made greatest use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the politics of matrimony. A sister of Duke Robert II \(1027?35\) was married to Baldwin IV of Flanders; a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ducal cousin, Godgifu, sister of Edward the Confessor, was married to the count of Boulogne; William the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conqueror married Matilda of Flanders. William?s sister Adelaide became the wife of the Count of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7206 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ponthieu, and there is detailed discussion of the emergence of the county of Aumale which she carried to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next two husbands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the eleventh century passed, however, the Vexin border became more problematic, and it was a raid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across this border that was to cost William the Conqueror his life in September 1087. The River Epte had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delineated the border of Norman influence since the earliest cession to Rollo, but the authority of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop of Rouen extended further south, and in the early eleventh century numerous Norman religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses held lands on either side of this frontier. Here the Normans? neighbours were the counts of Amiens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valois and Vexin, with whom, from the mid tenth century, relations were generally cordial, culminating in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the joint pilgrimage of Count Walter I and Duke Robert I of Normandy to the Holy Land in 1035. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1050s, however, there was a rapprochement between the counts and the kings of France, and William the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conqueror began to fortify this border, just as the others had been fortified. William Crespin was given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castle of Neaufles and Hugh of Grandmesnil was established at Neufmarch. The extraordinary retirement to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a monastery by Simon, Count of Amiens/Valois/Vexin in 1077 gave King Philip I \(1060?1107\) an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to seize his lands, and brought the king of France into direct contact across the River Epte with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the man who was now king of England, as well as duke of Normandy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Bauduin makes observations from the borders of Normandy and from there he discerns that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of political and territorial stability within the duchy in the tenth and eleventh centuries is illusory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The congruence of the duchy of Normandy and the archdiocese of Rouen was a product of the second half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tenth century as the energetic society that emerged there expanded beyond the limits of the original area )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceded to Rollo. Bauduin notes that during the eleventh century the dukes had the ability to control the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers through castles and the right of exile, but did so in partnership with a newly emerged aristocracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had territorialised their power, seized the profits of office and built castles. For Bauduin, William the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conqueror?s great achievement was to work with this aristocracy, when there was every likelihood that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these developments would weaken ducal power. Border security was achieved in a different way in each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector, but in the 1060s, as a result of the deaths of King Henry I of France and Geoffrey of Anjou, William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sufficiently confident to capitalise on the links with England that had been developing for two hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, and in September 1066 he set sail for England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, does this hold water? Bauduin?s analysis of the relationships of family to location is detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful, and he shows the dynamic of the ducal/aristocratic partnership at work. One lineage might gain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through ducal patronage at the expense of another; thus the Gournays benefitted from the fall of William of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arques in 1053, and the duke might offer a reliable man an opportunity in an area where he had no landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, just as he entrusted Hugh of Grandmesnil with Neufmarch. Bauduin is strong on this ducal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direction of the border families, but not every family can have been implanted at ducal behest. As Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence expanded from Rouen some locally established families must have been won over and convinced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the advantages of working with the ruler of Rouen or his agent. Just as Roger of Montgommery had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find ways of working with local families when William the Conqueror encouraged him to takeover the lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the south of Normandy inherited by his wife, Mabel of Bellme, so the Normans must have had to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with locals in earlier periods. Otherwise Musset?s argument about continuing institutions is undermined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now clearly it is not easy to find direct evidence for this. Bauduin comments on the absence of material both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the very early period and for the twenty years or so in which Richard I laid the foundations for Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity that is described by Dudo. Much has been deduced from examining the patrimony of Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious houses: the policy of Robert, marquis of Neustria is revealed in looking at the property of the abbey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of La Croix-Saint-Ouen \(p. 135ff\), while changing political fortunes in the north east are demonstrated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the College at La Fert-en-Bray \(p. 293\). Bauduin is adept at finding the less well known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources ? indeed, in her preface Regine Le Jan compliments him on his excellent knowledge of the written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, but there is, in the final analysis, not much material to be found. Thus might it not be the case that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the partnership of the dukes with a territorialised aristocracy that Bauduin sees in the eleventh century could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also be found in the tenth century, if we had the evidence? Might Dominique Barthelmy?s observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about revelation rather than revolution be helpful here?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 6963 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a splendidly produced book that is a credit to its publisher. It is notoriously difficult to get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genealogies right, but this reader found only one typographical error here ? in Table VII, the counts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ponthieu. There is a valuable appendix on the history of the counts of Evreux, as well as a dossier of 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts, 16 of them hitherto unpublished. Above all its contents are meticulously researched and carefully and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly presented. It is a thought provoking and important contribution, taking advantage of new approaches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to update our understanding of the emergence of the duchy of Normandy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michel de Board, ?De la Neustrie carolingienne la Normandie fodale, continuit ou )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuit??, )] TJ ET BT 142.676 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 364.676 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, xxviii \(1955\), 1?14; Lucien Musset, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Notes pour servir d?introduction l?introduction l?histoire foncire de la Normandie: les domaines )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de l?poque franque et les destines du rgime domanial du IXe au XIe sicle?, )] TJ ET BT 448.244 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bulletin de la Socit )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(des Antiquaires de Normandie)] TJ ET BT 210.344 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, xlix \(1942/5\), 7?97; David Bates, )] TJ ET BT 380.000 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Normandy before 1066 )] TJ ET BT 494.324 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.316 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.316 589.251 m 556.976 589.251 l S BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 574.995 m 90.344 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jean-Franois Lemarignier, )] TJ ET BT 198.980 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Recherches sur l?hommage en marche et les frontires fodales)] TJ ET BT 505.592 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lille, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1945\); Lucien Musset, ?Considrations sur la gense et le trac des frontires de la Normandie?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Media in Francia: recueil de mlanges offerts K. F. Werner)] TJ ET BT 360.644 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1989\), pp. 309?18; Judith Green, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Lords of the Norman Vexin? in )] TJ ET BT 223.316 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War and Government in the Middle Ages: Essays in Honour of J. O. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prestwich)] TJ ET BT 112.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , ed. John Gillingham and James Holt \(Woodbridge, 1984\), pp. 46?63; Grard Louise, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La seigneurie de Bellme Xe?XIIe sicles: dvolution des pouvoirs territoriaux et construction d?une )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seigneurie de frontire aux confins de la Normandie et du Maine la charnire de l?an mil )] TJ ET BT 506.312 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2 vols., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flers, 1992/3, special issues of )] TJ ET BT 214.340 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Pays bas-normand)] TJ ET BT 319.664 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); Eleanor Searle, )] TJ ET BT 406.304 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Predatory Kinship and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creation of Norman Power, 840?1066)] TJ ET BT 249.692 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, Calif., 1988\); Rgine Le Jan, )] TJ ET BT 447.992 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Famille et pouvoir )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dans le monde franc \(VIIe - Xe sicles\): essai d?anthropologie sociale)] TJ ET BT 401.960 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 469.952 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 469.952 432.435 m 523.940 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dudo of Saint-Quentin, )] TJ ET BT 180.008 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De gestis Normanniae ducum seu de moribus et actis primorum Normanniae )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ducum)] TJ ET BT 96.008 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Jules Lair \(Mmoires de la Socit des Antiquaires de Normandie, xxii \(1865\), transl. Eric )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christiansen, )] TJ ET BT 130.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Normans)] TJ ET BT 243.020 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 1998\)\); Henri Prentout, )] TJ ET BT 431.324 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tude critique sur Dudon )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de Saint-Quentin et son histoire des premiers ducs normands)] TJ ET BT 357.332 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1916\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.324 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.324 375.411 m 479.312 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. H. C. Davis, )] TJ ET BT 140.684 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Normans and their Myth)] TJ ET BT 280.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1976\); qualified by G. A. Loud, ?The Gens )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Normannorum ? myth or reality??, )] TJ ET BT 233.984 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Norman Studies)] TJ ET BT 343.652 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, iv \(1981\), 104?16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.308 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.308 346.899 m 492.296 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept this review and does not wish to add any comment at present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/445)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 322.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2423)] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.3157 589.5655 556.9757 601.4455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 575.3095 90.3437 587.1895 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 469.9517 432.7495 523.9397 444.6295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.3237 375.7255 479.3117 387.6055 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.3077 347.2135 492.2957 359.0935 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 257.9395 322.3157 269.8195 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/445) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000000718 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005113 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000005332 00000 n 0000008893 00000 n 0000009021 00000 n 0000009105 00000 n 0000009210 00000 n 0000016928 00000 n 0000016958 00000 n 0000017086 00000 n 0000017122 00000 n 0000017152 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000017316 00000 n 0000017346 00000 n 0000017473 00000 n 0000017509 00000 n 0000017539 00000 n 0000017667 00000 n 0000017703 00000 n 0000017768 00000 n 0000025205 00000 n 0000025270 00000 n 0000032529 00000 n 0000032648 00000 n 0000039664 00000 n 0000039792 00000 n 0000039847 00000 n 0000039973 00000 n 0000040028 00000 n 0000040156 00000 n 0000040211 00000 n 0000040339 00000 n 0000040394 00000 n 0000040522 00000 n 0000040577 00000 n 0000040705 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40800 %%EOF