%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150421151639+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150421151639+01'00') /Title (Review Article: Naval History of Britain) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2986 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Naval History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the bicentenary year of Trafalgar it is appropriate to remember that the history of Britain, its current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation and future prospects reflect an overwhelming geographical fact. Britain is a collection of islands at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once alongside, but not attached to the European Continent. Despite that, the study of naval history was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(446)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 March, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. A. M. Rodger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(140297243X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(716pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. A. M. Rodger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(713994118X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(972pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Lambert)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6470 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either ignored or deprecated by the historical profession for decades, left on the margins by the arcane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge that it required, and the apparent irrelevance of the naval power in the Cold War. By contrast the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military history of the British Isles, a subject of largely parochial concern for almost the whole of recorded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, was a significant growth area. There are still far more historians of armies at work in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities than there are of navies. This curious state of affairs has been reversed of late, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of sophisticated, inclusive works on key areas of wider historical debate; naval historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined these debates, while others have drawn on naval evidence to develop their own concerns. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporadic development required a major text to establish the case for naval history, it need wait no longer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These two books are the opening and central volume of a trilogy, )] TJ ET BT 349.628 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Safeguard of the Sea)] TJ ET BT 470.288 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared in 1997, begins in 660 and takes a far from rosy view of the costly, painful and only occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful development of naval power in the British Isles. Hoary old myths about King Alfred and Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VIII are challenged, along with the central assumption of modern authors that an insular location made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British kingdoms safer from invasion. In reality, before the eighteenth-century, navies were far better at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invading than defending, as William I and William III, amongst others, so ably demonstrated. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying progress of naval power as an instrument of state policy, and the wide-ranging consequences that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowed for any state attempting to use such a complex and costly instrument provide the narrative with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical core. Before 1066 an embryonic, but significant, English naval power bound the Celtic fringe to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in a mutually beneficial relationship, only to be destroyed by the advent of militaristic Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, which replaced inclusive political connection with armoured cavalry, castles and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjugation. The failure of the Norman kings to sustain a serious naval capability left their kingdoms open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion, just as their ambitions drew England into European politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his account of the early period, Rodger takes a far broader view of what constituted naval activity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles than that of his predecessors, stressing that his is not a history of the Royal Navy as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation. Instead he demonstrates how the development of modern naval power was a long and costly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business: naval power required more than ships. Without trained officers and men, effective infrastructure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and resources over the long term navies invariably withered, and the period from 1066 to the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century is littered with short lived attempts to sustain a naval impulse; not until the reign of Elizabeth did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English possess an effective sea force that could, if only just, defend them. The key to this development lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the economic pull of international commerce, and the political weight of those who traded by sea in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited monarchy that emerged. Without an adequate source of independent funds the crown was forced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call on parliament, and parliament was quick to ensure the crown spent the money that it raised on matters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial interest. While many have considered the impact of a ?military revolution? with standing armies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and extensive fortifications on the growth of the modern state, the political impact of naval power was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant. The modern bureaucratic state was built to raise and disburse money on a large scale, over long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. This was the central requirement for naval mastery. Standing armies, large and costly as they were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be created relatively quickly by comparison with effective navies. The naval revolution of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century played a key role in the creation of the modern English/British state, and continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate the development of national policy. )] TJ ET BT 254.996 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Safeguard)] TJ ET BT 304.328 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ends with the Navy divided by a Civil War in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought about by a royal attempt to raise funds for the navy independent of Parliament. It was only with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rosy hindsight of subsequent, more successful, generations that historians could manufacture a coherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whiggish version of the English/British naval past, filled glorious success and steady progress from such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7580 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not only has Professor Rodger unravelled the tangled skein of older naval histories, in itself a long overdue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(task, but more significantly he has replaced them with a more broadly based, inclusive and historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed narrative. The sheer scale and comprehensive quality of )] TJ ET BT 351.932 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Safeguard of the Seas)] TJ ET BT 477.260 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has made it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmark. While some aspects of the subject, naval and related, had already been examined, to achieve an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective overview extensive original research was required. The melding of these two streams of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a single, intellectually coherent, skilfully written and compelling narrative made it an immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. The re-appearance of )] TJ ET BT 180.944 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Safeguard)] TJ ET BT 230.276 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in paperback to coincide with the publication of the second volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is both welcome and timely ? there is no excuse for ignorance at this price.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Command of the Ocean)] TJ ET BT 168.668 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( follows the original in many ways, the key differences being the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of the extant literature on this period, which has reduced the scope for new research, and rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappearance of any other naval forces in the British Isles, leaving the Royal Navy as the undisputed focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of attention. For the seasoned student of eighteenth-century naval history there will be sections of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that have a familiar ring. The reason for this is that two of the standard books, and a host of important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles on which this account is based, were written by Professor Rodger. Elsewhere the lively debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted by the conduct and consequences of the American Revolutionary War, the career of Admiral Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelson, and the role of naval power in the Napoleonic conflict are addressed, and the conclusions manage to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combine an eye for detail with clear and coherent judgment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset Professor Rodger declares that his object is ?to put naval affairs back into the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain? \(p. lxiii\). Rather than a history of the Royal Navy, this is a British history, in which the Royal Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the central, but not necessarily the most important, figure. Instead naval history is connected with many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other approaches to the British past ? politics, diplomacy, trade, finance, social, technical, administrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural, medical and religious among others ? to create a better understanding of the purposes for which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so many battles were fought, and so many ships built. The central issue in this volume is the maintenance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval dominance in European waters, which is characterised as ?the largest, longest, most complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive project ever undertaken by the British state and society. Few aspects of national life were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unaffected by it, and no history of Britain can be complete which ignores it? \(p. lxv\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both books proceed in four distinct but interwoven strands, covering policy, strategy and operations; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finance, logistics and administration; the social history of officers and men; and the ships and systems that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they employed. Each strand can be read alone, or followed throughout the whole text. The two books have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been very well produced; the maps alone put other publishers to shame, while the illustrations are liberal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well chosen. Both conform to the old maxim about pictures and words, which for a text of this scale is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a tribute. The scholarly apparatus are equally powerful, which is exactly what is required in a work that will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be consulted for decades by students and scholars ignorant of the basics, and needing the guidance it offers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The index of )] TJ ET BT 98.336 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Command)] TJ ET BT 147.668 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( runs to forty pages, the sources to ninety, the endnotes one hundred, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossary thirty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is so much to read and consider in a book of this scale and ambition that it is necessary to keep both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the global and the specific in view. For many years serious naval history came in two forms, the first a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowly focussed professional study suitable for the education of admirals and the generation of naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrine, the second a narrative approach that retailed events, but ignored their wider context. Only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally did such works reach a wider historical audience. The best known work in the field, Captain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred Thayer Mahan?s )] TJ ET BT 151.640 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660?1783)] TJ ET BT 410.288 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1890, reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many things, but historical scholarship was not on the list. Mahan, then teaching strategy and tactics to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American naval officers, simply published his lectures, which were a carefully crafted argument for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States to acquire a battlefleet navy. The book found a ready audience around the world because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial rivalries had transformed the market for navies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the same decade )] TJ ET BT 128.648 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 178.316 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( naval correspondent William Laird Clowes launched his project to compile a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative history of the Royal Navy. Eventually published in seven massive volumes, with many authors, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ponderous, antiquarian appearance of Clowes?s work ensured that it remained on library shelves. It was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6970 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemned by serious historians because it had illustrations rather than footnotes, and made few concessions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the needs of scholars in other areas of historical study. In the interval several complete histories have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essayed, but the scale and complexity of the task has hitherto seen such efforts repeat Clowes?s approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relying on a team of authors to write a single volume history of the Royal Navy. The end of empire and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval supremacy left British naval history without natural focus, or any sense of purpose. Always a marginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature in the historical profession, it seemed to be slipping away, outmoded and irrelevant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1945 the combination of nuclear threat, post-imperial retreat, European integration and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malaise led many historians to ignore the meaning of the sea for Britain. The sea no longer connected Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to her colonies, nor ensured her security. The movement of trade by sea suddenly disappeared from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national consciousness as distant container terminals replaced downtown docks and old fashioned manual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour. Air travel killed off the last long distance passenger services, leaving the sea as a pleasant holiday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backdrop. In 1966 the order for a large new aircraft carrier was cancelled, the country could not afford it and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were higher priorities for defence spending. Soon the navy had no capital ships and no role outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NATO area. By the early 1970s a ?declinist? view had taken hold, it was all over with Britain, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently her unique national arm, the Royal Navy, was an irrelevance that could be examined with all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the detachment of a exhumed skeleton.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1976 Paul Kennedy rose to the challenge of imposing a coherent pattern on the subject: his )] TJ ET BT 486.284 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fall of British Naval Mastery )] TJ ET BT 179.024 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains a landmark in naval history as the first large scale post-imperial text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that integrated the navy with the fortunes of the state. The work was informed by economic analysis, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief that the subjects under review, Britain and the Royal Navy had reached a state of terminal decrepitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such that their past could be now assessed free of any concern that they might have a future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But much has happened since then ? economic recovery, the Falklands conflict, the end of the Cold War, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new global perspectives have restored the Royal Navy to the centre of current defence planning. Two new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aircraft carriers have been ordered, each larger than the one cancelled in 1966. Perhaps history is not circular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Against this shifting backdrop and seeming reversal of fortune, naval history re-emerges, not as a slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombastic catalogue of glory, leading to the majestic fleet that appeared for Edward VII?s coronation review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1902, but as a subject that has grown up and now confidently examines the relative lack of success of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service, the problems that limited the application of naval power in European warfare, and the place of naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity in national history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, naval history was hardly a suitable subject for a university based historian, and modern navies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred to chase contemporary relevance. It should be stressed that Professor Rodger began this project as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an independent scholar, and something of that detachment survives in the book. It does not make a parade of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its agendas, nor does it show much concern for academic fashion. Instead it addresses the large, growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market for original naval history that has sustained the subject for many years, as well as the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community for whom it will be such a boon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The success of the book as a powerful analytical narrative reflects many qualities. The range of sources is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking, both in the sheer scale of material now available for the period. By the eighteenth century the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Navy was regularly dealing with the full range of European nations, and not a few outside, echoed here in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rodger?s adept handling of the scholarly output of France and Spain, Portugal and Holland, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian powers, Russia, Italian and German states, not to mention Turkey. Similarly the domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background is not stinted; this should be the end of any old fashioned nonsense that armed forces, ancient or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern, can be considered as organisations distinct from the society they serve. The Royal Navy reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the strengths and weaknesses of the state, from the poverty-stricken finances of the Stuart Restoration to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinking culture that shattered the constitutions of so many officers and men in the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While there is much to instruct and enlighten naval historians of Britain and other powers, the greatest merit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this work will be the impact that it has on other branches of historical scholarship in Britain. No longer )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will it possible for historians to be ignorant of the naval dimension of British history, of the central role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Navy in the development of the state and its bureaucracy, of its ships, people, supplies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dockyards, its politics and its costs. Throughout the period under review the Royal Navy was the largest item )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the national budget, and its roots were deep in the country, indeed the National Debt was created to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it running. Nor does the conclusion disappoint. Rodger outlines the main theories that have sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysts of the utility or otherwise of naval power to the British in war and peace, and demolishes them all as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outmoded and ahistorical, prisoners of their age and their authors. Instead he develops an approach in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation produced an insecurity, both real and imagined, that propelled the state to develop and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain a Navy configured for insular security, even if it was frequently unable to deliver. The idea that sea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power is the product of democracies, made popular by the American strategic analyst Mahan in 1890, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep roots ? it was an Athenian boast in the days of Aristotle ? is similarly cast aside. Unlikely heroes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge: Charles II and James II created an effective navy, but lacked the money to employ it effectively. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliamentary control proved to be less competent, but provided access to far larger financial resources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The creation of a powerful fiscal state, combined with democratic control, provided the post-1688 navy with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finances to fight for more than two seasons. The eighteenth-century navy was funded and run by Parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which made it popular in a way that the king?s army never could be. The necessary resources were provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by overseas trade, and it was the intimate link with commerce, the key economic growth area, that ensured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its popularity with the City of London. The same qualities that made the City prosperous, a flexible society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and significant capital to generate extensive overseas trade, ensured the navy had the finances and logistics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to develop from a local force for the summer in the Channel to the first truly global instrument of power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The capabilities of the service expanded to secure the interests of commerce, and while this connection was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged on both sides, the prosperity and power of the British state were securely grounded. Only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the navy lost sight of commercial imperatives would Britain face disaster. But that would be to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipate the final volume. Instead we should end, as Professor Rodger does, in 1815 when the Royal Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had no rival, no equal: it had ?the Command of the Ocean? and would not be tested again for another century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Command of the Ocean)] TJ ET BT 168.668 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has earned laudatory reviews in the quality press and strong sales, testament to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power and quality of a work that augurs well for naval history in the twenty-first century. A subject once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolated and dispersed has been mastered, organised and given a form that it will retain for many years to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come. Above all this is a work that both sets the baseline for all future research, and opens the next round of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview7)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 276.627 m 417.956 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.956 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3624527/Mastery-of-the-sources-and-the-seas.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 248.115 m 483.944 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 486.944 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 244.783 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 227.003 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 227.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/446)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 225.609 m 322.316 225.609 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 200.632 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2425)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2429)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview7)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3624527/Mastery-of-the-sources-and-the-seas.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 276.9415 417.9557 288.8215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview7) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 248.4295 483.9437 260.3095 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/3624527/Mastery-of-the-sources-and-the-seas.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 225.9235 322.3157 237.8035 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/446) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000632 00000 n 0000003670 00000 n 0000003779 00000 n 0000003889 00000 n 0000003998 00000 n 0000007559 00000 n 0000007687 00000 n 0000007771 00000 n 0000007836 00000 n 0000014359 00000 n 0000014424 00000 n 0000022057 00000 n 0000022122 00000 n 0000029145 00000 n 0000029243 00000 n 0000035576 00000 n 0000035703 00000 n 0000035830 00000 n 0000035957 00000 n 0000036098 00000 n 0000036226 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36321 %%EOF