%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075912+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075912+01'00') /Title (The Bar and the Old Bailey, 1750?1850) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4158 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Bar and the Old Bailey, 1750?1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second half of the eighteenth century saw a revolution in the character of the English criminal trial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What we observe, Allyson May informs us, is 'the transformation of the criminal trial from a private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altercation between victim and accused into a contest between paid advocates' \(p. 1\). Within a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, the feature that most distinguishes the Anglo-American judicial regime, the adversarial trial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged. The work of John Beattie and John Langbein has helped us to see the importance of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation and to chart its rough chronological limits. May's volume adds a vital dimension to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier scholarship. She fills in the flesh and bones of the story by giving us a greater sense of the identity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the men who were largely responsible for bringing about this change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her subject is the Old Bailey Bar, the barristers who defended the accused who appeared at the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal court in London. May seeks to carry us beyond the crude caricatures and sweeping generalisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that have passed for historical comment on this collection of men. She provides us with a more concrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of who appeared at the Old Bailey and how often. The more precise delineation of the chronology of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing practice alone would have established the value of her book. In this well-crafted, gracefully written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, she makes a substantial contribution not only to legal history, but to the social history of England as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. Yet the implications of her work extend beyond filling in a significant lacuna in the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship. Her account demonstrates that the principal actors in the drama were largely unconscious of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 April, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allyson May)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(807828068X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(373pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of North Carolina Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapel Hill, NC)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randell McGowen)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7056 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous change they were helping to bring about. Although she does not trumpet her revisionism, this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a book that challenges how we think about the evolution of legal practice. As such, it is a substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the ongoing controversy over how we evaluate the merits of the adversarial system as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May faced considerable challenges as she undertook her project. The barristers who worked at the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey were not leaders of the legal profession. The occupation might have provided an adequate income for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more successful practitioners, but it was scarcely the path to the heights of the profession. Aside from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careers of a few celebrities, criminal business was confined to the low end of legal world. There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something ungentlemanly about the trade. Worse still, an unpleasant taint clung to those who sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal business. 'As a blanket description,' May informs us, '"Old Bailey barrister" quickly acquired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative associations, and the posthumous reputation of most practitioners is ambiguous' \(p. 133\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype offered a portrait of a half ignorant lawyer who grubbed for loose change. In sum, the Old Bailey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bar was composed of obscure men whose biographies were seldom written and whose papers were rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved. They were, by and large, journeymen advocates who were not much noticed in their own time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were little remembered after their deaths. May has had to cut through the layers of anecdote and slander )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to get at the truth of the occupation. She has patiently and exhaustively combed through the available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources to produce a collective portrait of the bar during this pivotal period. Her appendix offers a nice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary of this evidence. What immediately becomes apparent from her discussion of this material is what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a curious and largely undistinguished group of men helped to produce one of the most significant legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of the last two centuries. They did not contribute much to the legal literature of the day. The public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never held them in much esteem. They were often the butt of jokes and the target of scorn. They were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as the champions of the rights of the accused, and they did not see themselves in that light. Mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they struggled to make what appeared to be an inadequate living from a nasty trade. Yet the consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their activity were immense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although much of her explanation for this transformation in the conduct of legal defense is implicit, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that May has thought long and hard about the paradox of such rough material bringing it about. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension of rights to the accused was not the goal of a political or legal campaign, not on the part of the bar, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and scarcely on the part of the public. It came about more indirectly, the result of decisions made by figures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had no intention of making a legal revolution. The crucial moment in this story developed not out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly emerging ideas surrounding the rights of the accused, but rather from a desire to secure them greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairness in courtroom proceedings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judges were the crucial factor behind the shifting balance between defense and prosecution. They came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept a wider scope for the activities of lawyers, first in prosecution, and then, in reaction, in defence. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were two aspects to this change. A small but growing number of victims of crime turned to lawyers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertake the prosecution of offenders. Even more important, the increasing role of rewards and of crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness protection in aiding eighteenth-century policing raised doubts in the minds of some legal authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about their ability to maintain the purity of justice. The danger here, as several celebrated cases made clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was perjury on the part of those who sought rewards or to escape the consequences of their actions by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helping to convict another. The spectacle of unsavory thief-takers appearing as witnesses created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable anxiety in juries. Judges saw a need for innocence to be protected by a more aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense, one that could expose the operation of motives to lie on the part of some shady characters. May tells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us that)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Judicial tolerance of the presence of defense counsel \(and occasionally of their unruly behavior\) must owe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in large part to recognition of the fact that counsel, through cross-examination, were much more likely than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an unrepresented layman to expose the perjured testimony and deliberate perversions of the truth that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plagued the eighteenth-century justice system' \(p. 29\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this opening, ambitious counsel like William Garrow set a pattern for how to examine unreliable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses. A combative style produced results. Garrow chose this path because it led to success in trial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judges tolerated the conduct. Here, again, is the paradox: even as they were innovators, the Old Bailey )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6748 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barristers remained overwhelmingly practical men. A few outstanding personalities set the pace, but no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound agenda or ideological preference guided their actions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May develops this point in greater detail when she considers the major piece of legislation that touched upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of defense counsel, the Prisoners' Counsel Act of 1836. One might have expected the Old Bailey Bar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have played a major role in the decade-long campaign to secure the passage of this measure, if only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because its passage would be bound to have an impact on their practice. On the contrary, the members of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bar had no part in promoting the act. It was the pet project of 'a small group of Whig politicians' \(p. 200\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the debate was raging, and a few members of Parliament staked out radical positions, the members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bar were silent. Some even expressed doubts about the wisdom of the change. Again, like the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men they were, they had reservations about a move that would transform the institutional rules under which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had learned to operate. Even those among them who took more advanced political positions when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to other causes doubted that the grant would benefit their clients or improve the operation of justice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One example of the complexity of May's vision of the story is that she does not terminate her study with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1836. Rather she examines how a measure that might be seen as marking the triumph of the new position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact disguises a more contradictory situation. She reminds us, for instance, that throughout this longer period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a minority of the accused had defense counsel. Trials continued to be short, with little attention to legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(niceties. Still more interesting is her presentation of how the arrival of the lawyers raised practical and moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for the practitioners of a sort that they were ill-equipped to handle. In 1840, the Courvoisier trial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed an unanticipated dilemma for defense counsel. In this case a servant was on trial for having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murdered his employer, Lord William Russell. Half way through the trial, Courvoisier confessed his guilt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his lawyer, the celebrated Charles Phillips. Still, he asked Phillips to defend him to the best of his abilities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After some hesitation, Phillips determined that he was obliged to continue. While his decision angered some, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it later became known, it was even more the intensity of his defence that alarmed others. He cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspersions on how the police had handled the case, and he raised doubts about the veracity of prosecution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses. His conduct angered much of the public. The papers and journals debated the question of how far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a barrister should go in defending such a client. As May suggests, two opposing views of the purpose of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial surfaced during the controversy. One held that the point of the trial was to discover the truth about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case. In some sense this was the understanding that governed eighteenth-century judicial process. The other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised that the goal was to see that justice was done. This position implied that the process was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important than the outcome. The choice of one principle over the other carried profound consequences for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how defense counsel should behave. Parliament, when it passed the Prisoners' Counsel Act, did not foresee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this question would become one of the most troubling a lawyer would face. 'The nature of the duty owed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by counsel to a guilty client did not form part of the politicians' discussion' \(p. 202?3\). Here is a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustration of May's central thesis, that the entrenched arguments that swirl around the adversarial system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today played little role in the rise of that system.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most intriguing aspects of May's work is her suspension of judgment about the outcome of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating and convoluted history. She is an agnostic on the question of whether this transformation was 'for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good or ill' \(p. 6\). Some scholars have raised the adversarial system into one of the pillars of criminal justice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while others have questioned whether it works in anybody's interest. May unsettles the debate by showing us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how unexpected was the course of this story, and how little the intentions of the actors dictated the result. 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