%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140421055428+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140421055428+01'00') /Title (The Seaside, Health and the Environment in England and Wales since 1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4125 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Seaside, Health and the Environment in England and Wales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(since 1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hassan sets himself an ambitious task in a book that ?endeavours to trace humanity?s changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with nature over the last 200 years? \(p. 7\). Concentrating on the coast focuses the challenge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially given that much attention is on more ?parochial problems? and ?local difficulties? \(p. 7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the scope of the book is impressive if not encyclopaedic. The study investigates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental, health and socio-economic forces, along with their interaction and impact on the coastline. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These aims and approaches are set out in chapter 1 which highlights the multi-disciplinary nature of work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seaside alongside introductory discussions of the ways of understanding polluted environments and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the beach as a marginal liminal zone. The author stresses the contributions made by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographers in terms of the environmental impacts of tourism development in coastal areas, but in doing so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglects most of the recent contributions by tourism geographers. In addition, the author draws attention to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further aim \(p. 14\) concerning the paradoxical situation of contemporary coastal resorts. These are viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by many as in terminal decline yet the recreational use of the coast is as popular as ever, although closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspection of individual resorts would show strong differences in growth rates depending on the size, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location and character of the resort. That such a variation of demand forms part of the threat to such coastal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(449)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hassan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1840142650)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(309pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=1450&edition_id=1521)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Shaw)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7801 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments is again of significance to the aims of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the introduction the author develops his ideas in chronological order within nine chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2, ?Georgian origins?, leads the reader through the development of maritime spas and the rise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picturesque. This is well referenced and contains a reasonable number of detailed examples, although little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new is revealed in terms of the history of resort development. The Victorian and Edwardian expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts and their spreading popularity is detailed in chapter 3, with the author drawing on a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary guides. It is in this discussion that the reader is informed that the book?s ?prime interest is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the aquatic environment? \(p. 48\). Within this context, details are given of attempts to improve sewerage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and drainage systems, but despite these efforts we are told that some ?improved outfalls did not even ? reach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(low water mark? \(p. 49\). Given the large number of resorts and their different patterns of development the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author attempts to highlight these experiences by focusing on three large popular resorts. These are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool, Bournemouth and Aberystwyth, the first two of which already have accounts by historians. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walton?s work on Blackpool is heavily used by Hassan, as is the study of Bournemouth by Roberts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.312 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.312 612.003 m 529.304 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These enable the author to construct a reasonably detailed account of the activities of the local state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping policies towards growth and, more importantly, to improving public health. All three resorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight the tensions and stresses between growth and environmental problems, including public health. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hassan concludes that ?there were some common features in the development of all three towns? \(p. 69\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also recognises their differences. From the available evidence it appears that Bournemouth ?made serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to conserve and enhance the natural environment? of its coastal areas \(p. 69\). On the whole all three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell short of solving their environmental problems mainly as a result of ?municipal economism?. But in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect the seaside town was little different to other urban communities. As the author concludes, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian and Edwardian period of resort development was largely characterised by a resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration \(p. 71\) both within and between neighbouring settlements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is mainly in the later chapters that some of the key themes of the book are discussed in more concrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways. In chapter 4, for example, ?Escape to sun and light?, the healthiness of ?the fresh and sunny climate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coast? \(p. 82\) is examined. This discussion draws a great deal on the cultural interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary material and also draws from a range of disciplines, including sociology and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography. In introducing this approach at the start of the chapter, there is a need to spend a little more time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in highlighting these contributions rather than merely listing them. Nevertheless, the chapter contains some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting and thought provoking points. For example, Hassan explores and contests some of the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements about the avoidance of sun exposure by pointing out that much contemporary literature in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century expounded the health-giving benefits of coastal sunshine. In citing ?the deep depressions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ill-health suffered by inhabitants of damp and foggy cities? \(p. 85\) Hassan highlights that opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the role of sunshine in promoting health living. Such benefits eventually became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(championed through the activities of the British Health Resorts Association \(BHRA\) established in 1931. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This organisation promoted health tourism, although Hassan argues that there was something of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompatibility between the growing commercialisation of resorts as ?playgrounds? and their role as health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts. He contends that most seaside resorts were only interested in the idea of the BHRA as a means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extending the summer season. This may be so, but such a view calls for more evidence than presented here. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, the 1930s witnessed the rapid development of open-air pools, with the growth of the lido and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratisation of such cultures across most coastal resorts. These processes of widening access, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialisation and corporate activity also corresponded to a period in which some social ?norms? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the beach as a ?liminal zone? \(p. 103\). By introducing such ideas at this point in the chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hassan attempts to draw attention to the conflicts in resorts during the interwar period. He does, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miss some important studies of the beach as a liminal zone that would add significantly to the detail of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. Of particular note in this context is Ryan?s discussion of the beach as a liminal margin along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its ?industrialisation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.688 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.688 115.299 m 177.680 115.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.680 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hassan draws brief attention at the conclusion of chapter 4 to the rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sunbathing with the health scares of melanoma towards the end of the twentieth century. But for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts the beach had started to fade in commercial value long before this, as other leisure opportunities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being exploited instead.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.3117 612.3175 529.3037 624.1975 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6877 115.6135 177.6797 127.4935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7331 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such changes are in part explored by Hassan in chapter 5, which details the rapid growth of seaside holidays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the interwar period. The buoyant nature of demand led to changing patterns of growth and new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments. Of particular importance was the growing suburbanisation of the coastline as holiday camps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hotels and especially bungalows grew outside or along the edges of established resorts. This took place in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of only limited planning and before the introduction of the 1947 Town and Country Planning Act, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced a mass of unregulated growth, although the 1932 Town and Country Planning Act had, in theory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided some limited mechanisms for local authorities. This resulted in what Hassan describes as ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coastline under attack? \(p. 112\). Such mass popularity and the associated unfettered growth away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts themselves produced a reaction from leading preservationists. Organisations such as the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trust and the Council for the Protection of Rural England \(CPRE\) sought some form of control. Interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such issues amongst the middle classes was growing and, as Hassen explains, the Women?s Institute, at their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual conference in 1936 ?demanded that the coasts of Great Britain should be recognised as a National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asset of growing importance? \(p. 116\). More effective intervention came via the National Trust which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(started to acquire patches of coastline from the mid 1890s, although progress was slow during the interwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. Other pressure groups included the CPRE and the Coastal Preservation Committee.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to concerns about the impact of tourism on the coastal landscape, there was far less attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to aquatic environments. Perhaps in part this was due to the increasing use of open-air pools for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bathing at the expense of the sea. Improvements in public health were also a factor although, as Hassan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, there was still complacency over the capacity of the marine environment to absorb waste without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming too polluted. An interesting conclusion to this discussion is provided by a continuation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes taking place in the three case study resorts introduced in chapter 4. Indeed, despite Bournemouth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to improve its local environment the town and its surroundings were hit by a typhoid epidemic in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1936.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conflicts and controversies of the interwar years become somewhat more marked during the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?golden years? of seaside resorts, )] TJ ET BT 197.300 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 202.628 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1945 to 1976 \(chapter 6\). However, visitors to many beaches still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encountered polluted environments, and according to Hassan this was mainly caused by ?the continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence on the marine disposal of sewage? \(p. 136\). Even by 1966 just less than 15 per cent of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities in England discharged into the sea using full sewage treatment works. Further outbreaks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typhoid in resorts such as Aberystwyth in the 1940s served to highlight problems. This led to exposure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sewage disposal shortcomings by the media and professional bodies. The state responded slowly to such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns and the lack of any consistent pressure saw such issues drift out of government interest. The local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns over these issues are highlighted by discussions of reactions in Blackpool and Bournemouth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If action toward beach pollution continued to be rather ineffective during those ?golden years?, the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be said of the threat to the coastal landscape. The potential of the 1947 Act was, however, slow to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised or at least put into full operation. As a consequence, ?poorly constructed conservation and coastal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning policies prevailed in the 1950s and 1960s? \(p. 161\). Part of the problem, which to some extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hassan does not fully explore, was the incompatibility between the growth of mass tourism and the need for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservation. In many coastal resorts small-scale businesses dominated the local political scene and only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw opportunities for growth if tourism numbers increased and commercial developments of all types were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed, and any talk of restraining growth was challenged by such groups. By the early 1970s conservation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures were being introduced with the support of the department of environment. Thus, by 1987 some 28 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent of the coastline in England and Wales had been designated ?Heritage Coasts?. However, as Hassan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warns, the extent of some of the non-statutory protection may be inadequate faced with increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial pressures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main group of responses to the conflicts and threats of the post-war years are considered in chapter 7, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which focuses on the activities of the Coastal Anti-Pollution League between 1958 and 1987. As Hassan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts, this organisation ?has an historical interest in bridging the almost moribund post-war era with a later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of mass environmental activism? \(p. 172\). The early parts of the chapter discuss the foundation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Pollution League, providing the reader with background for understanding its approach and activities. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7540 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a closely argued chapter which rather overwhelms the reader with too much detail; more statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting key activities that would have helped to structure the discussion. This does come rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belatedly in the chapter \(p. 187\) when consideration is given to the League?s impact. What we do learn is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the League faced considerable opposition from organisations such as the British Resorts Association, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which recommended its members not help the League to grade beaches, leading to the construction of the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called ?Golden List?. This was essentially a list of clean beaches in England and Wales which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published at various times by the Coastal Anti-Pollution League. The suspicion of this was deep rooted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British tourism and, if anything, was symptomatic of the lack of foresight shown by the tourism industry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 1970s and early 1980s. This not only affected attitudes to environmental improvement but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretched to the neglect of the infrastructure of the resorts themselves. Added to this was a shift in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of tourists, demands that were being increasingly satisfied from the mass holiday resorts of Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other Mediterranean destinations. If there is one main shortcoming of this chapter it is that it fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place the activities of the League in a broader comprehensive setting of the ?management? of resorts at this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complexities of environmental interests and associated pressure groups is a theme continued in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8, which considers the environmental awakenings of the 1970s and 1980s. Curiously we are introduced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another objective of the book, ?to trace the evolution of society?s attitude towards the coastal environment? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 192\). To some extent this is a refinement of the aims discussed in the introduction and the reader is left to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ponder an ever growing set of aims and objectives. It may have been better to state all of these more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly at the start and link them to specific chapters. Whilst this may have smacked of a PhD thesis, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have helped to contextualise the work, certainly for the student market.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These issues aside, chapter 8 provides a detailed discussion of British society?s increasing awareness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental issues. This in itself is not new, but Hassan does draw out the implications of such interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within coastal areas. The take-off of environmentalism as a mass movement occurred during the late 1970s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the 1980s, as Hassan attempts to show using evidence of growing memberships of organisations such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the RSPB and Greenpeace. What is lacking from his analysis is a record of the changing public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the environment as evidenced in various consumer surveys. That these changes occurred during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time also reflects broader changes in consumer culture and society. Many sociologists have drawn attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the impact of the ?new middle classes? and environmental issues.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.968 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.968 371.907 m 374.960 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.960 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To some extent Hassan fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engage with these ideas, which is a pity as they have helped to structure debates on the rise of sustainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism as a new form of consumption. Indeed, the whole notion of sustainable tourism is ignored by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author, which seems strange given the impact of these ideas and the influence on the management of fragile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourism environments. By adopting a more tourism based framework it could be argued that the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have a sounder explanatory framework, and it would help focus the debate more fully on coastal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts. Thus, the discussion on the bathing water directive is very much rooted in the details of legislation at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both national and European levels. In this sense the reader finds it hard to agree with Hassan?s conclusion to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter, which argues that resorts attempted to differentiate the product being offered to tourists by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving greater or lesser attention to environmental protection, mainly because there is little concrete evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for this assertation within this chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The activities of environmental pressure groups are given detailed attention in chapter 9. This brings the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate into the 1990s and considers the actions and agendas of such groups as Surfers Against Sewage. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single interest groups stand in contrast to the agendas of the coastal Anti-Pollution League, and Hassan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes an interesting set of comparisons here. The chapter concludes with a rather optimistic view of the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of beach awards and standards, although the author does raise issues of ?the ease with which Seaside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Awards can be secured? \(p. 235\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book concludes with a discussion on the environmental challenges and difficulties of sustaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic growth in seaside resorts. It is at this point that the book exhibits its failure to engage with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary debates within tourism studies, especially within the policy arena. For example, there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition given to the role of the national tourist boards in England and Wales in their attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand the problems facing resorts or, more importantly, to find possible management solutions. In this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.9677 372.2215 374.9597 384.1015 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 6407 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context we are told nothing about the shifting policy initiatives of the English Tourist Board and its now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defunct successor the English Tourism Council. Much of the work, though not all, is reflected in the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tourism Council?s report on resorts published in 2001.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.336 766.563 m 313.328 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.328 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This, along with work attempting to develop a set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sustainable tourism indicators, at least put forward a set of ideas about the strategies available to resorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for future development. Finally, it is worth pointing out that with the demise of the English Tourism Council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the disbandment of some regional tourist boards, policy making for seaside resorts is thrown back to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local level with all the potential pitfalls that may bring.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In summary, the book has gaps in its discussions and in some instances it does not always achieve its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious aims. However, on the whole it is well written and contains a wealth of detail. In this context it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sits well with some of the recent books on seaside resorts. It provides some complementary material to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas developed by Walton, especially to his chapter on ?seaside environments?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.608 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.608 640.515 m 434.600 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.600 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It also draws attention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as does Walton?s book, to the relative neglect of the coastal resort within recent debates on tourism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, there is still a shortage of texts exploring the complexities of contemporary British resorts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K.Walton, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool)] TJ ET BT 176.336 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\); R. Roberts, 'Leasehold estates and municipal enterprise: landowners, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local government and the development of Bournemouth )] TJ ET BT 335.648 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 340.976 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1850-1914' in ed. D. Canadine, )] TJ ET BT 496.784 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patricians, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power and Politics in Nineteenth-Century Towns)] TJ ET BT 300.356 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.348 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.348 517.971 m 392.336 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Ryan, ?Memories of the Beach?, in )] TJ ET BT 250.652 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tourist Experience)] TJ ET BT 363.308 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. C. Ryan \(1997; 2nd ed. 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.628 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.628 503.715 m 560.288 503.715 l S BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 90.344 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Munt, 'The "other" postmodern tourism: culture travel and the new middle classes', )] TJ ET BT 475.412 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory, Culture )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Society)] TJ ET BT 119.672 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11.3 \(1994\), 101-125; J. Urry, )] TJ ET BT 273.320 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Tourist Gaze: Leisure and Travel in Contemporary )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Societies)] TJ ET BT 106.676 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.668 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.668 446.691 m 198.656 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Tourism Council, )] TJ ET BT 191.360 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sea Changes: Creating World-Class Resorts in England)] TJ ET BT 462.032 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.024 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.024 432.435 m 554.012 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Seaside: Holidays and Resorts in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 456.344 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 403.923 m 118.004 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author thanks Gareth Shaw for an exhaustive and fair review of the book, and this being the case does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 293.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 275.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 275.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/449)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 274.137 m 322.316 274.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 249.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2434)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.3357 766.8775 313.3277 778.7575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6077 640.8295 434.5997 652.7095 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.3477 518.2855 392.3357 530.1655 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.6277 504.0295 560.2877 515.9095 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 489.7735 90.3437 501.6535 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.6677 447.0055 198.6557 458.8855 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.0237 432.7495 554.0117 444.6295 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 404.2375 118.0037 416.1175 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 274.4515 322.3157 286.3315 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/449) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004840 00000 n 0000004949 00000 n 0000005059 00000 n 0000005168 00000 n 0000008729 00000 n 0000008857 00000 n 0000008941 00000 n 0000009032 00000 n 0000016886 00000 n 0000016916 00000 n 0000017044 00000 n 0000017080 00000 n 0000017110 00000 n 0000017238 00000 n 0000017274 00000 n 0000017339 00000 n 0000024723 00000 n 0000024807 00000 n 0000032400 00000 n 0000032430 00000 n 0000032558 00000 n 0000032594 00000 n 0000032734 00000 n 0000039194 00000 n 0000039224 00000 n 0000039352 00000 n 0000039388 00000 n 0000039418 00000 n 0000039546 00000 n 0000039582 00000 n 0000039710 00000 n 0000039765 00000 n 0000039893 00000 n 0000039948 00000 n 0000040074 00000 n 0000040129 00000 n 0000040257 00000 n 0000040312 00000 n 0000040440 00000 n 0000040495 00000 n 0000040622 00000 n 0000040677 00000 n 0000040805 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40900 %%EOF