%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150327152335+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150327152335+00'00') /Title (Defender of Minorities. Paul Schiemann, 1876?1944) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4633 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Defender of Minorities. Paul Schiemann, 1876?1944)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hiden?s book on Paul Schiemann, the Baltic German ?defender of minorities?, is a highly welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution not only to the history of Baltic Germans or the Baltic States, but also to European twentieth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century history as a whole. Schiemann was one of the most prominent liberal journalists in Riga, a politician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully devoted to the interests of the German minority )] TJ ET BT 290.324 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 308.324 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( his home country, and, as one of the leaders of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Nationalities Congress, an important spokesman for a peaceful solution to the minority question in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s and 1930s. Unfortunately, until now relatively few articles have been published about Schiemann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in \(Baltic-\) German historiography, although Helmut Kause and Michael Garleff have produced some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noteworthy work in this area.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.992 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.992 186.393 m 188.984 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 188.984 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus it is not the least achievement of Hiden?s study to discover Schiemann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a broader public, for he deserves to become more well known not only as a politician but also as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential theoretician of nationality with his dream of the ?anational state?, an idea that was quite ahead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his time between the World Wars. Presumably, as Hiden suggests, historians have been neglecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiemann and his friends because of the commitment of historiography after 1945 to National Socialists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their forerunners and mentors \(p. 96\). One may add, on the one hand, that Schiemann may have failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attract historians? attention because of his special Baltic experience ? so foreign to western observers during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cold War ? that made him an equally ardent opponent of both German National Socialism and of Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism. On the other hand, with everybody trying to make sense of just how WWII came about, nobody )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was inclined to investigate other developments in European interwar politics, for they failed spectacularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(451)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850657513)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(326pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hurst)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karsten Brggemann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.9917 186.7075 188.9837 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7340 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyway, and thus lost their importance. However, with the focus entirely on the way into catastrophe and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undeniable fact of the war just a few years ahead, historians sometimes lost their sense of the openness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recent European history has seen a new ?springtime of the peoples?, followed by unexpected, brutal waves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ethnic cleansing thought to be a relic of the long gone past. War, indeed, continues to be predominantly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of inner-state conflicts. Hence the interest in such figures as Schiemann seems to be consequent, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they proposed peaceful solutions to minorities? problems that were highly contested then, and sound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative even today, as the European Union strives to overcome the conflictual legacy of nation states. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simultaneously, EU enlargement into the east has placed new problems with minorities on the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, especially in the Baltic States. It is exactly this frame into which Hiden fits his story of the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balt Paul Schiemann. However, the reader may regret that there is no thorough analysis of Schiemann?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories in today?s context. Nevertheless, Hiden devotes a central chapter of his well balanced study to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiemann?s theoretical world, to which we shall return.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hiden?s book is no classical biography, for his concern is almost entirely with the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(homo politicus)] TJ ET BT 105.020 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Schiemann. In eleven chapters, Hiden follows his protagonist?s career in interwar Latvia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among its German minority. Paul Schiemann, born 1876, was the son of a lawyer with a decidedly liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background who, in his younger days, fought against the dominance of the German aristocracy in Russia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltic provinces. Paul?s uncle was the eminent historian Theodor Schiemann, who later emigrated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany where he became a political adviser to Wilhelm II. It was at the very beginning of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century that Paul made his first steps into journalism, and under the influence of the revolutionary events of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1905 he developed one of his axioms that was fundamentally opposed to the Baltic German mainstream in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those days: ?natural evolution? will lead to a necessary change in the regional constitution of the small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German population of the Baltic provinces, i.e. the loss of their dominant influence on the fate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces. Consequently, he argued, it has to be the precondition of any Baltic German policy to recognise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an essential community of interest between Germans and Latvians or Estonians respectively. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of national relationships in the Baltic region was crucial for Schiemann?s contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationality theory later in his career, and it was just a consequence of his convictions that he backed Latvian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims for national independence in late 1918.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latvian independence changed the conditions of Schiemann?s work. As editor-in-chief of the daily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rigasche Rundschau)] TJ ET BT 134.336 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he commented on the political life of the young republic. As leader of the ?German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balt Democratic Party? he also became one of the most influential Latvian Germans in practicising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy. He was even asked to form a government in 1927 at a time of parliamentary crisis, but refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of the too slight majority of votes he could expect. Remaining entirely loyal to his convictions he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to persuade the majority of more conservative German Balts who remained in independent Latvia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to cooperate. And yet they never endorsed Schiemann?s course wholeheartedly. He convinced them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow a common German policy and forged them into the ?Committee of German Balt Parties? in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coordinate their work and to avoid their split ? a fate that diminished the influence of other national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities like the Russians and Jews, to the disappointment of Schiemann, who had hoped to put forward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the minorities? agenda in a joint effort. Thus he had to fight on two fronts for, his loyalty to Latvia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding, it was easy for Latvian parties or journalists to play with popular anti-German sentiments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than once the government tried to gain popular support with anti-German measures like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latvianisation of churches, and it was especially in these times that Schiemann had serious problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping the conservative German Balts calm. Against this background, together with the rise of Hitler?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party in Germany, it became obvious that for Baltic Germans, in Hiden?s terms, the step from being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural to a national outpost was ?unexpectedly small? \(p. 178\). As the national discourse in Latvia became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more and more dominant, Schiemann?s isolation in his home country and the German community alike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased successively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This was equally so in the international arena. In the European Nationalities Congress, becoming more and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more focused on German minorities? issues, delegates no longer wanted to hear Schiemann?s famous idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ?anational state?. Behind this term stood Schiemann?s theory that, as with religion, the choice of an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7185 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual?s nationality was a matter of his emotional conviction. Thus he demanded that the state not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interfere in this personal issue: just as the modern a-religious state offered freedom of conscience, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anational state would provide the necessary freedom to practice one?s culture? \(p. 133\). Schiemann did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think that a national minority needed any territory, but he was convinced that it needed the freedom to use its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language in the constitutional frames of a cultural autonomy. In fact, within this concept, state borders would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lose their meaning, as Schiemann was conceiving European unity in terms of networks of co-nationals as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee for peaceful development. However, it was just this notion of, in modern terms, transborder-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities that made the whole Nationalities Congress under Schiemann?s lead vulnerable to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusation of being ?a pan-German Trojan horse? \(p. 137\). Faced with the fact that under his successors the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress was indeed transformed into a pressure group for national interests of German minorities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiemann may have finally understood that his ideas appeared inconceivable to the majority of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries. In 1937 he eventually concluded that national minorities ?have ceased to be, or to want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be, in charge of their own policy, and have become objects of European states policy? \(p. 224\). Thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities question, far from being resolved, continued to be a threat to peace in Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forced to leave Latvia in 1933 because of a combination of poor health and Nazi demands to coordinate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of German press abroad, Schiemann settled in Austria. In 1938 he had to return, for he was in danger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of being imprisoned in a concentration camp after the Nazi )] TJ ET BT 319.952 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anschluss)] TJ ET BT 367.952 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Not surprisingly, Schiemann was one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of those who choose to refuse the resettlement order for Baltic Germans after the Nazi-Soviet Non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aggression Pact of 23 August 1939. In an interview he explained that he had believed it to be an injustice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desert his home country at such a critical time to go to a country ?that is contrary to our idea of religion, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conduct of life and justice? \(p. 233\). After having survived the first year of Soviet occupation, he shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fate of the Latvians also under German occupation before he eventually died in 1944. Under surveillance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the authorities he nevertheless managed to hide a Jewish girl, Valentina Freimane, at his home, for which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act he was honoured as ?Righteous among the Nations? by Yad Vashem in 2000. He remained loyal to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convictions even in his private life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, Hiden is right in naming him a ?forgotten European? \(p. 250\). Today, Scheimann?s ideas are of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct interest not only for an integrating Europe lacking a cohesive general minorities? legislation, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the re-established Baltic States. However, Hiden seems a little superficial in claiming that the russophone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities in today?s Latvia and Estonia ?have yet to pass Schiemann?s test for good citizenship? because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they would not perceive themselves as members of these countries? communities. As many studies suggest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process of mental integration among russophones as inhabitants of their respective countries is going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well, although, of course, is far from complete. In any case, one could provocatively suggest that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(russophone?s wish to integrate is stronger than the willingness of Estonians or Latvians willingness to accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?their? minorities. But Schiemann?s important notion that the Minorities Congress was no ?union of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressed peoples? may be useful especially for russophones in the Baltic countries. By coming to terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their position in their new home countries as self-confident citizens, they will hopefully be accepted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the respective countries? majorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, some final critical remarks that may be more relevant to the publisher than the author: this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book opens a special passage into a ?forgotten Europe?, which was by no means marginal in the interwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, for readers who are presumably not at all familiar with Baltic history. Especially for them it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been useful to provide a glossary, a list of abbreviations and a table of Latvian governments from 1918 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1940. However, these points aside, this political biography of Paul Schiemann is extremely useful for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the contribution of the special Baltic experience that he shared with many other figures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the minorities? movement. Old Europe should be prepared for new ideas that will hopefully be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communicated from the new small member-states of the European Union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Garleff, ?Deutschbaltische Publizisten: Ewald Ammende ? Werner Hasselblatt ? Paul Schiemann?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Berichte und Forschungen)] TJ ET BT 191.996 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(1994\), pp. 189?229; H. Kause, ?Der publizistische Widerstand Paul )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 1396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schiemanns gegen den Nationalsozialismus in den deutschen Volksgruppen? in )] TJ ET BT 449.636 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutschbalten, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weimarer Republik und Drittes Reich)] TJ ET BT 245.324 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. Garleff \(Cologne, Weimar, Vienna, 2001\), pp. 197?216.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 766.563 m 118.004 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Hiden is very happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 696.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 678.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 678.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/451)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 677.289 m 322.316 677.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 652.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 637.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2438)] TJ ET BT 34.016 623.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 766.8775 118.0037 778.7575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 677.6035 322.3157 689.4835 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/451) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000552 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005326 00000 n 0000005435 00000 n 0000005545 00000 n 0000005654 00000 n 0000009215 00000 n 0000009343 00000 n 0000009427 00000 n 0000009456 00000 n 0000009584 00000 n 0000009620 00000 n 0000009685 00000 n 0000017078 00000 n 0000017143 00000 n 0000024381 00000 n 0000024472 00000 n 0000025921 00000 n 0000026048 00000 n 0000026103 00000 n 0000026231 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26326 %%EOF