%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831122307+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831122307+01'00') /Title (The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5105 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader coming to this volume expecting a major new biography of Henry VIII?s second and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting queen is likely to be disappointed. Though there is no hint of this on the book?s dust jacket or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copyright page, or even, it must be said, in the author?s own Preface, )] TJ ET BT 368.288 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Death of Anne Boleyn)] TJ ET BT 537.608 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually a second edition of Eric Ives?s magisterial )] TJ ET BT 281.300 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn)] TJ ET BT 342.284 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, issued by the same publisher on the 450th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anniversary of Anne?s execution in 1986. This is not to say that a second edition is either unjustified or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwelcome \(though an academic reader inevitably regrets the conversion of footnotes to endnotes\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholarly interest in ?Anne of the Thousand Days? has kept up apace over the past two decades. Important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions include Retha Warnicke?s controversial )] TJ ET BT 294.968 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn)] TJ ET BT 456.956 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, George Bernard?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative reassessment of ?Anne Boleyn?s religion? in )] TJ ET BT 312.296 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 401.300 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a lively debate between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard and Ives over the motives and mechanics of Anne Boleyn?s fall in the )] TJ ET BT 414.608 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 540.608 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991?2 \(subsequently added to by Greg Walker in )] TJ ET BT 278.636 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 367.640 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2002\), as well as effective synoptic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of Henry?s wives by Antonia Fraser and, more recently, by David Starkey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 429.608 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 429.608 129.369 m 443.600 129.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 443.600 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ives takes full account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this and other recent scholarship, though it becomes evident that it has not impelled him to make much in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way of retraction or modification to the broad picture he painted in 1986. In particular, he stands by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the importance of faction as the motor of Henrician politics. Yet neither, fortunately, is this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revised life of Anne a sustained exercise in self-justification. Historiographical controversies are treated very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lightly in the text \(there are no index entries, for example, to either Warnicke or Bernard ? Ives's most vocal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(452)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 30 April, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Ives)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(631234799X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(458pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall \(b. 1964\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 429.6077 129.6835 443.5997 141.5635 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9523 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics\), and with a minimum of fuss in the notes. The tone throughout is in general measured and fair-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded. Nonetheless, it is worth tracking some of the changes Ives has made to his presentation of Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life and death with a view to ascertaining how close a book widely hailed as a magisterial account has come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to meriting consideration as a definitive one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume under consideration is longer, though not substantially longer, than its predecessor \(it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired, )] TJ ET BT 81.332 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 125.672 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an additional eight plates, bringing the total to a generous 64\). While the structure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography \(in four parts, tracing Anne?s background and courtship; installation as Henry?s consort; reign as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen; overthrow and execution\) is essentially as before, there is a noticeable sequence of minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repackagings. A new chapter 6 offers an expanded account of Henry?s courtship, and the original chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the turning point? of 1532?3 is split into two to sharpen the focus on ?Wedding nerves? of various kinds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other structural changes seem designed to make yet more explicit a major theme of the treatment ? Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency and political significance in her own right. \(In the Preface, Ives effuses that ?Anne deserves to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist icon, a woman in a society which was, above all else, male-dominated, who broke through the glass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceiling by sheer character and initiative? \(p. xv\).\) Thus the original part 3, ?A royal marriage?, becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Anne the Queen?, while a 1986 chapter on ?Art, image and taste? becomes two distinct discussions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Image? and ?Art and taste?. The latter of these draws heavily on a source not available in the 1980s, David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Starkey?s edition of )] TJ ET BT 133.004 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Inventory of Henry VIII)] TJ ET BT 267.632 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to reveal the impressive quantities of gold and silver plate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other artistic valuables associated with Anne?s queenship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.296 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.296 540.723 m 347.288 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.288 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ives also makes effective use of recent art-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scholarship by Susan Foister and others to link the occasion commemorated by Holbein?s double )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrait )] TJ ET BT 72.344 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ambassadors)] TJ ET BT 158.012 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with preparations for Anne?s coronation, and a possible private message for her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the French envoy George de Selve, bishop of Latour.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.960 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.960 497.955 m 328.952 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.952 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Iconographic references to Anne?s new status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to her reformist sympathies, are also identified in the painting itself. Whereas the 1986 composite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter concluded \(p. 301\) that Anne Boleyn must be allowed ?a small place in the cultural story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth-century England?, Ives here \(p. 245\) more confidently assigns her ?a respectable and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive place?. The claim is underlined by an entirely new chapter on ?Life at Court?, which draws on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Thurley?s work on Henrician royal palaces, as well as on the evidence of the inventories to create an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective evocation of the material culture surrounding Anne?s life as queen.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.588 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.588 412.419 m 415.580 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.580 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The single 1986 chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Boleyn?s religious attitudes and significance is here split into two, with a second focused on ?Personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion?. These broadly restate the position which Ives, following the pioneering work of Maria Dowling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staked out in the earlier book, namely that in a period of religious flux and confessional indeterminancy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne is most usefully described as an ?evangelical? in religion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.296 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.296 355.395 m 353.288 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.288 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Interestingly, Ives goes further than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dowling in stressing Anne?s principled determination to keep at arm?s length the purveyors of radical views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the eucharist. This conforms with the recent intuition of another Birmingham historian, Alec Ryrie, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodoxy about the real presence was entirely characteristic of Henrician evangelicalism in its first phase.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.564 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.564 312.627 m 559.556 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curiously, Ives makes no direct engagement in these chapters with George Bernard?s ingenious thesis that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne?s religious outlook was essentially conventional and traditionalist, but having entered the lists over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this issue in )] TJ ET BT 93.692 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 182.696 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\), he may have seen no need to refight the battle.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.972 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.972 269.859 m 460.964 269.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.964 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In fact, throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first three sections of the book, Ives is concerned mainly to fill out his earlier picture, and to fine tune )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular points of chronology or detail. Thus he accepts, for example, Tom Freeman?s argument that Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was able to promote to Henry works both by William Tyndale and Simon Fish, something of which he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier been sceptical.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.308 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.308 212.835 m 152.300 212.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 152.300 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But at the same time he courteously but firmly restates his position on such issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a likely date of )] TJ ET BT 121.664 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 126.992 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1501 for Anne?s birth \(making her, )] TJ ET BT 302.960 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 325.616 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Warnicke, a mature woman at the time of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blossoming relationship with Henry\), or on a 1526 dating for the beginnings of Henry?s pursuit of her, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Starkey?s attempt to push it back a year and therefore make Anne more of a catalyst in the decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to initiate the divorce.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much more substantial rewriting, and a noticeably more combative tone in part 4, ?A marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed?. Ives has no truck with the theory around which Retha Warnicke built her 1989 study, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a deformed foetus resulting from Anne?s miscarriage in January 1536 was the root cause of Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downfall, the sixteenth-century belief that infant deformity reflected the sins of the parents requiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accusations of multiple adulteries to protect Henry from any possible suspicion. This, remarks Ives, ?would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merit a moment?s consideration apart from a mountain of fantasy that has been built upon it? \(p. 297\). )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.2957 541.0375 347.2877 552.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.9597 498.2695 328.9517 510.1495 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.5877 412.7335 415.5797 424.6135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.2957 355.7095 353.2877 367.5895 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.5637 312.9415 559.5557 324.8215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9717 270.1735 460.9637 282.0535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 138.3077 213.1495 152.2997 225.0295 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 8023 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why, he asks reasonably enough, was the putative deformity canvassed in later recusant circles apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never mentioned before, during or after Anne?s trial? Ives is equally dismissive of Warnicke?s claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry seriously believed himself to be the victim of witchcraft, or that George Boleyn?s homosexuality was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a factor in his fate \(?a fiction for which there is not a scintilla of evidence? \(p. 332\)\). Nor does Ives endorse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theory that Henry was already tiring of Anne at the time she failed to give birth to a live son. Rather, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detects the repetition of a pattern from the Aragon match: the psychological blow of failing to receive a male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heir convincing him that God did not accept his marriage. Ultimately, however, in Ives?s reading it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry himself but Thomas Cromwell who is most clearly instrumental in the dramatic fall of the queen: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?factional? interpretation of these events is emphatically restated. The narrative here is dense and complex, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Ives does as good a job as one could wish of guiding the reader through the evidential thickets. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument takes account of important new evidence coming to light since the 1980s. In particular, Ives is able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to work into his interpretative framework the sermon known to have been preached on Passion Sunday 1536 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Anne?s almoner, John Skip. This constituted a thinly veiled attack on Cromwell?s policy towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller monasteries, implicitly comparing Henry to the Old Testament King Ahasuerus, Cromwell to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wicked adviser Haman, and Anne to his godly Queen Esther. In 1986, Ives regarded disagreements over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wisdom of a )] TJ ET BT 96.344 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rapprochement)] TJ ET BT 169.664 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the emperor as the main issue dividing the erstwhile allies; he now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies Anne?s opposition to the secularisation of the proceeds of the dissolution as the key factor, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cromwell?s estrangement from Anne Boleyn was exacerbated by problems in foreign policy? \(p. 312\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more intense scrutiny of the timing and manner of the action against Anne and her five alleged ?lovers? also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows Ives to be more emphatic than he had earlier permitted himself to be on the question of Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innocence, directly responding to Bernard?s claim that the queen and at least some of her co-defendants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in fact guilty of the charges brought against them. In 1986, the accusations in the indictment seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implausible; Ives now asserts that ?even after nearly 500 years, three-quarters of these specific allegations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be disproved? \(p. 344\). There is also the question of the ?dog that did not bark?, the inherent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikelihood of the queen having been able to commit any adulteries at all without the collusion of at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several of her ladies in waiting, something which was never alleged at the time. Ives concedes that Anne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour with male courtiers was unguarded, sailing close to, and at times beyond, the conventional limits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of courtly and chivalric play. But he rejects too Greg Walker?s argument that this in itself was enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring down Henry?s murderous wrath. At the start of 1536, Henry still had very considerable diplomatic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic investment in the Boleyn marriage, and it took a conspiracy to bring matters to a head.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all of this, the reader attempting to follow the extraordinary happenings of spring 1536 without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(microscopic knowledge of the sources enjoyed by Ives and his various critics is likely still to be left with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of wonderment. The staggering audacity of Cromwell?s plan, the almost unbelievably egregious self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving self-delusion practised by the king, the moral complacency of an entire political system, can all be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hard to take in. It is not meant as a disparagement to say that Ives has given us the least unlikely account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these events. He has also given us a fully rounded and persuasive account of Anne?s life as a whole, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance for understanding the politics and political culture of the early Tudor decades. At the conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his chapter on ?Sources?, Ives ruefully notes that ?the sources for the life of Anne Boleyn stop short of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that level of inner documentation which biography ideally requires? \(p. 61\). If this is so, it must surely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true, )] TJ ET BT 58.676 228.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mutatis mutandis)] TJ ET BT 141.020 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for any man or woman of the sixteenth century. Yet Ives demonstrates triumphantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the potential of the biographical approach in a pre-modern setting. He evinces a deep empathy for his subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without ever becoming an apologist for her, and, particularly in the final sections, he provides a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is genuinely moving without ever becoming mawkish. No biography is ever truly definitive, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future scholarship will no doubt require a different reading of Anne Boleyn?s life and death. But, half a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation on from its first appearance, Ives has given his version a new lease of life, and it seems unlikely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be supplanted any time soon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Warnicke, )] TJ ET BT 130.664 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Anne Boleyn)] TJ ET BT 292.652 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1989\); G. Bernard, ?Anne Boleyn?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion?, )] TJ ET BT 112.676 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 201.680 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36.1 \(1993\), 1?20; G. Bernard, ?The fall of Anne Boleyn?,)] TJ ET BT 489.620 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 150.344 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 106.420 \(1991\), 584?610 ; E. Ives, ?The fall of Anne Boleyn reconsidered?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 34.661 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 5931 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107.424 \(1992\), 651?64; G. Bernard, ?The fall of Anne Boleyn: a )] TJ ET BT 388.292 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejoinder?,)] TJ ET BT 439.940 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( English Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 107.424 \(1992\), 665?74; G. Walker, ?Rethinking the fall of Anne Boleyn?, )] TJ ET BT 468.620 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45.1 \(2002\), 1?29; A. Fraser, )] TJ ET BT 212.324 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Six Wives of Henry VIII )] TJ ET BT 350.288 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1993\); D. Starkey, )] TJ ET BT 445.940 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Six Wives: the Queens )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Henry VIII )] TJ ET BT 131.660 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.652 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.652 752.307 m 220.640 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Inventory of Henry VIII: Society of Antiquaries MS 129 and British Library MS Harley 1419)] TJ ET BT 530.300 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Starkey, and transcribed by P. Ward \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.300 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.300 723.795 m 344.288 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Foister, A. Roy and M. Wyld, )] TJ ET BT 223.352 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holbein?s Ambassadors )] TJ ET BT 343.352 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.344 709.539 m 432.332 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Thurley, )] TJ ET BT 120.680 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Palaces of England )] TJ ET BT 269.672 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.640 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.640 695.283 m 421.628 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Dowling, 'Anne Boleyn and Reform', )] TJ ET BT 262.652 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical History)] TJ ET BT 420.980 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 35 \(1984\), 30-46.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.968 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.968 681.027 m 550.964 681.027 l S BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 666.771 m 78.008 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Ryrie, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gospel and Henry VIII. Evangelicals in the Early Reformation)] TJ ET BT 433.304 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.624 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.624 652.515 m 558.284 652.515 l S BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 638.259 m 90.344 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Ives, 'Anne Boleyn and the early Reformation in England: the contemporary evidence', )] TJ ET BT 497.588 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal)] TJ ET BT 101.348 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 37.2 \(1994\), 389-408.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.336 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.336 609.747 m 266.324 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. S. Freeman, 'Research, Rumour and Propaganda: Anne Boleyn in Foxe's "Book of Martyrs"', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 153.020 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38 \(1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.012 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.012 581.235 m 263.000 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Anne Boleyn Files)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://reviews.theanneboleynfiles.com/the-life-and-death-of-anne-boleyn-by-eric-ives/307)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 526.467 m 466.580 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.580 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 497.955 m 417.956 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.956 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 494.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 476.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 476.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/452)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 475.449 m 322.316 475.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 450.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2440)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://reviews.theanneboleynfiles.com/the-life-and-death-of-anne-boleyn-by-eric-ives/307)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview3)] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6517 752.6215 220.6397 764.5015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.2997 724.1095 344.2877 735.9895 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.3437 709.8535 432.3317 721.7335 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.6397 695.5975 421.6277 707.4775 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.9677 681.3415 550.9637 693.2215 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 667.0855 78.0077 678.9655 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.6237 652.8295 558.2837 664.7095 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 638.5735 90.3437 650.4535 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.3357 610.0615 266.3237 621.9415 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.0117 581.5495 262.9997 593.4295 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 37 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 526.7815 466.5797 538.6615 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://reviews.theanneboleynfiles.com/the-life-and-death-of-anne-boleyn-by-eric-ives/307) >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 498.2695 417.9557 510.1495 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2004/oct/23/featuresreviews.guardianreview3) >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 475.7635 322.3157 487.6435 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/452) >> endobj xref 0 70 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000005782 00000 n 0000005891 00000 n 0000006001 00000 n 0000006110 00000 n 0000009671 00000 n 0000009799 00000 n 0000009883 00000 n 0000009912 00000 n 0000010040 00000 n 0000010076 00000 n 0000010202 00000 n 0000019778 00000 n 0000019808 00000 n 0000019936 00000 n 0000019972 00000 n 0000020002 00000 n 0000020130 00000 n 0000020166 00000 n 0000020196 00000 n 0000020324 00000 n 0000020360 00000 n 0000020390 00000 n 0000020518 00000 n 0000020554 00000 n 0000020584 00000 n 0000020712 00000 n 0000020748 00000 n 0000020778 00000 n 0000020906 00000 n 0000020942 00000 n 0000020972 00000 n 0000021100 00000 n 0000021136 00000 n 0000021201 00000 n 0000029277 00000 n 0000029445 00000 n 0000035429 00000 n 0000035557 00000 n 0000035612 00000 n 0000035740 00000 n 0000035795 00000 n 0000035923 00000 n 0000035978 00000 n 0000036106 00000 n 0000036161 00000 n 0000036289 00000 n 0000036344 00000 n 0000036470 00000 n 0000036525 00000 n 0000036653 00000 n 0000036708 00000 n 0000036834 00000 n 0000036889 00000 n 0000037017 00000 n 0000037072 00000 n 0000037200 00000 n 0000037255 00000 n 0000037382 00000 n 0000037522 00000 n 0000037649 00000 n 0000037776 00000 n 0000037904 00000 n trailer << /Size 70 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37999 %%EOF