%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818014546+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818014546+01'00') /Title (Disability and Social Policy in Britain since 1750: a History of Exclusion) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4153 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Disability and Social Policy in Britain since 1750: a History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Exclusion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disability Studies is a growing multi-disciplinary field. Although it is a relative newcomer to the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arena, it has firmly established itself as a serious area of scholarly interest. However, while scholars in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields of social policy, sociology, law, literature and the medical humanities have all embraced the relevance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disability studies within their chosen fields, historians have remained largely in the background.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the moment, disability exists on the periphery of mainstream, canonical history. Most investigations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historical perspective have been written by sociologists and disability activists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.980 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.980 181.521 m 440.972 181.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.972 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Historians themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have given the subject little attention. True, institutional history, the development of psychology, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of medicine have garnered the interests of the historical profession. Yet what of disabled people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves? How did people with disabilities in past societies cope with their impairments and societal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes towards their bodies? How did different societies view and treat the disabled? How did societal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes shape social policy, medical treatment and acceptance of disabled people? With historical interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in welfare, poor law policy, poverty, labour, class, social medicine, social Darwinism and bodily difference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is puzzling as to why disability has been neglected. If one considers the matter further, one can find a place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for disability in nearly all avenues of historical inquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(453)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 May, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anne Borsay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(333912551X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(301pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meaghan Kowalsky)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9797 181.8355 440.9717 193.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7770 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A few scattered studies have appeared over recent years. Most comprehensive of these is Henri Stiker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Disability)] TJ ET BT 143.024 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published in 1999, which gives an overview of attitudes towards disability from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity to present. Steve Humphries and Pamela Gordon also compiled an evocative account of childhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disability using oral testimony in )] TJ ET BT 195.032 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of Sight: the Experience of Disability from 1900?1950)] TJ ET BT 477.020 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.020 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.020 740.307 m 494.012 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 494.012 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently, American studies have emerged which combine history, social policy and disability activism. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute to both disability studies in the academic arena and to the disability rights movement. Amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these works are P. K. Longmore?s and L. Umansky?s )] TJ ET BT 294.632 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Disability History: American Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 543.608 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Simi Linton?s )] TJ ET BT 125.024 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity)] TJ ET BT 341.696 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.696 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.696 683.283 m 358.688 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet academic interest in Britain has been slow to emerge. With such a dearth of available literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Borsay?s )] TJ ET BT 129.332 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability and Social Policy in Britain since 1750)] TJ ET BT 368.336 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a welcome text which provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible and cogent overview of the treatment of disabled people since the Industrial Revolution. It is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important study both for those interested in disability history and for those wishing to broaden their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the history of welfare and social rights in this country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability and Social Policy)] TJ ET BT 169.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is divided into two main sections. The first looks at institutional living. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borsay examines workhouses, hospitals, asylums and special schools. The second discusses community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living. Borsay concentrates upon employment, financial relief, community care, and community medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support. This second section of the book focuses predominately on the later half of the twentieth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically on programmes put in place since the Chronically Sick and Disabled Persons Act of 1970.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book ?offers a historical interpretation of how since the Industrial Revolution, social policies have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created and sustained the discrimination that continues to make disabled people excluded citizens? \(p. 1\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borsay argues that since 1750 disabled people have been excluded from the full rights of citizenship because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were marginal to the labour market. She examines the predominance of economic rationality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical power. The predominance of ?economic rationality?, she maintains, has excluded the disabled from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship and social rights. She further argues that ?divisive practices? such as segregated schooling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalisation and separate training workshops have exacerbated this exclusion. In order to pursue her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of social policies over the past two hundred and fifty years, Borsay analyses the ?mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy of welfare?. She looks at how the disabled were cared for by the state, philanthropy, public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assistance and familial networks. While charitable support was strong, she continues, it further promoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?divisive practices? which denied the disabled the full rights of social citizenship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Borsay there are currently three main approaches to studying the history of disability. First is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biographical approach, which looks at great reformers and their institutions. Second is the empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, which evaluates different care strategies and the development of rehabilitation and orthopaedics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third is the approach which Borsay herself takes, the materialist. The materialist view ?locates past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of disability within the political, social and cultural organization of society? \(p. 12\). It examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how society, not the actual impairment itself, creates disability. Prominent academics in disability studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have long held this view. Colin Barnes, Vic Finkelstein, Simi Linton and Brendon Gleeson are among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars who posit that the transfer from feudalism to capitalism further excluded and disenfranchised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disabled people from society. Much like class historians who also take this approach, they place perhaps too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much emphasis, as Borsay herself argues, on the Industrial Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borsay examines past policies towards the disabled using the ?social model.? The social model focuses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various environmental barriers that the disabled encountered, and continue to encounter, in society. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that economic, political and cultural barriers were \(and still are\) the major cause of disabled people?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual and collective disadvantage. It is a tool which explains society?s response to impairment. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that society creates disability through various environmental barriers. These barriers include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrimination, segregated schooling and lack of accessible transport.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One may not need to tell historians that disability is a social construct, that how far one?s impairment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hampers one?s ability in society is largely determined by the culture in which the disabled person lives. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.0197 740.6215 494.0117 752.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.6957 683.5975 358.6877 695.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7187 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, up until now disability in history has not been viewed in this light. Traditionally, disability was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as a personal trouble and a medical condition. This ?medical model? is how doctors in the past have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived disability. With the growth of orthopaedics in the late nineteenth century and the increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention of the state and public medicine, ?defective? people were ?cured? and returned to ?normal?, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least as normal as was deemed possible. It was assumed that any ?deviation? from the norm was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily a tragic loss or misfortune \(p. 9\). In disability studies, the social model is a new way of exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the experience of disability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As disability history is scattered and scarce, Borsay helpfully compiles and assesses the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography for the reader. She cogently brings together existing studies from the fields of history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociology and social policy and refers to them critically and fairly throughout the text. Another merit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text is the way it handles its material. Borsay is obviously passionate about disability rights and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for her historical subjects. Nevertheless, she is able to maintain an objective distance. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she hopes the book will raise both the ?personal and political consciousness? \(p. 207\) of the disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community in Britain today, she does not condemn the past, but assesses it in a balanced and analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her survey of social policy Borsay also briefly looks at major cultural ideas and issues, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment epistemology, Darwinism, eugenics and phrenology. While space does not permit a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of each of these movements, the author deftly incorporates a number of ideas with reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disability. She examines how the various ideas and ideals affected treatment of the disabled. Most prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her study is economic rationality and its role in the mixed economy of welfare. The argument is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complemented by literary and visual sources as well as documentary texts and oral testimony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability and Social Policy)] TJ ET BT 169.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an ambitious and comprehensive text. It provides an excellent overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies and programmes for the disabled and places them within the context of general welfare. As there has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been no previous general text about disability published in Britain, this book provides a much needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation for the history of disability. It is useful for the student, as it provides a clear and cogent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elucidation of social polices without assuming too much prior knowledge. Academics too will find it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging. The old and new poor laws, charities, voluntary hospitals and other institutions are all re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined with new emphasis on the disabled. Making disability the focal point of such policies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions will hopefully raise some new questions and inspire further research into the history of disability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and disabled people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the shortcomings of this book however, is the need for more evidence. Coming from a background in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical humanities, Borsay?s research methods may differ from those of historians. Most striking is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortage of primary sources. The text does boast a great deal of testimony from disabled people themselves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet this evidence is largely taken from previously published secondary sources. This may especially be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her use of the research from Humphries and Gordon. Their study )] TJ ET BT 360.944 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of Sight)] TJ ET BT 418.952 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is relied upon extensively in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sections on children and schooling. Primary sources within other texts are selected for a specific reason: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prove the author?s argument. One has to wonder if, by examining this text and not primary evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly, Borsay may have been influenced by the arguments put forth by Humphries and Gordon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very little primary research was undertaken by the author herself, and only a handful of primary sources are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in the extensive bibliography. That being said, primary sources concerning disabled people in history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are difficult to find; very few disabled people in the past have left accounts or recollections of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences, and neither have those who cared for the disabled in both the state and voluntary sectors. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reason, the study of disability history is notoriously tricky. It could also be a major factor in the dearth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography surrounding the subject. One does, to a certain extent, have to rely on previous research. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is especially true of oral testimony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet sources exist. Parliamentary documents and debates are conspicuously absent from this book which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines state policy. )] TJ ET BT 143.336 68.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hansard)] TJ ET BT 185.336 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was only footnoted once, yet an examination of parliamentary debates in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past two hundred years will reveal the extent to which disability and welfare were issues within parliament. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 8048 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the papers of chief medical officers, which, in the early twentieth century, reported extensively on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cripple schools? and ?defective? children, are not mentioned. These reports offer valuable insights into how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctors and the state treated the disabled both medically and socially. Reports of the Local Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Board \(another important source for teasing out policies and attitudes towards the disabled\) are occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to but not rigorously examined.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another concern is the range of evidence given within the text itself. Swansea is represented quite heavily, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with detailed statistics and examples given throughout. Other geographical regions, however, are neglected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some claims are left unsubstantiated. For example, on page ninety-four, Borsay states that patients within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asylums often colluded with one another; while this is footnoted, no specific examples are given. Borsay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states that disabled people in institutions often resisted and rose up against their oppressors; again, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very little evidence given to this fact. Each chapter has a section reserved for perspectives from the disabled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people themselves. However, these sections are rather thin, and there is often little anecdotal evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back up the arguments she makes. As mentioned before, testimony from disabled people is quite difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find, so one often has to make do and extrapolate from the meagre sources which are available. Yet surely in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recent history examples could be found. The final chapters would have benefited from more evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from disabled citizens post 1970. Some explanation of methodology at the beginning of the book would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have gone a long way to assist the reader as to why she chose the sources that she did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Borsay covers both mental and physical disabilities and, while acknowledging the different barriers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situations faced by people with varying types and degrees of disability, discusses their ?common experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of exclusion?. Whereas previous studies have focused on specific groups such as children, women or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veterans, Borsay examines the experience of disability of a broad range of groups. This is to her credit, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves the comprehensive scope of her study. However, her treatment of the elderly is vague. The reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left questioning the purpose of including this social group in this study. Yes, there were \(and are\) elderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people among the disabled population. And yes, this becomes more relevant as the population ages and there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an increasing likelihood of more of us surviving ?disabling? illnesses long into old age. However, if this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Borsay?s intention, it remained unclear. Oftentimes, the elderly are discussed as a separate group. Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age pensions are examined, not with reference to disability but as a welfare issue in their own right. Primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence on workhouse admissions and poor law policies are also used to describe the condition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elderly, but not the disabled elderly. Workhouses under both the new and old poor laws grouped the ?aged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and infirm? together, yet surely historiography should not do the same? While reasons for including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elderly can be seen, the purpose or intention was inexact.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text covers a lot of ground, and it is not easy to be specific and expansive at the same time. Since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing disability history is sparse, what is needed is a general, overarching text to provide a solid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation, and the author provides this. Borsay?s book is an important contribution to disability studies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to disability history. It is the first text to place disability policies in Britain within an historical framework. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The writing is fluent, the format engaging and accessible. While it stands strong on its own, )] TJ ET BT 476.972 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Policy in Britain)] TJ ET BT 147.020 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is sure to provoke further interest and act as a springboard for additional studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of disability.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, C. Barnes, ?A legacy of oppression: a history of disability in Western culture?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disability Studies: Past, Present and Future)] TJ ET BT 276.680 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. Barton and M. Oliver \(Leeds, 1997\), pp. 4?24; L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Davis, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enforcing Normalcy: Disability, Deafness and the Body)] TJ ET BT 377.660 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1995\); and B. J. Gleeson, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geographies of Disability )] TJ ET BT 191.684 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.676 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.676 123.315 m 280.664 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Humphries and P. Gordon, )] TJ ET BT 208.676 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Out of Sight: the Experience of Disability 1900?1950 )] TJ ET BT 467.996 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Plymouth, 1992\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and H. J. Stiker, )] TJ ET BT 144.344 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Disability)] TJ ET BT 253.352 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(trans. William Sayers Michigan, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.996 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.996 94.803 m 506.984 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Linton, )] TJ ET BT 114.692 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity )] TJ ET BT 334.364 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1998\) and P. K. Longmore and L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Umansky, )] TJ ET BT 116.012 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Disability History: American Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 364.988 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2001\). See also R. Garland )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Extraordinary Bodies: Figuring Physical Disability in American Culture and Literature )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.6757 123.6295 280.6637 135.5095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.9957 95.1175 506.9837 106.9975 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 957 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.324 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.324 795.075 m 209.312 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/453)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 322.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2442)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3237 795.3895 209.3117 807.2695 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 322.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/453) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000673 00000 n 0000004878 00000 n 0000004987 00000 n 0000005097 00000 n 0000005206 00000 n 0000008767 00000 n 0000008895 00000 n 0000008979 00000 n 0000009008 00000 n 0000009136 00000 n 0000009172 00000 n 0000009263 00000 n 0000017086 00000 n 0000017116 00000 n 0000017244 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000017310 00000 n 0000017438 00000 n 0000017474 00000 n 0000017539 00000 n 0000024779 00000 n 0000024870 00000 n 0000032971 00000 n 0000033099 00000 n 0000033154 00000 n 0000033281 00000 n 0000033336 00000 n 0000033427 00000 n 0000034436 00000 n 0000034564 00000 n 0000034619 00000 n 0000034747 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34842 %%EOF