%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 41 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150301050155+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150301050155+00'00') /Title (Scandal: The Sexual Politics of the British Constitution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4609 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Scandal: The Sexual Politics of the British Constitution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandals are titillating phenomena, intriguing and enjoyable for almost everyone except their victims. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often carry two highly attractive features: first sex, and second the opportunity of watching high and mighty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people being revealed to have feet of clay and thus brought low. Much has consequently been written about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandals by journalists \(for whom they represent gourmet meat and drink\), scholars and others. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until recently, most of this writing has been either descriptive, or indistinguishable from that about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption, excess and abuse. Now historians, and even more political scientists, have rightly started seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandals as distinctive sorts of event.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.328 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.328 200.649 m 225.320 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.320 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Scandals generally derive from corrupt, abusive or licentious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, but they are conceptually different. Essentially speaking, scandals occur when hitherto private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, normally by persons in the public eye and often in positions of public trust \(political, economic or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social leaders, celebrities and the like\), is widely revealed and scandalises large numbers of people. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than corruption or abuse, scandals are socially constructed, dependent for their existence upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing societal values. Consequently, although scandals possess distinctive and enduring characteristics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their actual content, indeed the sort of behaviour capable of producing them, varies over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The behaviour in question is often the subject of previous gossip and rumour, but public revelation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required for it to become the subject of scandal. The process is thus heavily dependent upon the existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a mass media, and scandals are seen as being ?mediated?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.940 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.940 60.345 m 321.932 60.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.932 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with the timing and character of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(454)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 31 May, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Clark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(69111501)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(328pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Garrard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.3277 200.9635 225.3197 212.8435 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.9397 60.6595 321.9317 72.5395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7937 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelation being greatly influenced by the self-perceptions \(as ?fourth estate?, public watchdog, entertainer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profit-maker etc\) and priorities of that media. Consequently, unlike corruption, abuse or excess, scandals are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably distinctive to societies in the past three hundred years or so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandals have also increasingly come to be seen as highly important phenomena. They are indicator events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(because they so often produce formal enquiry\) often points of revelation: their timing and content are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently capable, wittingly and unwittingly, of revealing much about the societies wherein they occur, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ways in which those societies, their politics and their values, are changing. In the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, scandals can also have major effects: influencing values, helping remedy abuse, transforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political fortunes, undermining the legitimacy of ruling elites and even the system over which they preside.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in this context that we should place Anna Clark?s highly interesting and entertaining )] TJ ET BT 464.312 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandal: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexual Politics of the British Constitution)] TJ ET BT 233.708 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. She focuses primarily upon the years 1760?1830, a period whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and gender relations and intersections she has already done much to illuminate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.948 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.948 614.259 m 454.940 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.940 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The period has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes been called ?the age of scandal?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.624 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.624 600.003 m 256.616 600.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 256.616 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Clark argues that the prevalence of the phenomenon is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both significant and influential. Sexual scandal in particular became a central component of social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly political life; a potent, though only partly controllable, weapon available to all participants in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political game. Clark focuses upon several scandals: the events surrounding John Wilkes?s scurrilously laced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacks in 1763 on the king?s constitutional right to appoint government ministers, and Wilkes?s subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial for blasphemy and sedition; the pornographically-flavoured furores between 1777 and 1788 surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electoral interventions of Mary, Countess of Strathmore, and Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-running attempt, starting in 1786, to impeach Warren Hastings, ex-governor general of India, for ?high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes and misdemeanours?; the scandalous attacks upon the reputations of Mary Wollstonecraft and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah More in the 1790s; and the emphatic scandals surrounding first, the Army?s commander-in-chief, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Duke of York and his mistress Mary Ann Clarke, and second, George IV and his estranged wife, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline. All these scandals and attempted scandals had or were given a strong and scurrilous sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content, and were eagerly initiated and exploited by most male political participants and aspiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participants: by radicals seeking to undermine monarchical and aristocratic power, and open the system to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular influence; by Whigs and other reformers seeking to boost the role of parliament against the crown; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even by conservatives seeking to defend the status quo by attacking the probity of those perceived as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermining it ? reformers, popular radicals and early feminists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandals readily became political weapons not just because everyone could enjoy their often-pornographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content, but also because they represented highly accessible ways of exploring and debating serious issues. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They could be presented as melodramatic stories, containing familiar themes of high-born villains, oriental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despots, designing women, innocent victims and broken hearts. Though often outwardly trivial, exaggerated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even fictitious, their content could be made to symbolise much wider concerns. Thus radicals could use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George IV?s sexual excesses and ill-treatment of his wife as symbols of overweening monarchical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic power, decadence and corruption. His extravagant life-style could be contrasted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufferings endured by masses, and his neglected duties towards them. Conservatives of all kinds could use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Wollstonecraft?s irregular love-life as an emblem for the disorder that the influence of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles threatened to bring to England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a result, and particularly for working-class radicals and middle-class reformers, the scandals of the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly became points of public agitation about these wider issues amongst men, and in the short-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even amongst women. Queen Caroline?s sufferings and George?s attempts to divorce her on grounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged adultery drew massive crowds on to the streets to support her cause, and then to demand a widening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular access to a system so corrupt and oppressive as to permit and encourage the injustices and abuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that her problems seemed to symbolise. This and other scandals caused more enduring political animals to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create and join political associations in pursuit of the same democratising end. By helping undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimacy of the old system and its traditional elites, to raise popular political expectations, and to create the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil society so often seen as underpinning successful democratisation, this and other scandals had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant effects upon politics in both the short and longer terms. Some, however, had more conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results: Wilkes found his accusations about royal sexual excesses, and the ?petticoat influence? upon royal )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.9477 614.5735 454.9397 626.4535 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.6237 600.3175 256.6157 612.1975 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7441 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministerial appointments that supposedly resulted, turned damagingly upon his own licentious life-style. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Posthumous revelations about Mary Wollstonecraft?s rather numerous amours drove early feminists from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political scene. Though less damaging, allegations about Hannah?s More?s supposed love life drove her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perhaps other energetic women into less ambitious and more patriarchy-friendly channels for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energies and capacities than those they might otherwise have chosen. Scandals therefore could become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments of agenda control and manipulation for conservatives as well as radicals, perhaps doubly so in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this latter case because even male radicals were not above using tales of ?petticoat influence? if they served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to undermine the system they were attacking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately however, such control was limited. The problem with scandals was that, then as now, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often points of irrepressible revelation about corruption and abuse. Governments could use the Six Acts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppress explicit radical agitation and argument, and hamper and even suppress the radical press. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was much harder to prevent the reportage of the court cases and parliamentary enquiries that, then as now, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arose from governments? attempts to denigrate opponents or put difficult issues on ice for a while. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equally hard to prevent people drawing radical or reforming conclusions about the revelations of corrupt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour that such trials and investigations produced in gargantuan amounts. This in turn made scandals a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor helping slowly to undermine the politics of patronage and connection upon which aristocratic rule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Clark therefore can be numbered amongst the growing number of scholars who have come to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandals as important phenomena capable of influencing events, albeit not always in predictable ways. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common with myself and others, she also sees them as highly indicative about the societies wherein they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take place. She is certainly correct in claiming that her scandals have much to tell us about the roles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of the monarchy, aristocracy, parliament, and the emerging phenomenon of public opinion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion politics, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. They also have much to say about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing and constant features of gender relations, more particularly the narrow, and probably narrowing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles permitted to women in this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark sets her scandals against a context of increasingly rapid social, political and cultural change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after 1760, which these scandals both expressed and contributed to. Particularly important were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing divisions within the political elite, especially those inspired by party, which produced increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temptations to appeal to segments of the population below, notwithstanding fears about influences upon that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population emanating from the French Revolution. Equally significant is the emergence of increasingly self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscious groups of commercial, professional and industrial middling-class people, often informed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious dissent, often intolerant of aristocratic excess and self-indulgence, and growingly impatient about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the minimal roles they perceived to be allotted them in politics. Also important were first, the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly impatient working-class and particularly artisan groups; second, the ambiguous position of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the increasing constraints upon the roles legitimately open to them, as the separation of spheres became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed from a mere situation into a dominant and legitimising ideology; and third, the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on all these groups of evangelicalism, with its tendency to moralise the content of politics, enhance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends towards respectable conduct, and reinforce women?s role as the transmission-belt for morality within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final aspect of this context is the emergence of a mass media, particularly of myriad newspapers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodicals directed at most levels of the population. If anything, Clark attaches insufficient weight to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor. The media, then as now, were the crucial means by which gossip between persons was investigated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in so far as it was\), widely spread, and thereby transformed into scandal, something capable of scandalising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people in large numbers. Though she does not make the point explicitly, it is clear that these scandals were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mediated?, with their occurrence and flavour heavily conditioned by the political and competitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial concerns of newspapers and their journalists. Scandals were the ultimate embodiment of what a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press baron of a much later age described as being the essence of ?news? ? ?anything out of the ordinary?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 543.872 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 543.872 91.299 m 557.864 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandals sold newspapers; sexual scandals sold them better. In some ways, mediation was a doubly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important influence upon scandal production because journalists seem to have been less concerned about, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and certainly less able to ensure, the accuracy of the news they reported than their present-day counterparts. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 543.8717 91.6135 557.8637 103.4935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7419 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And if the press was important, so too were the growing towns which provided its markets and production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centres, and began eroding the bases of social deference to a point where there was sufficient popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disrespect to provide a mass audience for scandal, ready to enjoy being scandalised, and the puncturing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite pretensions which scandals entailed. This is a further factor confirming the impression that scandals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the politics of scandal, are primarily products of the past three hundred years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are aspects of this book some will find irritating, particularly Clark?s tendency to use ?critique? as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verb, and her less forgivable habit of misting over the conceptually essential distinction between ?reject? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?refute?. This is a media habit, and perhaps Clark has read a few too many newspapers. I am also uncertain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether modern political analysts would be entirely happy to endorse her classification of all the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in her book as scandals. Sometimes she seems to assume that any conflict involving the deployment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scurrilous allegations must constitute a scandal. An opening definition along something like the lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered above would have been analytically useful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, it is hard to disagree with her central contentions: that scandals then as now represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormously useful political weaponry to participants across the political spectrum, though the guidance-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanisms with which they apparently came equipped left a lot to be desired. They were and are capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable political impact. They could draw all sorts of previously excluded folk into the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process. And they have much to tell us about the societies wherein they have occurred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would probably want to go further than Clark in some respects. She argues that scandals are indicative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and ideological change, and symptomatic of shifting moral values. I would suggest they tend most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently to involve behaviour located near the often-hazy borderlines between allowable and illegitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, and to occur when public values are shifting, normally in the direction of greater probity. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandals clearly involve conduct culpable under almost any scheme of values: child abuse for example. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More often, though, those caught up in scandals tend to be people behaving in ways that society has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously been content to condone or at least tolerate, but who now find themselves on the wrong side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that shifting borderline. The resulting scandal can then shift values still further in the same direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus in the decades after 1760, the sexual licence that caused few problems to those who indulged earlier in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the century now increasingly left such people vulnerable to revelation and scandalised public contemplation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly if they were women. The buying and selling of political and military office could be just about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condoned as part of the system of royal and aristocratic patronage and connection, but could easily become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subject of scandal with only a slight shift of values, and under the impact of such scandal come to seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the unpleasant outer edges of a corrupt system. Interventions by aristocratic women in electoral politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were just about permissible when viewed as part aristocratic paternalism, but could easily be rendered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scandalous if viewed as ?petticoat influence?; and as such could then be used as radical weaponry against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the aristocratic ruling class and its ?corruption?. In the late nineteenth century, gas engineers who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been soliciting and accepting ?commissions? in return for the award of municipal contracts to coal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment contractors, and who had come to regard such payments as legitimate additions to inadequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salaries, suddenly found themselves held up to public obloquy as the corrupt recipients of bribes as the result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a series of scandals starting in Salford in 1887.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.316 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.316 219.603 m 285.308 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.308 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In 1901, vast numbers of ?very respectable solicitors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had got into the habit of ?mixing? their own money with sums they held in trust on behalf of clients, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and speculating profitably with both, suddenly found their conduct declared execrable in the wake of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Lake scandal. Lake, an ex-president of the Law Society who had speculated once too often and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carelessly gone bankrupt, was tried for massive fraud and sent to prison for twelve years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.252 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.252 162.579 m 475.244 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 475.244 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, Conservative MPs became the subject of a series of scandals, electorally very damaging to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their party, when they were discovered to have been asking parliamentary questions in return for cash from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups outside parliament. Thirty years previously, even political scientists had felt able to see similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices as proper parts of the representative system:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In both \(Britain and America\), group interests have spokesmen in the national legislature and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.3157 219.9175 285.3077 231.7975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 461.2517 162.8935 475.2437 174.7735 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 7102 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feed these spokesmen with specialised information for use in debate and committee work. A few )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups draft legislation for their spokesmen to present, while many persuade their spokesmen to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move amendments to Bills sponsored by the executive. In Britain, it is thought perfectly proper )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for MPs acting in this way to be paid fees or salaries by the groups.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.972 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.972 752.307 m 400.964 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reference to America is appropriate since similar scandals involving similarly marginal conduct by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congressmen occurred at around the same time. This prompted one analyst to observe:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislators need to understand what constitutes proper conduct and where the boundaries of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unacceptable conduct lie. These have proved difficult to define both because they have rarely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made explicit and because they have evolved over time, often in response to scandals. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus scandals sometimes arise because legislators are behaving in accordance with a code or )] TJ ET BT 64.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice that has become outmoded.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.312 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.312 604.515 m 250.304 604.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It follows from the foregoing that I also agree with Clark?s contention that scandals have tended to occur at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular points in time when particular sorts of circumstance have been in place: a shifting moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderline; the emergence of groups at odds with prevailing values ? the expanding middling classes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, or \(in relation to the Lewinski scandal\) America?s Christian fundamentalists in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth. I would add, and Clark would probably agree, that scandals tend to occur under particular sorts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime ? in democracies and regimes undergoing democratisation; and in declining authoritarian or \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here we can perhaps locate Britain between 1760?1830\) semi-authoritarian political systems. They occur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the two latter sorts of regime when social change is creating new social groups discontented with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the existing order, new demands and shifting moral borderlines, but where the presiding elites lack the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control to prevent the emergence of scandal. Clark gives some emphasis to the claim that the scandals of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period failed to destroy the system as they arguably helped to do in France partly because of effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government repression. However, it is evident from her book and from other sources that this repression was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no more than partially effective. This was partly because the myriad radical press in particular was difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to control even with the ?taxes on knowledge?, particularly once ?unstamped? newspapers began emerging. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was partly also because scandal, with its points of formal revelation often created by government itself, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost inherently uncontrollable for such regimes. If you set up enquiries or stage trials, it is hard to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preventing even government-supporting papers from reporting them. Where scandals can virtually never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge is in effective totalitarian regimes: abuses might be vast but control and terror is so great that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be reported, unless the state decides to use them against its opponents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would also agree with Clarke?s contention that scandals can become agencies of democratisation ? granting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point that British franchise reform only came to be seen in this way sometime after its initiation. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can certainly draw all sorts of groups into the political process; they can also help undermine the legitimacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of traditional systems. One theme worthy of investigation would be how far the Royal Commission system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in 1852 to investigate electoral corruption allegations operated in this way. The commissions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly became powerful agencies for the generation of political scandal, and probably helped shift public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values in the small towns, where corruption was most likely, towards seeing ?customary payments? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voting? as ?bribery?. However, I would probably want to add, )] TJ ET BT 334.952 184.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contra)] TJ ET BT 366.284 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Clark, that modern scandals may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starting to take people out of politics, producing a widespread and often unthinking cynicism about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic politics and politicians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One final point: Clark wants to see modern sexual scandal as indicative of the same social and ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trends she perceives as underpinning those after 1760. While this might be true of the USA, I am far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain about the claim in relation to Western Europe. Here, these affairs seem more like ?pseudo scandals?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of considerable damage to politicians even to democratic systems, but not really the product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine mass scandalisation ? the 1960s and 1970s did not happen for nothing. Rather, they are the ultimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mediated events, generated and maintained because titillation sells newspapers in the modern, desperately )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.9717 752.6215 400.9637 764.5015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.3117 604.8295 250.3037 616.7095 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 5970 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive media world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amongst the most recent publications, see J. B. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 352.340 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Scandal: Power and Visibility in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Media Age)] TJ ET BT 134.000 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2000\); for a sample of recent writing, and some useful bibliographies, see )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scandals in Past and Contemporary Politics)] TJ ET BT 277.688 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, eds. J. Garrard and J. Newell \(Manchester, forthcoming )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 686.787 m 149.000 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 121.352 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Scandal)] TJ ET BT 204.356 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.356 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.356 672.531 m 291.344 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Clark, )] TJ ET BT 111.344 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Struggle for the Breeches: Gender and the Making of the British Working Class )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, Calif., 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.328 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.328 644.019 m 235.316 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. H. White, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Age of Scandal: An Excursion through a Minor Period)] TJ ET BT 411.656 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1950\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.648 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.648 629.763 m 503.636 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Northcliffe, quoted in R. Pound, and G. Harmsworth, )] TJ ET BT 349.316 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Northcliffe )] TJ ET BT 404.324 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1959\), p.110.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.316 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.316 615.507 m 526.304 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Garrard, )] TJ ET BT 117.992 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Salford Gas Scandal of 1887)] TJ ET BT 308.660 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Altrincham, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.312 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.312 601.251 m 461.300 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The phrase is from the )] TJ ET BT 174.992 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Solicitors Journal)] TJ ET BT 261.332 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 Feb. 1901, p. 231. Described in John Garrard, 'Scandals, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an Overview' in Garrard and Newell.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.448 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.448 572.739 m 295.436 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. H. Birch, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Representation )] TJ ET BT 201.668 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1971\); for forthright defence of such conduct, see S. E. Finer, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anonymous Empire: A Study of the Lobby in Great Britain )] TJ ET BT 348.668 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1961\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.660 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.660 544.227 m 437.648 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 128.024 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Scandals in the United States)] TJ ET BT 313.028 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Edinburgh, 1998\), p. 89.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.684 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.684 529.971 m 491.672 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 505.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cercles)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cercles.com/review/r21/clark.htm)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 475.203 m 252.980 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 255.980 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 446.691 m 240.992 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 443.359 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 425.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 425.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/454)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 424.185 m 322.316 424.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.208 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.808 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2444)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.408 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.cercles.com/review/r21/clark.htm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.008 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10968)] TJ ET endstream endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 687.1015 148.9997 698.9815 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3557 672.8455 291.3437 684.7255 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.3277 644.3335 235.3157 656.2135 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.6477 630.0775 503.6357 641.9575 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.3157 615.8215 526.3037 627.7015 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.3117 601.5655 461.2997 613.4455 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.4477 573.0535 295.4357 584.9335 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.6597 544.5415 437.6477 556.4215 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 43 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.6837 530.2855 491.6717 542.1655 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 475.5175 252.9797 487.3975 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.cercles.com/review/r21/clark.htm) >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 447.0055 240.9917 458.8855 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=10968) >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 424.4995 322.3157 436.3795 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/454) >> endobj xref 0 75 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000005330 00000 n 0000005439 00000 n 0000005549 00000 n 0000005658 00000 n 0000009219 00000 n 0000009347 00000 n 0000009431 00000 n 0000009460 00000 n 0000009588 00000 n 0000009624 00000 n 0000009653 00000 n 0000009779 00000 n 0000009815 00000 n 0000009906 00000 n 0000017896 00000 n 0000017926 00000 n 0000018054 00000 n 0000018090 00000 n 0000018120 00000 n 0000018248 00000 n 0000018284 00000 n 0000018368 00000 n 0000025862 00000 n 0000025892 00000 n 0000026019 00000 n 0000026055 00000 n 0000026146 00000 n 0000033618 00000 n 0000033648 00000 n 0000033776 00000 n 0000033812 00000 n 0000033842 00000 n 0000033970 00000 n 0000034006 00000 n 0000034097 00000 n 0000041252 00000 n 0000041282 00000 n 0000041410 00000 n 0000041446 00000 n 0000041476 00000 n 0000041604 00000 n 0000041640 00000 n 0000041801 00000 n 0000047824 00000 n 0000047951 00000 n 0000048006 00000 n 0000048134 00000 n 0000048189 00000 n 0000048317 00000 n 0000048372 00000 n 0000048500 00000 n 0000048555 00000 n 0000048683 00000 n 0000048738 00000 n 0000048866 00000 n 0000048921 00000 n 0000049049 00000 n 0000049104 00000 n 0000049232 00000 n 0000049287 00000 n 0000049415 00000 n 0000049470 00000 n 0000049597 00000 n 0000049692 00000 n 0000049819 00000 n 0000049920 00000 n 0000050048 00000 n trailer << /Size 75 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 50143 %%EOF