%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827010657+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827010657+01'00') /Title (The Last Medieval Queens: English Queenship, 1445?1503) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4204 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Last Medieval Queens: English Queenship, 1445?1503)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a fascinating and much-welcomed addition to the steadily increasing body of work on medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queenship that has emerged with the development of this \(still\) fresh historical discipline over the last twenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. Rooted in the research behind the author?s doctoral thesis ? ?English queenship, 1445?1503? \(York, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\), produced under her maiden name \(Chamberlayne\) ? )] TJ ET BT 320.936 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last Medieval Queens)] TJ ET BT 449.252 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an excellent model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the work being undertaken within this scholastic movement, with its focus and line of enquiry centred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly on the institution of queenship, rather than just the lives \(however illuminating or fascinating\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual incumbents of the office. Laynesmith explores a wide range of themes within the ?ideology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of queenship? during this last half-century of the medieval epoch, in which four quite different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were crowned as queen of England. Margaret of Anjou, Elizabeth Woodville, Anne Neville and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth of York each had distinct backgrounds, personalities and expectations that they brought to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office, and were led by outside circumstances into quite different queenship experiences, but all adapted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves, their goals and their operations to the parameters of a long-established yet ever-vibrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifteenth century was a period of turbulence and strife, certainly, known to generations as the Wars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Roses and imprinted vividly on popular consciousness by Shakespeare, but which, thankfully, is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly recognised as an era of dynamism and vitality rather than just the dark prequel to Tudor ?Merrie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(455)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Laynesmith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199247374X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Gibbons)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8063 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?. Arguably, it has been also the most extensively studied and publication-heavy century amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British medievalists over the last few decades. Amongst queenship historians, though, the later Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often has not seemed as appealing a prospect as earlier centuries in which, as argued by the pioneer Marion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Facinger, the queen genuinely was ?the king?s ?partner? in governing?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.600 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.600 752.307 m 391.592 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.592 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is clear that, by the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century, the queen?s public role had irrevocably altered in both the practical and the symbolic sense. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No longer was royal government conducted in the domestic sphere, with ?every act and decision approved or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assisted or contended by the queen)] TJ ET BT 200.984 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( because she was there)] TJ ET BT 310.964 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.124 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.124 709.539 m 327.116 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 327.116 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as mistress of the household and keeper of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keys like any other elite wife. As the queen became more removed from the day-to-day business of rule, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the development of institutionalised bureaucracies, the virtues of queenship promoted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries began to reflect this changing status, but also the desired function of feminine sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within an increasingly refined model of kingship that emerged in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works of theorists like John of Salisbury and Saint Thomas Aquinas. The ideal qualities of queenship in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fourteenth and fifteenth centuries were increasingly those of benefactress, patroness, intercessor, mother and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iconic representation of monarchy ? a form of queenship heavy in symbolic potency, even if not in practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority; the queen had, therefore, a different status, not a lessened one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her introduction, Laynesmith concisely addresses the historical development of queenship over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval centuries and recent scholarship on the subject. She introduces the reader also to the sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of each of her queens, along with the parameters and questions behind this thematic study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their office-holding, which deliberately focuses on issues important to the careers of all four women and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, avoids in-depth discussion of Margaret of Anjou?s unique political exploits. At this preliminary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stage are established two particular issues to which Laynesmith draws constant and correct attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the remainder of the book, namely, the essentially family-orientated nature of the office of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queenship, and, second, the ability of the queenly office to ?complement the role and person of the king? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27\), whether through the kings? utilisation of the feminine elements of sovereignty provided by their wives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the means by which queens themselves created and enacted these roles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 examines the selection of queens and what it was hoped a new queen would bring to the nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to the king, both personally and ideologically. Laynesmith highlights the normally fundamental reason )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of diplomatic expediency for choosing one potential royal bride over another, reminding the reader of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the queen \(as with all elite women\) in creating bonds of kinship, and of two of the more basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary assumptions of the ?normal? queen that were challenged during this period ? that she would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be of foreign birth and of royal status, or at least with royal affiliation and elevated noble birth. Laynesmith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links this idea of a breaking of traditional conventions with additional components in the selection of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen that one might sum up collectively as the representation of idealised femininity in all its guises. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Themes of virginity, virtuous character, youth and a particular blonde beauty are interwoven to produce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognisable type of queenly imagery whose potency is demonstrated all the more by the artistic portrayal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along these lines even \(and particularly\) of a queen like Elizabeth Woodville who so ill-fitted the mould, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being a widowed mother of little more than noble birth whose queenship was grounded in forceful sexuality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whichever of the two parties was thought to have pursued the other. Queenly power for all four women was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooted firmly in Marian symbolism ? in this visual sphere, in the identification of queenly roles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefactress, intercessor, and in the queen?s primary role as mother ? and Laynesmith explores extensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ever-closer ceremonial association between earthly queens and the Queen of Heaven in this period as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means by which the queen herself was enhanced in status and the kingship of her husband further exalted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The deliberate construction of the queen into a potent icon of royalty is further investigated in chapter 2, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Laynesmith considers the ceremonial rites of passage of English queenship. Rituals attached to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage, childbirth and burial shared common themes with those undergone by many late-medieval women, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but Laynesmith argues that these, along with the explicitly royal ceremonies of state entries and coronation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were imbued with political significance on many levels, aimed at different sections of the community, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with ?the queen?s power to complement, legitimise and enrich her husband?s kingship as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integral part of the king?s public body? \(p. 74\). She presents a powerful picture of the symbolic metaphors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind many of these rituals, with, for instance, the coronation pageant of Margaret of Anjou being used to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.5997 752.6215 391.5917 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.1237 709.8535 327.1157 721.7335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7674 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion the peace with France that she personified, and representing the queen as the Virgin Mary, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal church and as the human soul, each in union with Christ as the queen now was with the king. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exploration of the liturgy, anointing and regalia of the coronation ceremony is detailed and, along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material on funeral ceremonies ? arguably the ultimate commemoration of idealised queenship ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the contemporary value given to rites of passage, particularly those also with the power to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invoke the quasi-sanctified nature of monarchy. However, all rituals of queenship emphasised her unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role as the feminine contrast and complement to mature kingship and celebrated the familial bond tying her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the king and to the heirs of their bodies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 is devoted to the key role of the majority of queens ? that of being a mother, producing the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children and protecting his lineage. Laynesmith wisely identifies motherhood as part of, not distinct from, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen?s public activity. Maternity added to the queen?s own political identity, doubly engaging her with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate of a realm that was now the birthright of her child, as well as her husband?s heritage and her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domain through the sacramental ties of marriage and coronation. Motherhood could dramatically alter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of an individual queen, particularly if it was worryingly delayed, and also brought to the fore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again the comparisons between earthly queens and the Virgin Mary, whether in literature, art, or pageantry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like many other aspects of her office, the range of opportunities offered by queenly motherhood could vary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely and were often dependent on the personality and particular circumstances of the individual queen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, Laynesmith considers the level of influence that each queen exerted over her children?s lives and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular, that of the prince of Wales, in the appointment of his household and officials, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration of his estates. She also addresses motherhood in a time of political crisis, centring Margaret?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim for regency in 1453 and her exceptional activity in the subsequent two decades firmly within her new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of mother of the heir. Like Elizabeth Woodville in 1485, who was also bereaved of both husband and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons and had no obvious position, Margaret lost much of her potency as a political threat, if not her status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when there was no longer a living masculine tie between her and the crown.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4 extends this concept of the essentially familial context in which queens most often operated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include her wider kin. The role of women in providing the link between the vertical line of hereditary lineage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and horizontal ties of kinship is visible and important, particularly in royal circles, where interests of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families were also those of kingdoms. John Carmi Parsons has argued that ?a queen?s power was intimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to her position within the families to whom she owed allegiance. That this power was both diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and personal . . . further confounds distinctions between public and private?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.952 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.952 357.651 m 414.944 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 414.944 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds of Margaret of Anjou and Elizabeth Woodville illustrate that a queen?s family ties always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be regarded as problematic. In Margaret?s case, it was that a foreign queen might be suspected of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using her position to benefit her native country; in Elizabeth?s case, that a subject exalted to the throne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altered the kingdom?s power balance by raising her family with her and, in them, had a ready-made faction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that she might use to political advantage. There had been no real involvement in politics from a queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family since Eleanor of Provence, wife of Henry III \(1216?1272\), so three English women in succession on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the throne ? the first native born queens for four centuries ? raised particular challenges. The Woodvilles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally have been regarded as conspicuously grasping in their acquisition of plum marriages, titles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offices, but Laynesmith presents also the more plausible alternative view that the queen?s family were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means by which Edward IV might bind himself \(even if through in-laws\) to a broader range of the nobility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the Yorkist faction had incorporated in the past. Richard III also leant heavily on the heritage of Anne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neville to construct himself an affinity. Therefore, it is important to consider the queen?s family in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its potential to support her husband?s position ? and, in Henry VII?s case particularly, his legitimacy ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as bolstering her own, uniquely isolated position at the heart of the polity. For both Queens Elizabeth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ties of birth ran very much parallel to the newly acquired loyalties of marriage, particularly in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of their sisters, a number of whom served as ladies-in-waiting, but Laynesmith also considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly fascinating relationship of queens to their mothers-in-law, as well as to their mothers, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loomed so large in both these women?s lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter considers a more traditional subject amongst queenship historians, that of the queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household, which has been considered in some depth on a number of occasions since the first publication of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.9517 357.9655 414.9437 369.8455 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7687 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treasurers? accounts in the 1950s. Laynesmith reminds us that the queen?s household was never an isolated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body, but firmly interdependent with the household of the king and the court in general, with mobility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel between the institutions. She considers the financial resources and the male and female attendants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the four queens, but very much broadens her sources and consideration from the norm to reflect upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture and geography of the queenly household and unified court. Laynesmith also discusses the court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a forum in which to network and forge alliances, for the queen as well as the courtiers, and the stage on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the ritual celebration of monarchy was played out in crown-wearings, embassies, state occasions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the religious, cultural and social life of the nation?s elite. The queen was the heart of court life ? and not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely in a decorative fashion. Like any high-status household, the court functioned very much as a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space, and Laynesmith makes it plain that notions of ?public? and ?private? spheres are divisions too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic and largely irrelevant to the complex lives of late medieval queens. The overall conclusion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book reiterates this perfectly, in emphasising that queenship was ?an integral part of the king?s public body? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 265\), while drawing attention to the range of skills necessary to fulfil the office effectively and prompting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader, at the last, to consider the impact of each queen individually. Queenship itself remained a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nebulous concept in the late fifteenth century, whilst the holding of the office naturally was an experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variables, with not every individual queen having the talents, the inclinations or the opportunities to be able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to want to fulfil all potential roles. However, there was a core of ideology, conventions and practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within which every holder of the office operated, and both a political and symbolic significance to so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the queen?s public persona and experiences that it is impossible not to regard queenship as central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise of English kingship in this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although written within the scholastic parameters of the most contemporary of queenship studies, this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable book for medievalists of all persuasions. To the constitutional historian, it serves as a reminder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of queenship to perceptions and development of sovereignty at its most explicit ? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular pertinence, as Laynesmith reminds us in her introduction, during a half-century when English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingship experienced such turmoil. Queenship was regarded in the fifteenth century as a vital component of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Body Politic and, thus, it is completely necessary to restore it from now on to its rightful place at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of political culture. Additionally, for the political historian, Laynesmith provides a fresh look at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of one extremely prominent queen in Margaret and, in considering the two Queens Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside her, reminds us that seeming passivity could be a potently ?active? choice in itself and brings the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familial, collective approach common to several late medieval European queens into the foreground of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English consideration. For historians of gender, amongst whom queens have sometimes been forgotten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, Laynesmith?s contextualisation of the rituals of motherhood and Marian symbolism so potently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited in the construction of feminine sovereignty in this period should prove particularly fascinating. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the fact that I lent this book to two MA supervisees straight after my first reading of it, before even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commencing work on this review, should indicate that I consider it a valuable addition to the growing body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of work on medieval queenship studies. However, perhaps just as importantly, finally, it is an enjoyable as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as an instructive read. Its recent accolade as joint winner of the Longman-)] TJ ET BT 412.592 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 481.592 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Book of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Year Award for 2005 should bring it to the attention of the wider readership that it richly deserves. I have no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hesitation in recommending it most warmly for both beginners and the well-established scholar in this field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 207.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marion Facinger, ?A Study of Medieval Queenship: Capetian France, 987?1237?, )] TJ ET BT 460.280 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Medieval )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Renaissance History)] TJ ET BT 184.004 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(1968\), pp. 3?48, at p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 316.988 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 316.988 161.571 m 370.976 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Facinger, p. 27.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.004 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.004 147.315 m 192.992 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Carmi Parsons, ?Mothers, Daughters, Marriage Power: some Plantagenet Evidence, 1150?1500?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ed. J. C. Parsons, )] TJ ET BT 161.684 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Queenship)] TJ ET BT 260.660 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Stroud, 1994\), pp. 63?78, at p. 78.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 434.648 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 434.648 118.803 m 488.636 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.685 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 316.9877 161.8855 370.9757 173.7655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.0037 147.6295 192.9917 159.5095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 434.6477 119.1175 488.6357 130.9975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 626 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 805.999 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 788.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 788.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/455)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 786.825 m 322.316 786.825 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 761.848 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.448 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2446)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.048 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 787.1395 322.3157 799.0195 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/455) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000004902 00000 n 0000005011 00000 n 0000005121 00000 n 0000005230 00000 n 0000008791 00000 n 0000008919 00000 n 0000009003 00000 n 0000009094 00000 n 0000017210 00000 n 0000017240 00000 n 0000017368 00000 n 0000017404 00000 n 0000017434 00000 n 0000017562 00000 n 0000017598 00000 n 0000017682 00000 n 0000025409 00000 n 0000025439 00000 n 0000025567 00000 n 0000025603 00000 n 0000025701 00000 n 0000033441 00000 n 0000033569 00000 n 0000033624 00000 n 0000033752 00000 n 0000033807 00000 n 0000033935 00000 n 0000033990 00000 n 0000034074 00000 n 0000034752 00000 n 0000034880 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34975 %%EOF