%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420011801+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420011801+01'00') /Title (The Parlour and the Suburb. Domestic Identities, Class, Femininity and Modernity) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4597 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Parlour and the Suburb. Domestic Identities, Class, Femininity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Modernity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of ?separate spheres?, or the organisation of society into a private, domestic, female world and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an active, public, male domain, is closely associated with Victorian society and, arguably, has had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervasive influence upon gender relations since. Women?s sphere was that of the home, or activities closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected with it. Motherhood and the rearing of children were integral activities for women of all classes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic management was another key area, as was the care of elderly or infirm relatives. Where women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked, their activities were relatively ?domestic? in tenor, perhaps teaching or nursing, or undertaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(piecework at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Feminist historical analysis has in recent decades been concerned with unpacking this apparent social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division. On the one hand, the existence of a segregated world may explain the relative absence of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the twentieth century from public life and activities, or the acceptance by women of a narrowly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined domestic role. Yet this also creates further problems. Recent criticism of the debate, such as that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery, has argued that ?separate spheres? was a projection of an idealised society rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of concrete realities. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.632 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.632 81.729 m 197.624 81.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.624 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Women have rarely been entirely confined to the home, with working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women often having to balance the demands of work and home )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.952 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.952 67.473 m 381.944 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 381.944 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and middle and upper class women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participating in philanthropic and suffragist activities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.992 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.992 53.217 m 305.984 53.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.984 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Widows and single women in particular often had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(456)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judy Giles)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199247374X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Bradley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 183.6317 82.0435 197.6237 93.9235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.9517 67.7875 381.9437 79.6675 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.9917 53.5315 305.9837 65.4115 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7995 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to undertake work outside the home as a matter of financial survival, whatever the time period in question. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet despite the opportunities presented by World Wars One and Two for women to work outside the home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in very different industries to those they may have been employed in before the wars, women have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as ?retreating? to the home in peacetime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This debate naturally has an impact upon studies that seek to explore women?s lives in either the home or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public. If we accept that the reality was never as clearly defined as simply a matter of private or public, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the range of questions we may seek to answer broadens out. If domesticity was presented as an ideal for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to aspire to, how did they negotiate this ideal and experience it? Has the notion of domesticity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed in the course of the twentieth century, and how have women responded to it? Although women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded in obtaining the legal rights to fully participate in society, why do discourses of domesticity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue to operate? What have been the impacts of social, economic and technological change on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of domesticity? Also, perhaps, should we look more broadly at the experience of men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity as well?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Parlour and the Suburb)] TJ ET BT 169.352 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( enters into the discussion of women and domesticity with its analysis of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the early to mid twentieth century negotiated modernity and the demands of domesticity. Studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women?s lives and experiences in the first half of the twentieth century have largely considered their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing involvement in public life )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.668 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.668 542.979 m 227.660 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.660 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, their contribution to the war effort in 1914?18 and 1939?45 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.284 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.284 542.979 m 536.276 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 536.276 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their involvement with public services.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.328 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.328 528.723 m 255.320 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 255.320 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Giles?s study is therefore a fresh perspective on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions between the individual woman and domesticity. Her point of departure follows the extension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the franchise to women from 1918, their experiences of war and their entry to the professions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government. The first half of the twentieth century was the founding point of ?modernism?, that often rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nebulous term applied to the last century. Distinct from literary modernism, ?modernity? as a base concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refers to an advanced capitalist state. It is a society in which industry is increasingly secondary, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tertiary; its economy is consumerist. Members of that society experience higher standards of living. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Traditional ways of organising society ? around the church in a small village ? have long been eroded and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ones emerge with the rise of the urban and suburban experience. The increase of extensive transport and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication networks has effectively shrunk the world, and also created the potential for greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobility. Although an extremely basic account of twentieth century modernity, this is the base from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles begins her analysis. What happens to women in this ?brave new world??)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles begins her study with a consideration of how texts such as )] TJ ET BT 344.648 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Women?s Room)] TJ ET BT 443.300 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Marilyn French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1978\) attacked domesticity in the suburbs and its impact upon women. The characters in the novel wish to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see themselves as modern women doing ?work that matters? rather than being confined to the home doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chores \(p. 3\). Modern men, Giles argues, spent their time outside of the home, engaging fully with the world, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing ?work that matters?. In contrast, modern women stayed at home, immersed in a world of domesticity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that could support \(or stifle\) the public modern man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter of )] TJ ET BT 129.320 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Parlour and the Suburb )] TJ ET BT 267.656 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is concerned with the interconnections between the suburbs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?prudential marriage? and self-improvement. Giles argues that while male modernists ? including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Orwell ? viewed the growth of the suburb as a victory for a morally bankrupt, feminised mass, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality could be substantially different for women. As Giles evinces from oral testimonies, the suburb was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place that offered opportunities for stability. The expansion in decent, comfortable and affordable housing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the First World War offered both working- and lower-middle-class women a stability and quality of life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had not necessarily been available to their mothers. This was, according to Giles, a form of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress in which citizenship now had to extend new rights and meanings to the population. It encompassed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right to a decent standard of living, to higher standards of health. It also, Giles argues, involved an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing emphasis on the woman as consumer and the home as a site to be produced by consumption. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the home was the source of health and well-being, consumption was the tool to achieve that aim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2, ?Help for housewives?, explores the changing relations and patterns in domestic service in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early twentieth century. Beginning with an analysis of Virginia Woolf?s attitudes towards her own servant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the concept of domestic service as a whole, Giles convincingly argues that the upper-middle and middle-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.6677 543.2935 227.6597 555.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.2837 543.2935 536.2757 555.1735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.3277 529.0375 255.3197 540.9175 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 5960 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class homes were a significant site for the negotiation of class relationships. While women such as Woolf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disliked the notion of their servants being deferential to them, in the earlier part of the century middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were not expected to run their households without help.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Servant-keeping not only acted as an indicator of social status, but also differentiated the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity for women of different backgrounds. In the middle-class home before the Second World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?lady? of the house was largely divorced from the physical realities of housework. From those houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with one maid to those with a phalanx of paid staff, in order to preserve a sense of class difference the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class woman depended upon working-class women to preserve order in her home. As Giles argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleanliness, neatness and the preparation of meals were ways in which middle-class women could maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuities of their lives, and maintain their privileged status. Dealing with dirt, disorder and waste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products was a working-class concern. But, as Giles points out, this social dynamic did not go unchallenged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles discusses working-class women?s valuing of domestic service as a respectable occupation for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughters to enter, but also women?s negative attitudes towards it. This could range from rebellion to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covert resistance to the lady of the house as the domestic servants reasserted themselves as individuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concept of middle-class homes requiring working-class help in order to operate properly was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalent after the Second World War. The demands of the war, and the concomitant requirement that young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single women, in particular, become geographically mobile and able to enter into different types of work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged the fear that working-class women would lose interest in domesticity. Yet the changes were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute. Giles explores Celia Fremlin?s )] TJ ET BT 231.332 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Seven Chars of Chelsea)] TJ ET BT 366.656 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1940\), which concluded with the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that while domestic help was still essential, what was now required was a shift away from residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic service to ?modern?, non-residential chars and waitresses. Giles views this as a significant change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in perspective, with the residential style of domestic service being seen as involving a repression of sexuality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and causing hysteria. It was argued that long-term employment in service robbed women of their wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender roles, infantilising them by limiting their access to marriage and denying them full independence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The employing family also had the potential to become a surrogate family, providing a sense of stability that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the servant may not have experienced in her childhood. Giles argues that although middle-class women still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected a degree of servility in the home, the location of this servile/cross-class relationship shifted from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1930s from the home to the public realm of the department store.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles?s third area of consideration is consumption and its role in the creation of ?homes?. This was related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two developments: the arrival of the department store \(with its lower-middle- and working-class sister, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high street chain\) and the growth in women?s magazines. The department store in particular came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(function, Giles states, as a community centre for upper-middle-class women, as well as replicating in public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the domestic deferential relationship between the ?lady? and the ?maid?. The stores offered new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for women?s employment, but essentially they moved one type of work ? the facilitation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another?s life ? from the home to the store.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The high street chains also enabled working-class women to become consumers in their own right. Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to ?just look? without undue interference from sales assistants, and to enter into a fantasy world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption. Consumption as a pleasurable leisure activity was thus extended to the working classes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aided not only by changes in retail, but by the production of cultural artefacts that promoted the incentives to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spend.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8245 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The magazines of the time facilitated this development of consumption, with the promotion of the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?professional housewife?. Articles and advertisements encouraged the buying of items to enhance the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home aesthetically, as well as cleaning products that could replace domestic servants. Giles shows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodities began to replace service and drudgery by making cleaning accessible to middle-class women or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by reducing the physical labour required. This might be summarised as the product doing the work rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the person using it. This was a significant psychological and technological change, perhaps in response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the decline of the domestic service industry. Although Giles argues that the take-up of consumer durables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was relatively slow before the 1950s, it would appear that a joint task force of consumer durables and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chemicals could replace pure human labour and drudgery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With this came a change in emphasis to highlight the home as the location of the housewife?s skills, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time in corralling products rather people. Housewifely duties and skills were seen as a labour of love, as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital service to the nation. Enter the experts: scientists provided products as solutions to ease the burden. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesticity changed from drudgery and servility for some to a home constructed by one woman, aided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the consumption of products.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles?s concluding chapter places her discussion in the broader context of the twentieth century. She argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that feminists have often overlooked the role of the home in women?s lives, but that an approach that locates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity within modernism has the potential to rescue it from invisibility. It also, she contends, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges the more traditional views of modernism as well as the concept that the private and the public are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polarised domains. Feminists from the 1960s, Giles suggests, have unquestioningly accepted the apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retreat to domesticity in the 1950s, without exploring the psychological and social impulses for it ? the desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for safety and security after the insecurities of particularly working class life before the advent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welfare State.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Parlour and the Suburb)] TJ ET BT 169.352 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an engaging and thought provoking text, and provides a balance to historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works that examine the increasingly public life of women in the twentieth century. However, if there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism to be made, it is that the scope of the book is somewhat limited by what it can reasonably examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in two hundred pages. This is frustrating as )] TJ ET BT 244.328 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Parlour and the Suburb )] TJ ET BT 382.664 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulates ideas about other ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which domesticity, class and gender have interacted in the public and private lives of women. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of schools and club organisations in educating women and girls in domestic science would naturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow on from the discussions of domestic service and consumption. But this criticism is also a compliment; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a monograph that provides a fresh perspective on a particular topic should provoke questions from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader. For those working in the fields of gender, social change, domesticity and citizenship, )] TJ ET BT 480.608 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Parlour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and the Suburb)] TJ ET BT 107.348 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will be of great interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amanda Vickery, 'Golden age to separate spheres? A review of the categories and chronology of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English women's history', )] TJ ET BT 190.340 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 279.344 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36, \(1993\), 383-414.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.332 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.332 225.363 m 438.320 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 212.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jutta Schwarzkopf, )] TJ ET BT 158.996 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Unpicking Gender: The Social Construction of Gender in the Lancashire Cotton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weaving Industry 1880-1914)] TJ ET BT 203.996 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Aldershot, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.316 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.316 196.851 m 352.304 196.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 183.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Roberts, Frank Prochaska, )] TJ ET BT 241.988 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Philanthropy in Nineteenth Century England)] TJ ET BT 517.976 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1980\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 168.339 m 193.652 168.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Jones, )] TJ ET BT 128.336 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in British Public Life, 1914?1950: Gender, Power and Social Policy )] TJ ET BT 499.316 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harlow, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 139.827 m 149.000 139.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 126.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penny Summerfield, )] TJ ET BT 165.680 126.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women Workers in the Second World War: Production and Patriarchy in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict )] TJ ET BT 105.692 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1984\); Arthur Marwick, )] TJ ET BT 228.332 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Deluge: British Society and the First World War)] TJ ET BT 482.984 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(1965\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.976 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.976 111.315 m 551.636 111.315 l S BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 97.059 m 90.344 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 123.668 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Social Action in Victorian and Edwardian England)] TJ ET BT 429.668 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Aldershot, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.988 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.988 82.803 m 551.648 82.803 l S BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 68.547 m 90.344 68.547 l S endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.3317 225.6775 438.3197 237.5575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.3157 197.1655 352.3037 209.0455 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 168.6535 193.6517 180.5335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 140.1415 148.9997 152.0215 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.9757 111.6295 551.6357 123.5095 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 97.3735 90.3437 109.2535 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.9877 83.1175 551.6477 94.9975 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 68.8615 90.3437 80.7415 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 899 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review but is unable to respond due to current time constraints.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 739.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 721.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 721.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/456)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 720.057 m 322.316 720.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 695.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 680.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2448)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 720.3715 322.3157 732.2515 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/456) >> endobj xref 0 58 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000693 00000 n 0000005342 00000 n 0000005451 00000 n 0000005561 00000 n 0000005670 00000 n 0000009231 00000 n 0000009359 00000 n 0000009443 00000 n 0000009472 00000 n 0000009598 00000 n 0000009634 00000 n 0000009663 00000 n 0000009789 00000 n 0000009825 00000 n 0000009854 00000 n 0000009980 00000 n 0000010016 00000 n 0000010114 00000 n 0000018162 00000 n 0000018192 00000 n 0000018320 00000 n 0000018356 00000 n 0000018386 00000 n 0000018514 00000 n 0000018550 00000 n 0000018580 00000 n 0000018708 00000 n 0000018744 00000 n 0000018809 00000 n 0000024822 00000 n 0000024955 00000 n 0000033253 00000 n 0000033381 00000 n 0000033436 00000 n 0000033564 00000 n 0000033619 00000 n 0000033747 00000 n 0000033802 00000 n 0000033929 00000 n 0000033984 00000 n 0000034112 00000 n 0000034167 00000 n 0000034292 00000 n 0000034347 00000 n 0000034473 00000 n 0000034528 00000 n 0000034652 00000 n 0000034707 00000 n 0000034791 00000 n 0000035742 00000 n 0000035870 00000 n trailer << /Size 58 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35965 %%EOF