%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 37 0 R 57 0 R 74 0 R 97 0 R 117 0 R 163 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001083048+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001083048+01'00') /Title (Working-Class Organisations and Popular Tourism, 1840?1970) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4384 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Working-Class Organisations and Popular Tourism, 1840?1970)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Barton's book lives up to its promise of providing a new and fuller analysis of the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class people were able to enjoy holidays away from home, mainly in the 'age of the railway', but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with reference also to the tramping artisan tradition that predated the railways, and to the early years of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('package tour' as it emerged in its airborne Mediterranean incarnation during the 1950s and especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s. She is at pains to emphasise the energy, agency and initiative that working-class tourists displayed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether as the architects of their own opportunities or as consumers, on their own terms and with their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, of the offerings of travel capitalists. The book is organised according to a broadly chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, but each chapter develops a recognisable theme. We are taken from the tramping artisan as tourist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the early railway excursions, through the Great Exhibition of 1851 as stimulator of popular tourism \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best chapter\), to the development of unpaid popular holidays, the complexities surrounding the gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of holidays with pay \(in which the role of the Holidays with Pay Act of 1938 is placed in longer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term perspective and cut down to size\), the growing \(but largely unfulfilled\) pretensions of the state to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervene in holiday provision and organisation during and after the Second World War, and, in a brief but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating final chapter, to the phenomenon of working-class 'Brits abroad' in the post-war generation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Primary sources consulted, over and above newspaper sampling, reminiscences, humorous sketches and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel writing, include parliamentary, trade union and Board of Trade papers, the records of local committees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the organization of visits to the Great Exhibition, the archive of the Workers' Travel Association, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(458)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 June, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Barton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(749065909X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(249pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John K. Walton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 9190 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral history interviews from established collections, supplemented by others conducted by the author. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a genuinely pioneering book, which fills a gap in the existing literature while contributing in a distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to debates on issues ranging from living standards and popular consumerism to politics and labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. There is no doubt that it should be widely bought and consulted. The critical dimensions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary that follows should be read against this positive overall assessment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Barton's first substantive chapter, 'No Grand Tours', presents a rather uneasy combination of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel before the railways, including emigration and going 'on the tramp', with the organisation and impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early railway excursions. Discussion of emigration and the 'tramping artisan' is perhaps apposite in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminding the reader that the lower strata of society were not immobile before the coming of the railways; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but emigration is a more complex subject than is suggested here, and there is more than sufficient work in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print on migration flows in pre-industrial and early industrial England to make such commentary redundant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially as nothing is said about internal migration within England as a general theme, or about migration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by choice rather than necessity \(except in the case of footloose artisans\). 'Betterment migration' has a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, while the popular aspects of pilgrimage, and popular customs of repairing to spas and coastlines for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health and pleasure, are not incorporated into the argument.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.952 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.952 583.491 m 333.944 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 333.944 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the other hand, the discussion of the rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of seaborne excursion traffic to Kentish resorts along the Thames estuary in the late eighteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century is highly relevant, as contemporary comment makes clear that London artisans as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shopkeepers were among those present, but it would have benefited from use of John Whyman's exhaustive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on this topic.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.328 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.328 526.467 m 153.320 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 153.320 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( When the chapter moves on to the nature and significance of early railway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excursions, it is refreshing to find the heroic role of Thomas Cook as pioneer and innovator, which is so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often accepted uncritically at the firm's own valuation, coming under sceptical scrutiny. Some attention is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given to earlier and parallel initiatives, including the work of Friendly Societies and other popular voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations as excursion organisers alongside paternalist factory owners; but more might have been paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rival travel agents who were already emerging in the 1840s and 1850s, such as Stanley and Marcus in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire, or the grocers and tea dealers who turned excursion agents in the 1870s. Their role, like that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national firms such as Frame's, has been obscured by the tendency of Cook's in-house historians to write off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the competition, and by the absence of surviving archives, or of their imaginative use for public relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes, to match those of Cook's.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.500 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.500 398.163 m 218.492 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.492 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The role of a kind of early 'virtual tourism' might also be considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this context: how many of the new London experiences of 'otherness' described in the context of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Exhibition, for example \(p. 67\), could be acquired or anticipated in provincial towns, at least in rough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simulacrum, by frequenting travelling fairs and exhibitions at home?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.644 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.644 355.395 m 377.636 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Lancashire 'cotton towns', the 'first industrial society' and later the first working-class consumer society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a crucial part in the development of the popular seaside holiday.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 376.616 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 376.616 314.883 m 390.608 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 390.608 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dr Barton is aware of this, but her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of it is not always secure, and her comment \(p. 101\) that, 'For a real mass market to develop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holidays with pay were essential', is simply not applicable to this setting. This is, as she shows elsewhere, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area where the custom of 'Holidays without pay' \(chapter 4\) had its origins, based to a large extent on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protection and extension of established spring and summer holidays through orchestrated absenteeism, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the collective accumulation of savings through the year in 'going-off clubs'. The latter arrangement was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported as early as the 1820s among the so-called 'Padjamers', artisans and small farmers from East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire who visited Blackpool in carts and riding pillion on horseback to bathe in the August spring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tides, a phenomenon Dr Barton mentions indirectly \(as reported in passing by Richard Ayton in 1813\) but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not discuss.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.016 186.579 m 129.008 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.008 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She is right to highlight Oldham as a pioneer of such societies \('thrift of a sort, but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the right sort', as a contemporary remarked\) in an industrial setting, but the current lack of similar evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for other cotton towns does not prove the absence of the phenomenon there. The attempt to identify Oldham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartists with the holiday club tradition is also unduly ambitious, especially as the author accepts John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster's version of Oldham's economic and social structure and popular politics in the 1840s without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging the lasting controversy over fundamental issues of social structure and the use of evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that followed the publication of )] TJ ET BT 188.336 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution)] TJ ET BT 402.680 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1974.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.016 101.043 m 459.008 101.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.008 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor is Dr Barton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to prove her suggestive but speculative genealogy through the savings clubs for the Great Exhibition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1851 \(if in Oldham, why not in Sunderland?\), and this was a commonsense way of organising savings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyway, which was also applied to Christmas and other predictable occasions for 'lumpy' expenditure. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.9517 583.8055 333.9437 595.6855 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.3277 526.7815 153.3197 538.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.4997 398.4775 218.4917 410.3575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.6437 355.7095 377.6357 367.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 376.6157 315.1975 390.6077 327.0775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.0157 186.8935 129.0077 198.7735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.0157 101.3575 459.0077 113.2375 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R 52 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 8497 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oldham's local 'picnic clubs', based on public houses, were thought by local contemporaries to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likeliest model. The savings club phenomenon, as it grew and spread across late Victorian Lancashire \(with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(payouts of at least 228,000 in Oldham in 1906\), was based not only on the workplace but on a spectrum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular organizations from the pub to the chapel and Sunday School and from the sports club to the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society or the local Co-op, illustrating the remarkably ecumenical appeal of the seaside holiday in drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities together in shared pleasures, although they were also divided over where to go and how to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spend the time and money.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.004 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.004 709.539 m 176.996 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As to the staggered Wakes holidays that were the basis for this preparation, it is misleading to present them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 74\) as straightforward commemorations of the parish saint's day. Robert Poole has shown that many were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently invented traditions, often with a commercial basis associated with promotion by publicans, while by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1840s the replacement of earthen by stone floors in parish churches had removed the direct religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(element from the processional rushbearing ceremonies that were part of the genuine traditional survivals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor, on the other hand, did many travelling fairs come to rest at the seaside in the summers of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century: the overwhelming majority continued on their existing circuits.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.644 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.644 597.747 m 446.636 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.636 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The transmutation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local traditions like those described, however recently invented, into commercial seaside holidays depended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all on working-class spending power, and Dr Barton tends to underplay the extent of cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire's competitive advantage in this regard. Contrary to the impression given here, the West Riding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textile districts were significantly slower than the 'cotton towns' in generating enhanced real family incomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and extended days off in the late nineteenth century;)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.296 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.296 526.467 m 305.288 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.288 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the problem is compounded by the assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 110\), following Elizabeth Roberts's mistaken conjecture, that adult male wages in the 'cotton district' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unusually low. This is flatly contradicted by E. H. Hunt's careful analysis of regional wage variations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which shows male wage rates in the 'cotton towns', occupation by occupation, as among the highest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 469.443 m 90.344 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 90.344 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the other hand, the suggestion \(on p. 79\) that the cotton weavers' unions obtained agreement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1906 to 116.5 recognised holidays per year, rising to 136.5 in 1914, gives even these assertive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations, busily seeking the enforcement of the closed shop in those years, credit for more power than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could ever have imagined; and on p. 110, correctly, the days are revealed to be hours. That the weavers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unions were interested in extending holiday entitlements at this time, however, is of great significance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overall experience of 'cotton Lancashire' suggests that here at least, the suggestion ascribed to Foucault )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(with some creative extension\) that the coming of the factory constituted a 'rupture' that transformed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between work and leisure might work rather well in this context, despite Dr Barton's expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism \(p. 75\). But 'cotton Lancashire' was certainly distinctive and different, and the additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of holiday savings clubs that Dr Barton has enterprisingly unearthed in other parts of the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not affect this issue. But to suggest that \(p. 91\) the Southend and the Kent coast resorts had difficulty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing a summer season by the 1890s goes too far in the opposite direction: concentration into August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bank Holiday week, and problems of extending breaks beyond the week-end otherwise, set these resorts at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative disadvantage compared with the coasts of Lancashire and North Wales when dealing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular market, but that is not the same thing. To regard Scarborough as an exclusively 'genteel' resort, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, is to underestimate \(with Harold Perkin\) the strength of working-class demand from the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riding of Yorkshire, which was not enough for Scarborough to challenge Blackpool, but more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient to sustain extensive provision of popular amusement and accommodation in the central and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern areas of this complex resort.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.308 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.308 186.579 m 233.300 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.300 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Working-class Lancashire accents were also being heard in Devon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resorts such as Torquay, and Welsh ones at Ilfracombe, by the end of the nineteenth century, when growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers of the 'better classes' were already fleeing to the continent in search of a more refined environment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 143.811 m 54.008 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is important to keep a grip on such distinctions of time and space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond the significance of wages and free time for the development of working-class holidays, Dr Barton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly draws attention to the importance of transport and accommodation. In the former case, the railways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve their star billing, but there is room for further exploration of their policies regarding excursion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision. The Lancashire and Yorkshire, for example, began its life with unusually favourable policies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards excursion providers, but became less encouraging from the mid-Victorian period when its facilities )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.0037 709.8535 176.9957 721.7335 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.6437 598.0615 446.6357 609.9415 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.2957 526.7815 305.2877 538.6615 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 469.7575 90.3437 481.6375 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.3077 186.8935 233.2997 198.7735 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 144.1255 54.0077 156.0055 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 60 0 R 63 0 R 66 0 R 69 0 R 72 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 8630 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being stretched by burgeoning demand at inconvenient seasonal and week-end peaks; and it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the threat of competition for traffic to key destinations began to emerge from the 1880s, coinciding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the growing evidence that popular tourist traffic was not going to be an ephemeral fad, that it became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hospitable to trippers again and invested in expanded facilities for them. The viability of most working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excursion traffic depended on the availability of superannuated rolling stock that was stored in sidings, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used on menial duties, for the rest of the year. Cattle wagons were resorted to as late as 1872. Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modus operandi)] TJ ET BT 111.680 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( did not appeal to the accountants of the Beeching era, which helps to explain the rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demise of the seaside excursion from the mid-1960s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.312 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.312 695.283 m 307.304 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 307.304 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More might also be said about the great multi-train )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annual excursions associated with firms like Bass's brewery at Burton on Trent, which issued booklets listing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attractions at the destination for employees and advising them on how to enjoy the trip; while the mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exodus from the Great Eastern Railway's Stratford works, using free travel passes for the annual August )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holiday, had its counterparts at other railway centres like Swindon and Crewe, helping to boost working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class holiday crowds at resorts from Weymouth and Weston-super-Mare to Rhyl and Morecambe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.920 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.920 624.003 m 524.912 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As to accommodation, it is disappointing that Dr Barton has not filled an obvious gap by taking the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the seaside landlady into the twentieth century and beyond Blackpool, which is a conspicuous omission in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my own work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 103.676 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.676 569.235 m 123.668 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.668 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The landlady, in these pages, is mainly an inflexible and obstructive element who needs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be supplemented or outflanked by the progressive new developments of the plotland settlement, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caravan site and the holiday camp, before being upstaged by the new concrete hotels of the Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(package tour, with their balconies and swimming pools. Her relationship to the 'means of accommodation', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an unduly ambitious inter-war concept, is never clarified. But interesting new material is provided on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist, trade union and Co-operative holiday camps, on the role of the Co-operative Holidays Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Workers' Travel Association, and on the self-build initiatives and early caravan sites that sprang up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wherever cheap land was made available, with a much fuller Lincolnshire dimension being added to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essex and south coast initiatives that are familiar from the work of Ward and Hardy. We need a research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project on the cultural history of the caravan site, especially in the post-war generation. But it is not at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that these developments filled a niche at the bottom end of the market, below the cheapest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landladies, especially in the years before the Second World War. The use of a car was necessary to enjoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the 'plotland' shacks, and informal bed and breakfast provision in the fishing quarter or back streets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hastings, or an occasional high-season doss-down in what Mass-Observation called a 'Kippax' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool \(a private house that took in visitors very informally at the height of the season\), would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaper than most of the holiday camps, perhaps especially the early commercial ones that tended not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave records and are understandably given limited space in these pages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 381.596 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 381.596 341.139 m 401.588 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.588 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here and in dealing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('plotland' settlements, which were often \(as Dr Barton points out\) highly individualistic and territorial in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their ethos \(although they could also engender feelings of solidarity and shared pleasure across families, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(band together effectively against external enemies\), we lose touch with the book's intended focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('working-class organisations', and are reminded that individuals were capable of organising their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holidays and infrastructure, even at this level.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.644 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.644 269.859 m 272.636 269.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.636 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The valuable reminder of the enduring importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staying with 'family and friends', a hidden and generally forgotten element of the holiday experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforces the same point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Governmental worries over the future despoliation of the coastline, when room had to be found for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional hordes of holidaymakers that were expected to be unleashed by the Holidays with Pay Act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1938, were clearly based on the assumptions that the landlady was not enough and/or not appropriate, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some form of collective provision and state oversight was going to be necessary, and that, left to itself, a free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market in holiday accommodation provision would result in an endless sprawl of disastrous, uncontrolled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plotland style development, in defiance of the accepted norms of public health and planning. What may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear remarkable, in this context, are the limited actual impact of the 1938 Act, and the even more limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent of government intervention in the holiday market in the immediate post-war years. Dr Barton's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable analysis of the genesis and impact of this Act confirms Alice Russell's argument that paid holidays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were already spreading to large numbers of workers during the inter-war years by non-legislative means, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the provisions of the Act itself were very narrow in terms of consecutive days off and of the groups in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labour force to which it applied, and the intended consolidating measure envisaged for the 1940?1 )] TJ ET endstream endobj 59 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.3117 695.5975 307.3037 707.4775 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.9197 624.3175 524.9117 636.1975 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 65 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 103.6757 569.5495 123.6677 581.4295 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 381.5957 341.4535 401.5877 353.3335 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 71 0 obj [57 0 R /Fit] endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6437 270.1735 272.6357 282.0535 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 77 0 R 80 0 R 83 0 R 86 0 R 89 0 R 92 0 R 95 0 R ] /Contents 75 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Length 7268 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliamentary session was never carried through.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.288 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.288 795.075 m 289.280 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.280 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These important points emerge from the discussion but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have benefited from greater emphasis and development. The worries expressed to and by government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are reminiscent of the unfounded fears about the descent of barbarian hordes on genteel resorts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprotected coastlines that accompanied the Popular Front's holidays with pay legislation in France in 1936, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but they were real enough at the time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.312 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.312 738.051 m 235.304 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 235.304 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They were much less pressing than in the French case, because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the familiarity of a working-class presence at most seaside resorts since the late nineteenth century, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical problems, in terms of transport as much as accommodation, arising from the concentration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holidaymaking into a few short weeks were of more immediate concern. Wartime efforts to reduce such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures by encouraging 'holidays at home' were recognised as mere stopgaps, and ineffectual ones at that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under special circumstances.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.644 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.644 666.771 m 191.636 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.636 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But it is surprising that government intervention in the domestic holiday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market, even under the post-war Labour government, amounted to so little, although it is even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that a seaside New Town was actually proposed and seriously discussed in 1949 \(p. 191\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were, of course, many more pressing legislative priorities at the time, and retrospective justification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the lack of direction can be found in the failure of the predicted crisis to materialise, suggesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing provision was already coping adequately in its own way. But this does invite examination in greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth of the reasons for the mismatch between fears and outcomes in this respect. The work of David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matless on the construction of 'national' landscape values and of imagined threats to them, in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of a planning ethos, would be an important starting point, and \(as Dr Barton suggests\) the Town and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Country Planning Act of 1947 probably made more impact on restricting the spread of plotland settlements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and holiday camps than any policies targeted more directly at the popular seaside, although controls over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caravans were to prove more difficult to enforce.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.604 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.604 497.955 m 288.596 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.596 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It might also be argued that developing fears about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over-exploitation of coastline might have been a supplementary influence on the failure of the state to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote British tourist attractions internationally in the inter-war years and afterwards, although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuous neglect of the seaside in this context was almost matched in other fields, and the reluctance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify tourism promotion as a legitimate field for state activity and expenditure was entirely consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with other contemporary priorities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.992 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.992 426.675 m 221.984 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of government in the post-war generation was much more directly effective in limiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessibility of cheap continental holidays than in encouraging or controlling domestic tourism. Dr Barton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides useful discussions of the role of the Board of Trade in protecting flag carriers and restricting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of charter flights in the 1960s, of attempts to protect the balance of payments by limiting tourists' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign exchange, and \(entertainingly\) of some of the unintended consequences of such policies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.580 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.580 343.395 m 516.572 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 516.572 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overestimates the importance of the working-class package holiday to the Mediterranean before the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s, if Demetriadi's calculations carry conviction, and she probably underestimates the extent of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas travel before the Second World War, when \(for example\) working-class holidaymakers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern England were already in evidence at Ostend, while Spain's north-west coast was becoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible to white-collar workers \(at least\) by steamer from English ports, and cheap cruises constituted an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itinerant version of the package holiday that reached down to similar social strata.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.944 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.944 257.859 m 446.936 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.936 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the other hand, Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barton's use of the Workers' Travel Association archive adds a valuable extra dimension to the story of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular holidays abroad, although the numbers involved seem to have been very small and the tale is at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times a little tangled in the telling.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 76 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.2877 795.3895 289.2797 807.2695 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 79 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3117 738.3655 235.3037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 171.6437 667.0855 191.6357 678.9655 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 85 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.6037 498.2695 288.5957 510.1495 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 88 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.9917 426.9895 221.9837 438.8695 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 91 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 496.5797 343.7095 516.5717 355.5895 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj [74 0 R /Fit] endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.9437 258.1735 446.9357 270.0535 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 100 0 R 103 0 R 105 0 R 107 0 R 109 0 R 111 0 R 113 0 R 115 0 R ] /Contents 98 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Length 9346 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 7 and 8, on the role of wartime and post-war government and the rise of the Mediterranean package )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tour as a popular and accessible phenomenon from the 1960s, nevertheless make a valuable contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an emergent and important literature. One of Dr Barton's strengths is a persisting awareness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of politics \(and trade unions\) to her chosen themes. It is therefore unfortunate that her attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forge connections between the decline of Chartism, the Great Exhibition and the early development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular tourism are weakened by a limited grasp of the existing historiography of Chartist decline. Theodore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rothstein is not enough, and a lack of contextual understanding gives rise to some over-simplified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements at this point in chapter 3, as regards \(for example\) the relationship between Chartism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European revolutions of 1848, the suddenness of the transition to institutional reformism and the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the divisions within the movement itself.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.024 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.024 654.771 m 250.016 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here as elsewhere, the book would have benefited from just a few finishing touches of additional secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading and a more secure grasp of context. Occasional anachronisms creep in, as with 'business rate payers' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on p. 182, or the tone of the citation of the )] TJ ET BT 239.660 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sun)] TJ ET BT 257.660 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1967 on p. 208, which overlooks the fact that it was not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the populist Rupert Murdoch tabloid that it became from 1969 onwards. Spelling errors include Bream \(for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brean\), Perpignon, and Eiffel \(for the mountains, as opposed to the Tower\). Tourism statistics are used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sparingly, but sometimes trustingly, and some discussion of the difficulty of obtaining plausible figures for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traffic flows and overnight stays would have been apposite. Comparisons of the British situation with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state sponsorship of popular holidays in Germany, Italy and Argentina in the 1930s and \(in the latter case, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Peronism\) afterwards, or in post-war Eastern Europe, would have given a broader perspective and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided some alternative models against which to set the voluntarist British experience, in which the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played such a small and reluctant part.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 218.312 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.312 485.955 m 238.304 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.304 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Questions of whether, at what point and under what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances workers preferred shorter hours and more leisure time to higher incomes, and how this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equation might be affected by the commodification of free time and the development of holidays as a form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of popular conspicuous consumption, might have been discussed more systematically, making use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework provided by Gary Cross in )] TJ ET BT 219.980 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time and Money)] TJ ET BT 300.632 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which is cited but not really used. And the limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but valuable excursions into oral history prompt thoughts about the need for more work of this kind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including oral histories of the holiday camp and the caravan holiday. But this is to return us to the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive aspects of this book, which opens out so many questions as well as delivering some interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisional verdicts. It is easy to pick holes in aspects of the construction and communication of a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story, which ramifies in so many directions; but this review should conclude by praising the positive virtues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a path-breaking, indeed, an adventurous book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Baines, )] TJ ET BT 117.344 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Migration in a Mature Economy )] TJ ET BT 276.332 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1986\); C. Erickson, )] TJ ET BT 436.652 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leaving England )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ithaca, NY, 1994\); )] TJ ET BT 160.988 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Migration in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 336.320 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Clark and D. Souden \(1987\); A. B. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granville, )] TJ ET BT 115.340 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spas of England, and Principal Sea-bathing Places )] TJ ET BT 386.336 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2 vols., 1841\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 459.332 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 459.332 249.363 m 513.320 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Early Kentish Seaside: 1736?1840)] TJ ET BT 252.008 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. Whyman \(Gloucester, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.972 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.972 235.107 m 479.960 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. S. Green, ?Thomas Cook and tourism history: a critical analysis? \(MA dissertation, University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central Lancashire, 2004\); J. K. Walton, 'The social development of Blackpool 1788?1914' \(PhD )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, Lancaster University, 1974\), pp. 242, 283?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.984 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.984 192.339 m 365.972 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Altick,)] TJ ET BT 111.020 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Shows of London )] TJ ET BT 220.700 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, Mass., 1978\); R. Poole, 'The Lancashire wakes', and M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judd, 'The London fairs', in ed. J. K. Walton and J. Walvin, )] TJ ET BT 351.968 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leisure in Britain 1780?1939)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1983\); and see now the resources of the National Fairground Archive, Sheffield )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.680 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.680 135.315 m 171.668 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. K. Walton, )] TJ ET BT 130.676 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire: a Social History 1558?1939 )] TJ ET BT 329.672 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1987\), chap. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.300 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.300 121.059 m 527.288 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Thornber, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Blackpool and its Neighbourhood)] TJ ET BT 381.008 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Poulton-le-Fylde, 1837\), p. 223.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 92.547 m 118.004 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. O. Foster, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution )] TJ ET BT 342.692 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1974\); D. Gadian, 'A comparative study of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular movements in north-west industrial towns 1830?1850' \(PhD thesis, Lancaster University, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1977\); R. Sykes, 'Popular politics and trade unionism in south-east Lancashire, 1829?42' \(PhD thesis, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 99 0 obj [97 0 R /Fit] endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.0237 655.0855 250.0157 666.9655 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj [97 0 R /Fit] endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 104 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 218.3117 486.2695 238.3037 498.1495 ] >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 106 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 459.3317 249.6775 513.3197 261.5575 ] >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 108 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.9717 235.4215 479.9597 247.3015 ] >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 110 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 311.9837 192.6535 365.9717 204.5335 ] >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 112 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.6797 135.6295 171.6677 147.5095 ] >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 114 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2997 121.3735 527.2877 133.2535 ] >> endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 92.8615 118.0037 104.7415 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 119 0 R 121 0 R 123 0 R 125 0 R 127 0 R 129 0 R 131 0 R 133 0 R 135 0 R 137 0 R 139 0 R 141 0 R 143 0 R 145 0 R 147 0 R 149 0 R 151 0 R 153 0 R 155 0 R 157 0 R 159 0 R 161 0 R ] /Contents 118 0 R >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Length 13229 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Manchester, 1982\); and an extensive article literature, especially in)] TJ ET BT 452.600 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1978 and )] TJ ET BT 139.004 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History )] TJ ET BT 211.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since 1976.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.664 780.819 m 319.652 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walton, 'Social development of Blackpool', pp. 286?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.312 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.312 766.563 m 380.300 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Poole, 'Wakes holidays and pleasure fairs in the Lancashire cotton district, )] TJ ET BT 438.452 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 443.780 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1790?1890' \(PhD )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis, Lancaster University, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.656 738.051 m 288.644 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walton, 'Social development of Blackpool', pp. 274?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.312 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.312 723.795 m 386.300 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. H. Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regional wage variations in Britain 1850?1914 )] TJ ET BT 354.692 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.340 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.340 709.539 m 490.328 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. S. Pritchett, 'Scarborough', in ed. Y. Cloud, )] TJ ET BT 289.328 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Beside the Seaside)] TJ ET BT 378.644 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1938\), p. 226.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.636 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.636 695.283 m 512.624 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Morgan and A. Pritchard, )] TJ ET BT 204.656 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power and Politics at the Seaside)] TJ ET BT 366.320 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Exeter, 1999\); F. B. May, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Ilfracombe', in Walton and Walvin,)] TJ ET BT 236.300 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Leisure in Britain)] TJ ET BT 324.644 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.644 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.644 666.771 m 387.632 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. N. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 128.024 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Railway and its Passengers )] TJ ET BT 284.360 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Newton Abbot, 1988\); Walton, 'Social development of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool', pp. 243?60.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.836 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.836 638.259 m 237.824 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Drummond, )] TJ ET BT 140.012 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crewe: Railway Town, Company and People, 1840?1914)] TJ ET BT 416.672 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 1995\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams, )] TJ ET BT 114.020 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life in a Railway Factory )] TJ ET BT 240.356 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1915\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 275.348 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 275.348 609.747 m 335.336 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also John Beckerson's chapter on the Manx tourist industry in )] TJ ET BT 383.144 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New History of the Isle of Man)] TJ ET BT 541.472 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vol. v, ed. J. Belchem, \(Liverpool, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.328 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.328 581.235 m 322.316 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Walker, )] TJ ET BT 119.996 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Basildon Plotlands: the Londoners' Rural Retreat)] TJ ET BT 358.904 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chichester, 2001\); )] TJ ET BT 457.556 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worktowners at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blackpool)] TJ ET BT 112.676 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G. Cross, \(London, 1990\); Bertha Wood, )] TJ ET BT 335.984 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fresh Air and Fun: Memories of Ivy House )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holiday Camp, Blackpool )] TJ ET BT 192.008 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lancaster, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.644 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.644 538.467 m 339.632 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Dowling, )] TJ ET BT 126.680 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humberston Fitties: the Story of a Lincolnshire Plotland )] TJ ET BT 402.020 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cleethorpes, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.336 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.336 524.211 m 560.324 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also A. Russell, )] TJ ET BT 162.680 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Growth of Occupational Welfare in Britain)] TJ ET BT 391.352 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.672 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.672 509.955 m 542.660 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Furlough, 'Making mass vacations: tourism and consumer culture in France, 1930s to 1970s', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Comparative Studies in Society and History)] TJ ET BT 274.340 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 40 \(1998\), pp. 247?86.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.660 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.660 481.443 m 449.648 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Sladen, 'Holidays at home in the Second World War', )] TJ ET BT 337.304 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 498.968 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 37 \(2002\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 67?89.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 114.344 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 114.344 452.931 m 174.332 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Matless, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Landscape and Englishness )] TJ ET BT 258.344 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1998\), pp. 252?4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 346.664 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 346.664 438.675 m 406.652 438.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 425.818 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Beckerson, 'Marketing British tourism 1914?1950' \(PhD thesis, University of East Anglia, 2003\); J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beckerson, ?Marketing British tourism: government approaches to the stimulation of a service sector?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in eds. H. Berghoff and others, )] TJ ET BT 214.988 397.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Modern Tourism)] TJ ET BT 368.984 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.976 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.976 395.907 m 466.964 395.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 383.050 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also J. Demetriadi, 'The golden years, 1950?1974', in ed. G. Shaw and A. Williams, )] TJ ET BT 488.612 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fall of British Coastal Resorts)] TJ ET BT 211.376 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), especially pp. 55?8; P. Lyth, 'Gimme a ticket on an aeroplane: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the jet engine and the revolution in leisure air travel )] TJ ET BT 315.308 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 320.636 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1960?1990', in ed. L. Tissot, )] TJ ET BT 463.460 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Construction of a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tourist Industry in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 347.696 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Neuchatel, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.336 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.336 338.883 m 500.324 338.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 326.026 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Demetriadi, 'Golden years', pp. 52?4; J. K. Walton, '"The Queen of the Beaches": Ostend and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, from the 1890s to the 1930s', )] TJ ET BT 245.180 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET BT 314.180 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51.8 \(2001\), 19?25; J. K. Walton, 'British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of Spain and their impact on attitudes to the Spanish Civil War: some additional evidence', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth-century British History)] TJ ET BT 226.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 5 \(1994\), 283?99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.336 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.336 281.859 m 377.324 281.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 269.002 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Saville,)] TJ ET BT 111.020 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( 1848)] TJ ET BT 138.020 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\); N. Kirk, )] TJ ET BT 281.336 268.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Growth of Working-Class Reformism in Mid-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian England )] TJ ET BT 156.020 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1985\); M. Finn, )] TJ ET BT 239.024 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After Chartism)] TJ ET BT 310.700 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1993\); Miles Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 479.684 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ernest Jones, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chartism and the Romance of Politics )] TJ ET BT 250.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.664 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.664 239.091 m 388.652 239.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 226.234 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victoria De Grazia, )] TJ ET BT 161.312 226.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Culture of Consent: Mass Organization of Leisure in Fascist Italy )] TJ ET BT 64.016 211.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1981\); Shelley Baranowski, )] TJ ET BT 263.996 211.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strength Through Joy: Consumerism and Mass Tourism in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Third Reich)] TJ ET BT 138.680 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2004\); E. Pastoriza, )] TJ ET BT 302.660 197.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Las Puertas al Mar )] TJ ET BT 402.332 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Mar del Plata, 2002\); A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kostiainen, 'The Soviet tourist industry as seen by the Western tourists of the late Soviet period', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tissot, )] TJ ET BT 99.356 169.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Construction of a Tourist Industry)] TJ ET BT 264.044 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 269?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.372 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.372 167.811 m 386.360 167.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 123.967 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 106.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 106.187 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/458)] TJ ET 0.000 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