%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417184025+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417184025+01'00') /Title (Shaping the Nation. England 1360?1461) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4207 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Shaping the Nation. England 1360?1461)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For medievalists, the long-awaited appearance of Gerald Harriss?s volume in the New Oxford History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England constitutes a major publishing event. In this superb study a leading academic historian, K. B. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McFarlane?s successor at Magdalen, offers an authoritative summing-up of a period which saw medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England transformed. Harriss?s )] TJ ET BT 188.648 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(magnum opus)] TJ ET BT 255.644 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a 700-page tome, is at once eloquent, magisterial and thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking. It is a work of awesome scholarship. It will be turned to as an essential work of reference for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shaping the Nation)] TJ ET BT 126.692 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( covers a period which was divided in the old Oxford History of England between two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes, McKisack?s on the fourteenth century and Jacob?s on fifteenth. The New Oxford History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, in the conception of the late John Roberts, effects a conscious break with the old chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures. Where, for the most part, the earlier volumes mapped directly onto the centuries, the new ones cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across them. For the late middle ages the old periodisation had something to be said for it. If only by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincidence, key turning points, such as the outbreak of the Scottish wars or the deposition of Richard II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came just as one century gave way to another. The dates on which John Roberts has settled for the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series, however, have a certain logic to them too. Gerald Harriss?s book opens with the Treaty of Brtigny, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which brought to a close the first phase of the Hundred Years War, and finishes with the deposition of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VI and the accession of the Yorkist dynasty. Arguably, a better concluding point would have been the battle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(459)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 June, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerald Hariss)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(749065909X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(726pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Saul)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8347 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bosworth in 1485, which saw the restoration of a measure of political stability. To have asked the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to cover the whole of the Wars of the Roses, however, would have been to make a long book even longer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly there appears nothing unnatural in the dates chosen for Dr Harriss; on the contrary, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative scheme gives the period an intellectual coherence of its own.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like the other contributors to the New Oxford History, Gerald Harriss has written a book significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from those it replaces. Most obviously, the structure of the volume is more strongly thematic. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old Oxford Histories were essentially narrative-driven. Thematic chapters periodically interrupted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative to explore aspects of social and cultural history; it was the narrative, however, which provided both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the backbone and the structure. The arrangement and structure are otherwise here. Gerald Harriss?s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divides very clearly into two parts ? the first part strongly thematic, analysing the economy, religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, and the working of political life, and the second, ?Men and Events?, providing the narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high politics: the earlier part considerably exceeding the latter in length. The effect is to produce a crossways-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-lengthways structure. The balance which Harriss has chosen to strike shows his keen appreciation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest now taken by historians in analysing social and political structures. At the same time, Harriss reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his alertness to the modern agenda more generally in his readiness to engage with issues of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate. A striking number of his paragraphs, particularly in Part I, begin with rhetorical questions. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of this device he offers the reader a commentary on almost every issue on which an opinion is likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be sought. Harriss shows himself well aware of the expectation that the Oxford History should offer an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative summing-up of the state of play in the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth comparing Harriss?s volume not only with the ones it replaces but also with his own earlier work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the period. Over the years, a broad consistency has informed Harriss?s interpretations of the later middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages. Harriss has long seen the period as a deeply significant one in the emergence of the English state. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fourteenth century, he has argued, a political community had emerged in which the crown, the symbol of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity, and the council, advising the king, and parliament, the voice of the national community, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked together for the common good. The main factor instrumental in promoting this development was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realm?s involvement in war. Under the impact of near-continuous warfare in Scotland and France from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1290s and the consequent imposition of national taxation, the political relationships were forged which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned the English state until their dissolution in Charles I?s reign. Harriss first articulated this view at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length in )] TJ ET BT 79.352 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(King, Parliament and Public Finance in Medieval England to 1369 )] TJ ET BT 406.340 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1975\) and he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated it in many later works. In the present study, however, it is a view which is subjected to a measure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualification. In place of the strongly consensual emphasis in Harriss?s earlier work, there now appears a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of tension and division. In Harriss?s current view, the opposition between the two principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of political authority made for debate, tension and instability. With one conception holding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings derived their authority from God, and were thus not answerable to their subjects, and the other seeing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them exercising authority in trust from the people, there was bound to be disagreement about how kings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercised their rule and how far they could be held to account. In practice in England, as the lawyer Sir John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fortescue recognised, a mixed monarchy had emerged. Nonetheless, the tensions between the two positions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were never erased, and, as Harriss argues, in some reigns, notably Richard II?s, they gave rise to violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute. A recognition of the potential for tension and division is also evident in Harriss?s discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of gentry politics. In 1981, when he introduced an edition of McFarlane?s papers, he viewed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnate affinity as a stabilising influence and ?a powerful regulator of social behaviour?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.252 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.252 200.835 m 478.244 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.244 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Twenty years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, however, he is not so sure. Influenced by the late Simon Walker?s work on John of Gaunt?s affinity, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows for the potentially disruptive effects of magnate lordship and for the tensions apt to develop between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those within retinues and those without.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 225.344 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 225.344 158.067 m 239.336 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 239.336 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Highly doubtful that magnate affinities included all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically significant in local society, he sees local faction as arising in many cases from the resentments of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the excluded against the well-connected. At one point Harriss goes further, arguing for a tension between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and the private aspects of the gentry?s authority as a local magistracy. In a period when, as he points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out, there was no salaried local bureaucracy, it was inevitable that the crown should harness the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurisdictional power of the county elites. Yet the unfortunate by-product of this system was the hijacking of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public power by private interest. Recognition of this point is implicit in Harriss?s eloquent introduction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McFarlane?s papers. In )] TJ ET BT 149.312 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Shaping the Nation)] TJ ET BT 241.988 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, the point is more explicit. The emphasis, so strong in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.2517 201.1495 478.2437 213.0295 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 225.3437 158.3815 239.3357 170.2615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harriss?s earlier work, on the medieval emergence of the public aspect of the English state is now more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified. Private is seen to co-exist at all levels with public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major strength of Harriss?s work has always been his ability to judge royal government in the light of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations that contemporaries had of it. The same strength is evident again in this book. Harriss shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as well versed in the literature of political punditry ? the ?mirrors for princes? literature and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated moralistic writings ? as in the records of the chancery, household and exchequer. He uses these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings to brilliant effect to lay bare the body of ideas and assumptions which governed the working of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary political life. Throughout the book he lays emphasis on the responsibilities resting on a king, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the channel for God?s rule and the head which gives strength and direction to the body politic. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside this, he highlights the obligation which lay on the nobility, as major stakeholders in the kingdom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to advise the king dispassionately in the common good. Harriss?s political narrative in the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book never loses sight of this conceptual framework. For this reason, his interpretations of political history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcend the narrow ?politics of faction? approach to focus on rival ideas of how the common good might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be attained. It is an approach which invests what might otherwise appear the somewhat sterile and pointless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates of the late middle ages with a meaning beyond the contingent and the personal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lest it appear that Harriss?s book is concerned almost exclusively with politics, it should be stressed that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a study of quite exceptional range and depth. Virtually every aspect of England?s late medieval experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is subjected to review. A long opening section discusses the court, the nobility and gentry, the culture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper classes, war and the role of chivalry, and the character and consequences of ?bastard feudalism?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next section, headed ?Work and worship?, offers a wide-ranging discussion of population change, urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline, agrarian society, overseas trade, the institutional church and popular piety. The quality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophistication of these chapters attest Harriss?s mastery of a range of subjects extending far beyond those on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he has written hitherto. Harriss, moreover, interprets his brief to write about English history with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendable liberality. Complementing the central discussion of England are equally effective discussions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Wales, Scotland and Ireland. It would be difficult to improve on his review of developments in fifteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Wales, when the retreat of English influence paved the way for the emergence of a powerful native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squirearchy. No less valuable is his analysis of Normandy under the English occupation \(drawing here on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Allmand?s work\), an episode normally bypassed in accounts of English history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only area, indeed, which can be said to suffer a measure of neglect is art history, in particular the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of manuscript art. The history of the elite culture of the court is given as much coverage as it is reasonable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expect in a general history of this sort. Thus Harriss offers some illuminating observations on the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chaucer and Gower in the context of the culture of Richard II?s courtly entourage. He also offers some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent, if all too brief, remarks on architecture and the rise of the Perpendicular style. To the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting, however, he accords virtually no consideration at all. His account of the Wilton Diptych interprets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this iconic image solely in the context of Richard II?s ideas of kingship. He attempts no accompanying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the artistic background to the work, nor of what, if anything, its legacy might have been. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion stands in a vacuum. The possible influence of the Italianate-looking Bohun manuscripts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1360s is not considered, while the fifteenth century?s supreme works, the Sherborne Missal, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beaufort/Beauchamp Hours and the Bedford Hours, are not mentioned at all. This omission points to a larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversight on Harriss?s part. He unfortunately expresses no view on whether or not English culture was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline in the late middle ages. A long art-historical tradition maintains that culturally England became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a backwater after 1400. The late fourteenth-century flowering of the arts associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard II?s court petered out under his austere Lancastrian successors. Chaucer and Gower found no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successors of comparable stature among the hack poetasters of the fifteenth century, while manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illumination went into decline until the reception of Netherlandish influence in Edward IV?s reign. English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art, in other words, became insular, cut adrift from the European mainstream. Harriss touches on the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of English isolationism in his conclusion. He ventures to suggest that England?s expulsion from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France in the 1450s encouraged the development of a more inward-looking mentality. He does not, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review this hypothesis in the light of debates about alleged English cultural decline. Very possibly, his book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was too close to completion by the time of the Victoria and Albert Museum?s major exhibition ?Gothic: Art )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7979 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for England, 1400?1547?, which suggested an alternative reading of the evidence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.592 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.592 795.075 m 441.584 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 441.584 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The lavish display in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this exhibition might be interpreted as lending support to the notion that English art was not so much inferior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to continental art of the period as simply different; English patrons of the day looked for different aesthetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities from their counterparts across the Channel. It would have been good to have had Harriss?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections on the issues raised by the exhibition. Certainly, whatever view is taken of the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement of the period is bound to affect our view of its achievement as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, how does Harriss see the achievement of the century from Brtigny to the Wars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roses? For the most part, Harriss?s judgement is positive. While recognising that aspects of the period are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off-putting ? the grisly background of plague and disease and, after 1399, growing political instability ? he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless takes a generally optimistic view of developments. He believes that the changes in agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation in the wake of the demographic collapse, by promoting the rise of the yeomanry or lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squirearchy, made for a more broadly based and self-conscious proprietorial class. He also believes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widening of the political elite to embrace the gentry, merchants and professionals, men with a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth and experience, contributed in the long term to political stability. Despite the problem of dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict, he believes, society still responded well to structures of self-regulation. Even in the towns, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions sometimes erupted into dissent, it was possible for the elites to contain and respond to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations of the lower orders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Might Harriss?s view, however, perhaps be considered a little too rosy? Nowhere in the conclusion does he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touch on an issue which surfaces periodically in the book, the growing bankruptcy of the crown. At roughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time that Henry VI?s reign drew to a close, the crown?s debts and arrears amounted to a whopping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(372,000. In a typical year the ordinary revenues of the crown totalled a mere 5,000, although a grant of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moveables levy could raise this sum by 20,000 per annum or so. In the closing phase of the French war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only Cardinal Beaufort?s hardly disinterested generosity prevented the crown from collapsing into total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insolvency. The origins of the crown?s problems lay in the over-ambitious war to win the French crown on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Henry V had embarked in 1417. Territorial conquest, a much bolder strategy than the chevauche )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigning of the fourteenth century, involved demands on the state far greater than it could support. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only were the English armies over-extended in the field, the financial resources available to support them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were woefully inadequate. Had Henry V and his successors been able to tap substantial new sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income, such as the booming cloth trade, the position might well have been different. However, the crown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never so much as embarked on the attempt. Over the years, royal income first stagnated and then fell. War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the massive scale which Henry V conceived with the conquest of Normandy was in the long run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsustainable. The consequences for the crown?s finances were disastrous. More than that, the underlying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stability of English political life was subverted. The strategy of waging external war in partnership with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility had been the principal means by which kings had achieved internal harmony and stability. War had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the beneficial effect of uniting the king and nobility in an endeavour which appealed to them both. Are we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled to conclude, then, that the goal of internal stability could only have been achieved at the cost of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bankrupting the crown? This is an issue which may be said to invite consideration in any general history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late medieval England; yet it is not considered here. When Dr Harriss has given us so much else in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderful book, however, it may simply be churlish \(and certainly greedy\) to beg for more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. B. McFarlane, )] TJ ET BT 150.668 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England in the Fifteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 309.332 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G. L. Harriss \(1981\), p. xv.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.304 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.304 163.827 m 517.292 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Walker, )] TJ ET BT 118.004 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lancastrian Affinity 1361?1399)] TJ ET BT 292.352 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.000 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.000 149.571 m 424.988 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gothic: Art for England 1400?1547)] TJ ET BT 236.684 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. Marks and P. Williamson \(London, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.004 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.004 135.315 m 531.992 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/mar/19/featuresreviews.guardianreview6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 80.547 m 421.952 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.952 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 77.215 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 59.435 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 59.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/459)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 58.041 m 322.316 58.041 l S endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.5917 795.3895 441.5837 807.2695 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.3037 164.1415 517.2917 176.0215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 370.9997 149.8855 424.9877 161.7655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.0037 135.6295 531.9917 147.5095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 80.8615 421.9517 92.7415 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/mar/19/featuresreviews.guardianreview6) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 58.3555 322.3157 70.2355 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/459) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2454)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2005/mar/19/featuresreviews.guardianreview6)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004888 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005107 00000 n 0000005216 00000 n 0000008777 00000 n 0000008905 00000 n 0000008989 00000 n 0000009080 00000 n 0000017480 00000 n 0000017510 00000 n 0000017638 00000 n 0000017674 00000 n 0000017704 00000 n 0000017832 00000 n 0000017868 00000 n 0000017933 00000 n 0000025562 00000 n 0000025681 00000 n 0000033713 00000 n 0000033743 00000 n 0000033871 00000 n 0000033907 00000 n 0000034035 00000 n 0000034090 00000 n 0000034218 00000 n 0000034273 00000 n 0000034401 00000 n 0000034456 00000 n 0000034581 00000 n 0000034708 00000 n 0000034834 00000 n 0000034929 00000 n 0000034994 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35395 %%EOF