%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818144007+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818144007+01'00') /Title (Writing the History of the Russian Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3408 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Writing the History of the Russian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Hobsbawm has recently raised the question ?Can wewrite the history of the Russian revolution??. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coming from someone who has written a history of the twentieth century, of which the Russian revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprises a rather distant component, the question is somewhat unexpected. Hobsbawm, of course, used it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an example to test the value of historians dealing with ?what if? history. I would like to consider the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question from the point of view of someone who has attempted to write such a history, to look at some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems more or less specific to the exercise and take the opportunity of commenting on the contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to these problems in the two most recently published histories of the Russian revolution, Orlando )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orlando Figes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(89.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1009pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Cape)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Read)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195212419)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Read)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8069 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figes? )] TJ ET BT 68.348 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People?s Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 165.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and my own )] TJ ET BT 230.996 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Tsar to Soviets: the Russian People and their Revolution)] TJ ET BT 532.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the problems are fairly obvious. Above all, the Russian revolution and its consequences remains a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living topic, attitudes towards it being woven into the fabric of liberal capitalist self-justification and into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist ideas of all varieties, not least the shrill polemics of radical groups which trace their lineage back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one form of Bolshevism or another. It has very much been a case of ?tell me what you think of the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution and I?ll tell you who you are.? Although Russia?s revolution is not as important as it was at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(height of the cold war, the collapse of communism has only partially slackened the pace since Russia?s post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991 ills are still being blamed primarily on communist mismanagement. As a result, political assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have made it even more difficult than usual to reach the most objective possible level of historical analysis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, it has been a popular topic and it has perhaps required more than the usual vanity on the part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential writers to think they have something worth saying in the face of so many predecessors. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly offset by the enormous breadth, significance and controversial nature of the topic which offers many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different angles of approach, but, none the less, originality of information and/or interpretation is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult in a crowded field. Thirdly, the topic is unique in that one of the most widely-used political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of the subject, W.H.Chamberlin?s )] TJ ET BT 250.640 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 364.640 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is more than sixty years old. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superb old-timer sprawls complacently across the topic leaving upstart newcomers to decide whether to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a head on challenge and rewrite the central political narrative or tiptoe carefully around and assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone has already read it. Speaking personally, these difficulties far outweighed the more frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted lack of information and difficulties of using former Soviet archives. While easier access would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped, such a vast mass of material is already available that it is unlikely that even the complete opening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Russian archives \(which is still far from having been achieved\) would make much difference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall picture, though it would certainly illuminate more specific issues and local and regional events. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Significantly, neither Figes? volume nor my own relies heavily on new archive material, though both, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, incorporate it where appropriate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The outcome of these difficulties is that there is never a perfect time to write the history of the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. Speaking personally, the idea of attempting, none the less, to do so was firmly implanted in my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind by the mid-1970s. My hope was to resurrect what seemed a neglected area of this much-written about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic. Above all, I thought the revolution of the Russian masses had been underestimated. It had been seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the peripheral action of the uncontrolled, leaderless )] TJ ET BT 296.288 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stikhiia)] TJ ET BT 331.628 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(spontaneous forces\) or as the terrible revenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(temnye liudi)] TJ ET BT 123.668 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the dark people\) on their social betters. Instead, I wished to emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposefulness and moral economy of the ?crowd.? An important corollary of my argument was that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolsheviks, far from representing this force, had been instrumental in suppressing it. Conventionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough, the Kronstadt rebellion of 1921 was the great symbol in which all these themes came together. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, at that time John Keep, Leonard Schapiro, Sheila Fitzpatrick and Robert Service were all working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on such histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Predictably, when the resulting volumes appeared they were all very different from the kind of account that I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had in mind. Only Keep came close to my theme and his work, valuable though it was in pioneering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of local worker and peasant soviets and village committees, ran out of steam when it came to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to me the crucial group in understanding Bolshevik victory, the soldiers and sailors. As the 1980s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrolled and perestroika took hold in Russia it became increasingly clear that the harmful influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers and sailors on the original revolution, their imprint of violence and coercion, might help, in no small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part, to explain its ultimate failure. For the time being, however, apart from Edward Acton?s )] TJ ET BT 480.944 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 127.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, from which I learned that my interpretation could be considered part of the little-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered libertarian school of thought, few other general books on the revolution, as opposed to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly rich supply of monographs, came out. The chief exception was Bruce Lincoln?s epic trilogy. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the eighties, the outlook was little better in that various interpretations of the revolution were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being prepared. Pipes was working on his blockbusting history and I heard of a number of friends, former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teachers and colleagues who were also working on general accounts I, none the less, decided it was now or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never, took the plunge and embarked on my own long-delayed project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In due time my book, )] TJ ET BT 140.012 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Tsar to Soviets)] TJ ET BT 241.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, finally appeared. It was preceded by Pipes? volumes, which )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7872 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were much-lauded in the Sunday supplements and on TV and radio programmes rarely concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, but described by Edward Acton as ?disappointing doorstoppers?. However, only a few months after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the publication of )] TJ ET BT 121.676 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Tsar to Soviets)] TJ ET BT 222.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in January 1996, the most heavily promoted volume on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution ever produced appeared in the form of Orlando Figes? )] TJ ET BT 349.940 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People?s Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 447.260 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As if that were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough the year ended with Hobsbawm?s already mentioned question. What better confirmation could there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be that there is never a perfect time to write a history of the Russian revolution!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although our two books are very different, it was the similarities in approach that interested me when I first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saw Orlando Figes? account. In fact, of all the volumes published in the last twenty years, our approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps bear a closer relationship to each other than to any of the others for two main reasons. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors were primarily political and usually rather narrative in structure. Orlando Figes and myself both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to get away from this and put an emphasis on the social history - so well illuminated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs of the last twenty years - and particularly on the masses. This was summed up in the titles or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtitles of our respective books - the Russian revolution as people?s tragedy or people?s revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, neither of us wanted the characteristically structuralist analysis of social history - which both of us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had relied on in our previous monographs on Volga peasants and the intelligentsia - to obliterate the element )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of personal experience which both of us saw as a fascinating and essential part of the story of the revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though one cannot write the life histories of 100 million people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second similarity is more curious. Both of us were heavily influenced in our interpretation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution by members of one of the smallest and least effective revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 412.616 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(groupuscules)] TJ ET BT 476.612 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1917, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which formed around the newspaper )] TJ ET BT 212.300 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Novaia zhizn?)] TJ ET BT 280.640 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In Figes? case, Gorky was the main influence, in my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own, the diarist Nikolai Sukhanov. Both were close to the Bolsheviks but not of them. Both shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik aims but both vigorously denounced Bolshevik methods and particularly their ruthlessness, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruelty, their manipulation of the masses and their hidden agenda. Crucial elements of Figes? interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and my own derive from these two writers. In particular, Figes? notion of ?people?s tragedy? is heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired by Gorky, whom Figes follows in arguing that the real failure of the revolution came about because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the deep scars in Russian history which left a semi-barbaric and democratically inexperienced population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incapable of building a new society free of the faults of the old. Unlike classic cold warriors Figes does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blame the Bolsheviks for this state of affairs. For him, the complacent and cruel autocracy must also be put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the dock. It is at this point, however, that Figes? interpretation and my own begin to diverge. Sukhanov )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself certainly shared Gorky?s apprehension about the barbarism of the masses and the danger of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elimination of the ?culturally advanced? sectors of Russian society on whom, they thought, Russia?s future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise above its gloomy past depended, but he was also very impressed by the self-organization of the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers. Like many Marxists of the period, he had less time for the peasants. My own view, however, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also heavily influenced by recent studies of peasants and their culture which have tended to show that, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined in its own terms, peasant cultures tended to be much more rational and practical than they often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to the outsider. There was, of course, a long tradition of such argument in Russia, not only by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populists who idealized the peasantry but by many others from Turgenev, via Tolstoy and Solzhenitsyn to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary historians such as Danilov, Kabanov and Maliavskii.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is on the issue of violence, especially its place in the popular movement, that Figes? interpretation and my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own diverge widely. Following the trend started among historians of the French revolution in the eighties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figes attacks the assumptions of those who had been arguing that revolutionary violence was often rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political in its selection of targets. For Figes, common criminality, bloodlust, a desire to loot and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure in wanton destruction are at its heart, not the inarticulate, instinctive politics of an illiterate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneducated society. In my own interpretation, I tried to distinguish between ?revolutionary violence? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed at specific targets and sheer brutality embodied in the growing number of released prisoners, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate armed deserters and other outlaws. In this view, revolutionary violence was distinct precisely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it was discriminate rather than indiscriminate so that, as many examples show, brutal landowners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were treated worse than those who had treated the peasants better. Similarly, cruel army officers might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executed and replaced by other officers in whom the men had greater confidence. Criminals caught in the act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be subject to summary justice - often out of all proportion to the crime but often likely to bear some )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7631 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic relationship to what they had done. While it would be foolish to romanticize popular violence, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least because the innocent could be caught up along with the less innocent, there did seem to me to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction. Most examples of political riot from the US ghettos to the fall of Kinshasa bear this out with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular groups of property owners, for instance, having been targeted more than others because of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(record of oppressing those who had become rioters and looters. The evidence suggests that the Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution was no exception. Figes? interpretation and my own diverge thoroughly on this issue. For Figes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolutionary activity of early 1917 degenerated into a chaotic orgy of uncontrollable drunken violence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by October, while for me, although a dangerous minority of misfits certainly behaved in the way Figes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes, there were far more workers and peasants trying to establish their own form of order, to replace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the government and its police force, through the action of neighbourhood militias, Red Guards, local, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factory and village committees and soldiers? and sailors? committees in the armed forces. The self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizing activity of the masses attracted far more of my attention than of Figes who concentrates on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-destructive tendencies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another point of similarity which led to profound differences lies in the desire of both of us to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of the experience of the individual to balance the otherwise heavily structural argument required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to analyse a vast revolution in a massive country. In my own case, two elements came to bear on this. First, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been impressed with the work of my friend and former colleague Edward Countryman who, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent history of the American revolution, had prefaced his account with thumbnail sketches of the lives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of four very different individuals. I resolved to do the same though, in the event, pressure of space and time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduced the number to two. Secondly, I was dissatisfied with the way in which much social history compiled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its facts in a sometimes traditional shoe-box fashion, that is diverse information from a wide range of places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in quick succession and with little reference to the immediate context. Thus a point might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by a sailors resolution from Sebastopol?, a peasant conference resolution in Kursk, a Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate in Ivanovo-Voznesensk and somebody?s memories of what they heard on a tram in Kiev. History is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not an exact science so such a style of argument is inevitable but I wished to balance it by giving greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence to the sequence of revolution in a number of microcosms - emphatically not intended to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical but to show the revolution in one place. In the end I was not as successful at this as I had wished. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only well-known examples - like the Putilov factory and the Kronstadt naval base - provided sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information to make it possible to return frequently to show the development of the revolution in one spot. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, only the Putilov factory was an ongoing reference point. I did, however, try to supplement this by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using less well-known areas and episodes - the Romanian Front, the Caucasus, the Makhno movement - as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor narratives providing a counterpoint to the more established ones. However, the most difficult aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here was, predictably, to find a village with a continuous chain of evidence. I did eventually find one but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fitted too awkwardly into the structure of the book and, rather than include it as an appendix to an already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlong book, it was excluded with a view to using it separately in some other context. Here, Orlando Figes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was much more successful than I, not only in persuading his publisher to accept a much longer account, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in filling that extra space with extensive anecdotes. Perhaps the least familiar example he uses is the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feud between Grigorii Maliutin and Sergei Semenov, two peasants from the same village, one a traditionalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other a modernizer, which he uses to excellent effect. However, here, too, an initial similarity between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Figes and myself ended up in a vast difference, in this case in the balance between structural argument and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdote.. Figes? extremely stimulating structural arguments are almost unnoticed in the ocean of anecdote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and narrative while the extended anecdotes in mine were ruthlessly shunted aside in order to make more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space for the broad argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Incidentally, there is an amusing contrast in the related issue of eyewitness evidence. Figes tends to use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters from the revolution as ?masks?, from behind which he can make his own points. The author does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always appear but favourite sources - Gorky, Dmitrii Os?kin, General Brusilov - speak on his behalf. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence of this is that, having carefully selected the voice for a given moment, Figes does not enter into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of his sources or present a variety of points of view. In contrast, my only extensive use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyewitness evidence was intended to show how each ?witness? \(in this case to events on the street in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February revolution\) presented very different views of the same event - even when three of them were in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same building at the same time. Each saw what they wanted to see. In other words, eyewitness evidence )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7522 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed as much careful criticism as any other. Incidentally, at this point, Figes and I even came to quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different conclusions about the weather at the time of the February revolution! Figes takes up the tsarina?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument that the revolution occurred during an unusually warm weekend which brought people out into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open for a change, while I referred to the fact that it had been one of the coldest periods for a decade and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had led to greater shortages and hardship which is what had brought the masses out rather than a chance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some midwinter sunbathing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many other points of similarity and difference. One can say with some certainty that neither of us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a Leninist though our presentation of Lenin has little in common, Figes tending to see him as almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congenitally Machiavellian and cruel where, for me, he was naive, had a catastrophically unbreakable self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence and was fanatical in a well-meaning sort of way - notably his total devotion to his concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular liberation. We would, I think, both agree that love for humanity in the abstract obliterated his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenderness for actual individuals. In fact, Lenin thought this was a virtue. This might seem odd to many but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one could compare it to war leaders who know defeat of an evil enemy and the achievement of peace can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only come about through the sacrifice of their own soldiers lives and have to harden themselves towards the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable losses. Like many warriors, Lenin also certainly dehumanized the enemy although he never took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride or pleasure in human tragedy, seeing it as sometimes necessary but never desirable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other leading figures also appear differently. Where Figes presents Kerensky as histrionic and incompetent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for me there was more of a case for a renewed respect at least for what he and the Provisional Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were trying to do - prevent a civil war within a world war. In this respect Figes and I have vastly different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of the Moscow State Conference of August 1917. Figes takes the view that it illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerensky?s weakness whereas for me it showed that he was the only figure who retained a broad spectrum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of support from moderate left to moderate right. In the end, it was Kornilov?s lunatic venture which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crystallized the incipient polarization of the country and undermined Kerensky much as Gorbachev was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined by the equally idiotic coup attempt of August 1991.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another interesting difference comes in the treatment of the central political narrative, that is, the ins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outs of national politics mainly in the capital. As already mentioned the topic is dominated by Chamberlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose work has to be repeated or circumvented. Once one decides that, in the interest of total history, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has to include the narrative it tends to dominate the book. In the end, as some reviewers pointed out, Figes? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is structured more as a political narrative than as a piece of structural historical analysis. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plenty of structural analysis but it is very much played down, as already mentioned, in favour of narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anecdote which is usually left to speak for itself. My own solution was to separate out the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative into two summary chapters on ?the contours of national politics? which, I intended, would map the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wood rather than the trees since political narratives often lose the thread of the overall picture in a mass of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is, for all but the most devoted specialist who often knows it anyway, confusing detail. Our different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions here perhaps arise from the fact that Figes and I may have had contrasting views about who our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers would be. While the elusive ?general reader? is every historical writers dream target, and Figes has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly hit it dead on and fired the imagination of such people, I assumed that, although my book is, I hope, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-contained political and social history of the revolution, most readers would have some knowledge of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basics. The difficulty of judging how much of the elementary material to put in is no doubt something about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Orlando Figes also concerned himself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, on the issue of the appeal of the two books one might be tempted to speculate on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicly expressed reactions to them. Each book, as is usually the case, appeals to readers with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predisposition to see events in the same light as the author, the dividing line between us being that, at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the day, Figes speaks to centre-right pessimism about human nature or at least about Russians - while my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book seems to attract liberal-left optimists about human nature and those who hope society, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian society, )] TJ ET BT 115.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can)] TJ ET BT 132.344 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be changed for the better. Much of the greatest support for Figes has come from what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one might call educated non-specialists, many of the influential broadsheet reviews having been written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people with no obvious track record of knowledge of the topic \(something non-academic review editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seem to deem unnecessary\). In this respect Figes work has successfully struck the imagination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated establishment. By contrast, reviews of my book have been confined to specialist publications, not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8595 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the )] TJ ET BT 77.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 207.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 223.328 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education Supplement )] TJ ET BT 403.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carrying one, as they had of my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous, much more narrowly focused and therefore, I would have thought, less appealing, earlier books. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be fascinating, though beyond our current brief, to speculate on exactly why the one book was slotted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into one channel, the other into a quite different one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What I have tried to point up here is that, although our interpretations are fundamentally different at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deepest level as well as in detail \(and I have not tried to argue out the rights and wrongs of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations, a task best left to readers of our respective books and to other arenas\) the roots of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach lie in certain striking similarities. Both of us see the mass movement as a driving force in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution rather than as passive material acted upon by politicians and the elite. Both of us distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ourselves from the established ?cold war? and ?revisionist? schools of analysis, though reviews suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers tend to see Figes as closer to the former in his unrelenting anti-communism and myself closer to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter with a somewhat idealized view of the worker - peasant - soldier masses. Finally, both of us would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably see ourselves as ?post-revisionists?, as historians attempting to look at the revolution as ?the past?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which has gone, which has run its course, something which no longer has deadly importance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary political stances. Although the significance of October will continue to be avidly discussed, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is less vital than it was at the height of the cold war. Only time will tell if these two books are seen as the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dinosaurs of an older style of writing about the revolution or the precursors of a new, more rounded and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more dispassionate historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Hobsbawm, ?Can We Write the History of the Russian Revolution? in )] TJ ET BT 427.640 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On History,)] TJ ET BT 484.304 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London, 1997, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp.241-52. The paper was first presented as the Isaac Deutscher Memorial Lecture at the London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(School Of Economics on December 3, 1996.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orlando Figes, )] TJ ET BT 138.344 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People?s tragedy: the Russian Revolution 1891-1924)] TJ ET BT 404.984 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1996. Christopher )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Read, )] TJ ET BT 94.676 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Tsar to Soviets: the Russian People and their Revolution 1917-1921)] TJ ET BT 451.328 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London 1996.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.H.Chamberlin, )] TJ ET BT 152.672 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 266.672 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2 vols.\), New York, 1965. The first edition was published )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1935. Perhaps significantly, it does not appear in Orlando Figes? bibliography. See below.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J.L.H.Keep, )] TJ ET BT 125.000 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution a Study in Mass Mobilization)] TJ ET BT 382.676 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London 1976; Leonard Schapiro, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1917: the Russian Revolutions and the origins of Present-day Communism)] TJ ET BT 422.336 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1984; Sheila )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution)] TJ ET BT 236.012 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford, 1982; Robert Service, )] TJ ET BT 390.656 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution 1900-1927)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1986.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.Bruce Lincoln, )] TJ ET BT 153.332 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In War?s Dark Shadow: The Russians Before the Great War, )] TJ ET BT 450.308 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, 1983; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Passage Through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution, 1914-1918)] TJ ET BT 454.004 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, 1986 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 84.344 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War)] TJ ET BT 315.668 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, 1989. There were, also, some general )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of part of the period, such as Norman Stone?s )] TJ ET BT 331.628 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Eastern Front 1914-17)] TJ ET BT 463.292 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1975 and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evan Mawdsley, )] TJ ET BT 147.668 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Civil War)] TJ ET BT 256.676 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1987, which, though very influential, fell short of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being histories of the whole revolution)] TJ ET BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It probably influenced my account that I wrote much of the first draft in France in 1989, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bicentennial year of the French revolution and the )] TJ ET BT 306.632 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(annus mirabilis)] TJ ET BT 381.644 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of communist transformation in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. It appeared that people?s revolutions were once again on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, although the debate about the French revolution was opening up bitter divisions between its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defenders and its growing band of revisionist detractors led by Fran_ois Furet and, for the English-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking reader, Simon Schama. As a result, the then-dominant right-wing intellectual hegemony )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praised the action of the contemporary masses in eastern Europe as energetically as it condemned their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predecessors in revolutionary France. As a result, although it was emerging from the cold war )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmosphere which had so dogged it, the study of modern Russian history remained thoroughly tangled )] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ideological undergrowth which choked its free development.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R.Pipes, )] TJ ET BT 107.024 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Russian Revolution 1899-1919)] TJ ET BT 276.020 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1990 and )] TJ ET BT 372.680 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bolsheviks in Power)] TJ ET BT 491.672 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993.)] TJ ET BT 48.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Acton Letter to )] TJ ET BT 180.656 63.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education Supplement)] TJ ET BT 357.644 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( May, 16 1997.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 2608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Extensive extracts from Gorky?s writings in this newspaper can be found in M.Gorky,)] TJ ET BT 478.616 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Untimely )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thoughts: Essays on Revolution, Culture and the Bolsheviks 1917-1918)] TJ ET BT 409.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1968, translated and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by Herman Ermolaev.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(^M)] TJ ET BT 42.816 715.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically, Orlando Figes? previous book is a fine example of such a study. See )] TJ ET BT 447.956 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peasant Russia, Civil )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War: the Volga Countryside in Revolution \(1917-1921\))] TJ ET BT 329.996 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford, 1989)] TJ ET BT 42.816 686.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance V.P.Danilov, )] TJ ET BT 209.660 686.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rural Russia under the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 380.648 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1988; V.V.Kabanov, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Krest?ianskoe khoziastvo v usloviakh ?voennogo kommunizma?)] TJ ET BT 371.648 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Moscow, 1988 and A.D.Maliavskii, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Krest?ianskoe dvizhenie v Rossii v 1917g. mart-oktiabr?)] TJ ET BT 336.332 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Moscow, 1981.)] TJ ET BT 42.816 644.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Countryman )] TJ ET BT 167.336 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Revolution)] TJ ET BT 289.988 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New York, 1985.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 598.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 581.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 581.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/45a)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 579.753 m 321.644 579.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 554.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 540.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4356)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4357)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 580.0675 321.6437 591.9475 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/45a) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000004111 00000 n 0000004220 00000 n 0000004330 00000 n 0000004439 00000 n 0000008000 00000 n 0000008128 00000 n 0000008212 00000 n 0000008277 00000 n 0000016399 00000 n 0000016464 00000 n 0000024389 00000 n 0000024454 00000 n 0000032138 00000 n 0000032203 00000 n 0000039778 00000 n 0000039843 00000 n 0000048491 00000 n 0000048575 00000 n 0000051236 00000 n 0000051364 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 51459 %%EOF