%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221002605+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221002605+00'00') /Title (Narratives of Exile and Return) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4489 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Narratives of Exile and Return)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You might not easily grasp why Mary Chamberlain's )] TJ ET BT 291.488 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narratives of Exile and Return)] TJ ET BT 439.484 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovative contribution to historical scholarship if you took your cue from the ambivalent way in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text is wrapped: on the one hand looking very much like a straight addition to the admirable Warwick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caribbean academic book series, but on the other hand introduced by the genial series editor Alistair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hennessy as a potential popular successor to classic life story books like Oscar Lewis's )] TJ ET BT 454.772 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pedro Martinez)] TJ ET BT 530.432 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children of Sanchez)] TJ ET BT 131.348 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I would be rather surprised if the book takes off in that style. It would, I suspect, need a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more complex message for a success of that type. Its strength is much more in its subtle originality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to suggest that I disagree with Hennessy's comment that Chamberlain has produced `a finely-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written and well-crafted book'. She is indeed at all times lucid and elegant, and it is also true that her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`mastery of theory' is `lightly worn'. Her style is certainly a breath of fresh air, perhaps especially now in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humid Caribbean environment. She has always written with this special flair, right from her early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterpiece, )] TJ ET BT 97.328 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fenwomen)] TJ ET BT 149.984 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was the first major work of women's history to use oral history interview )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. That book did indeed hit the headlines, even to the extent of gaining some uncomfortable notoriety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a sex expos in the )] TJ ET BT 140.660 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(News of the World)] TJ ET BT 229.664 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But )] TJ ET BT 256.004 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fenwomen)] TJ ET BT 308.660 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a very different kind of book, combining an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(46)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Chamberlain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780312164843)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(236pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/home/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Thompson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6636 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal for the hearing of women's voices from the past with the English fascination with village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, and its intellectual argument is largely concealed, deftly filtered through the skilful editing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the testimonies. With )] TJ ET BT 139.352 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narratives)] TJ ET BT 190.688 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the balance has shifted radically: the academic historian now clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominates, and the edited testimonies from five Barbadian families are relegated to the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book essentially revolves around two twin themes, migration from Barbados and transatlantic family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission, and I want to return to them. But the testimonies are certainly a very important part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Many of the speakers emerge quite strongly as characters, and the combination of great varieties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spoken English, ranging from deep rural Barbadian dialect to the globalised accents of modern metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youth, together with the rich cultural detail from yams and guasvas to rap music, hi-fi, and Cindy dolls. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important of all, they take us into aspects of experience which it would be otherwise unimaginable. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when eighty-year-old Lorissa Clarke, the eldest of eight country children, speaks of her childhood poverty, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the strange detail which brings her message home:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(You had to pay a penny to go to school, every Monday morning, otherwise the schoolmaster ent going to let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you in. When you can't got the penny to send, we had to stand at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We had enough thing to do to help our mother. We had to bring water from miles. We time, you used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head water. You had to pick up wood. We used to had a rock fire outside in the yard, next to the kitchen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(door and you put on that the iron pot, to cook in. No saucepan nor nothing so ent stirring yet. It used to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweet enough, with wood, not with no gas nor nothing. Not even to iron your clothes, we use to had to iron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we clothes with mahogany seeds, in a coal pot. A lot of work...)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We had to sleep just where they put we. Upon the floor. We get flour bags and make bed, and stuff them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with khus khus grass, or sour grass.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorissa is equally vivid about the brutality of childhood work, when she started gang labour in the fields )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aged twelve: `There was a driver [forewoman]. She used to tell you what to do, show you how to do it and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then she watch you do it. She used to carry a whip, and if you do anything, she give you a lash or two.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lorissa says that she was never whipped herself. But others tell symbolically powerful stories of racist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppression at work, and some also of how they confronted it - stories which are unlikely to be literally true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what was said at the time, but which tell us very clearly what the victim of the abuse )] TJ ET BT 455.288 351.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(felt)] TJ ET BT 470.624 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Thus for Jasper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was born in Barbados but joined his parents in Britain at the age of fifteen in 1961, the day when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first stood up for himself was a crucial moment in his life. He was by then a London bus conductor, aged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteen but already married:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I remember quite clearly the day I became a man. I was working on the buses and went to work one morning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at four o'clock. There was an English fellow booking you in and I said, `Good morning, Mr Snow.' His name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Johnnie Snow. `Morning, Mr Snow.' He says, `Well, Sambo.' I said, `Mr Snow, I said "Good morning" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to you. I said "Good morning, Mr Snow". I didn't say, "Good morning, honky, whitey, John Bull" or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything else. I just said, "Good morning, Mr Snow." If you can't call me by my proper name, just don't call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me anything.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That morning, I became a man. I wouldn't tolerate anything like that. There were other times, after, when I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to exert myself...)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The testimonies are especially fascinating for what they reveal - both overtly and unconsciously - of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbadian attitudes to the family. On the one hand the very matter-of-fact vocabulary in itself emphasises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social acceptance of traditional features of West Indian family life, such as the impermanence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conjugal partnerships, the sharing of parental responsibilities among kin - so that Beula describes herself as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`grandmother child' - and the common tolerance by wives of their husbands' `outside women'. On the other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is particularly interesting when this is also expressed conceptually in the life stories. Jasper, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how his fisherman great-grandfather, who died when he was five, `had about three women, and all )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7531 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three had a number of children from him... And he was the common denominator, he was the person who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept us together as a family, so the outside and the inside family, were all family.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally important, the testimonies also underline how the social acceptance of such a dispersed family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, which was still further emphasised through the practice of migration, in no way eliminated the pain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caused by family separations. The argument that just because a practice is common, it is emotionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable too, has too often been used by historians of the family: most notoriously in the suggestion that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past, because infant mortality was common, parents suffered much less from the death of a child. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same comments have often been made of mothers who sent their infants to be wet-nursed. It is therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial for us to bear in mind the witness which these life stories bring of the sufferings which migration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must have imposed on so many spouses, parents and children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise, for example, born in the 1920s, first worked as a weeder in the fields, and had a daughter and a son )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before marriage, the first by a white manager who sent her regular money but then ceased when he married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another woman. She was nearly forty when both children migrated to England. She recalls: `They wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(go. I said, well, if they go and they make it, it will be alright, but if they don't make it, they must work as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much as would pay the fare to come back. It wasn't a lot of nothing to pack, only the clothes.' Long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afterwards, `I used to cry every day, when I used to put the food, I used to cry, say I want them, I wonder if, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they is getting through and so on'. And her sorrows were hardly lessened by the unsympathetic attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her husband, who was the children's stepfather rather than their father. `My husband he used to tell me, "I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can't understand, you send them over to England and now is crying, constant crying, crying, crying".')] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Full of rich evidence as these testimonies are, however, my sense is that it will take a sharp reader to draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out their full potential. There are a number of difficulties to overcome. Firstly, they are certain to be much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more resonant for the few who know the Barbadian context than for the many who do not. This problem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made more serious in some cases by the need to understand meanings in dialect. For example, when Lorissa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said, `you used to head water', I did not at first guess that she meant that she used to carry water pots on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head. Reading at a normal pace it is therefore easy to miss a lot. Secondly and more fundamentally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain's grouping of the life stories into five families means that most of them are rather short, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unit of comprehension is the family rather than the individual. In practice it requires a leap for most of us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think like that. I suspect that the full impact of the interviews could have only been achieved with a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(openly expressed editorial thread to guide the reader. And it would have certainly helped immensely to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been given visual aids, such as photographs and maps and above all family trees. Without this, I felt I could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fully grasp the complexity of the structures of these successive families. And so while the testimonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly spoke to me at important moments, I never felt carried forward by the current of a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative as I had when first reading )] TJ ET BT 210.296 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pedro Martinez)] TJ ET BT 285.956 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or more recently, with Jung Chang's Chinese three-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generational study, )] TJ ET BT 128.336 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wild Swans)] TJ ET BT 184.676 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Ultimately the importance of this book is not as personal experience, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history like a kind of autobiographical novel, but for its analytical novelty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It makes historical contributions in three major directions. The first is in demonstrating the role played by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local cultures in the genesis and scale of outward and return migration flows. The second is in exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between male and female experience of migration. And the third is in showing that family and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intergenerational influences are key elements in the dynamics of migration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the relatively recent introduction of some more cultural perspectives by researchers such as Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilroy or Catherine Hall, most writers on migration still conceive of the essential processes as being shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost exclusively by the combination of economic and political factors: by the push of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties at home, the pull of work opportunities abroad, and the chance offered by a door legally open for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants. But this does not explain why people from some cultures frequently migrate, while others rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do so. The immense global migration patterns of the contemporary world are in fact dominated by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly small number of places of origin. In England, for example, nine out of ten of those running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian restaurants are Bengalis from the single town of Sylhet in the Ganges delta, whose men had earlier, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps encouraged by the floodwaters which regularly inundate its territory, become internationally known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as seamen. Barbados is another country which has been exporting high proportions of its population )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6833 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the twentieth century. In the 1950s and 1960s one eighth of its entire population came to Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a much higher proportion than from any other West Indian island. Why was it so different?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In practice people make radical life choices - like the decision to migrate - because such choices are seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible within their local culture or family tradition: few would otherwise have the imagination to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplate such a drastic socially unsupported step. Chamberlain argues that the Caribbean was an area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high migration as a whole because of its longstanding cultural traditions, in some senses a legacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced migration for plantation slavery which brought most of its population across the Atlantic, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions transmuted since emancipation into part of a local popular vision of opportunity and `freedom'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within this wider West Indian culture Barbados was, as Chamberlain shows convincingly, the epitome of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a migratory culture. From her opening quotation - `our family love to travel' - onwards, we are given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countless glimpses of the pervasive encouragement to migration given by family, friends and neighbours. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many had fathers or grandfathers who had traveled to work in Cuba, Trinidad, Panama, Brazil, the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sates or Canada as well as to Britain. As one put it, `Everybody write back, giving you encouragement to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come over, to travel. I think, this word "travel", I think that's it. They just want you to travel and see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhere else'. Jasper recalls how in the 1950s, when his own father had already migrated -)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a very exciting time because everyone on the island was talking about emigration to Britain. I loved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talking to the old fellows sitting under this huge machineal tree, passing these stories on about how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went off to Curaco and they went off to Panama and they was building the canal and they went off to Cuba )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Aruba and found the oil. These men were talking about emigration to Britain. It was the new thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I remember my dad saying to my mother, `Look, things in Barbados now are a bit tight, so I would like to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrate to Britain, but we haven't got the money.' So my grandmother from Jamaica sent the money to my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father. I remember him promising my mother that he will go off to England, work hard, and send for her and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the children.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He also promised he's going to pay back `that woman'... - my grandmother...: she was instrumental in getting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to Britain so that, in turn, he could help us to get to Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was this uniquely intense combination of historical and family tradition, of community approval from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old men telling stories to the young who felt `travel' was an essential part of growing up, and the network of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical and financial aid from all generations in the family, which made Barbados such a high-pressured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generator of emigration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, the very intensity of the local culture had the contradictory effect of also encouraging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return migration. One of the exceptional features of Chamberlain's study is precisely that she is able through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her family interviews to examine both ends of the migration experience, and why some chose to stay in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain while others preferred to return `home' to Barbados. `Migrants come from somewhere: they arrive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a cultural suitcase, made locally.' Return migration is again a general peculiarity of West Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration, but especially of Barbadians, whose presence in Britain has as a result fallen markedly since their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peak level in the 1960s. Adverse personal experience is of course part of the reason for this. There were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly some positive stories; many migrants grew personally through their broader experiences, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they stayed or went back became absorbed into a complex dual twin-national culture - pioneers, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more optimistic prophets of the future like Anthony Giddens or Homi Bhabha have suggested, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational identities in a globalised world, creatively growing `between cultures'. By contrast, on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, many migrants were very shocked on their arrival to found the welcoming and affluent `mother )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country' of which they had dreamt to be dirty, poor, grey, unchristian, racist, and even obscene in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalence of open kissing in public. Even when settled, they continued to find progress at work difficult, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned considerably less than they had hoped, and also, especially if migrants from the villages, they bitterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disliked the crowded loneliness of the great cities. As a mother of three, desperate to return home, wrote to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jamaican official:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its not so bloody marvelous coming to a strange country with people that don't care whether you live or die... )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England is not so easy without being able to slave day in and day out... Get me out and you will get the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance of money or else I go mad or commit suicide... Hurry for its bloody murder out here...)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, however, such individual reactions could not have been converted into a strong return migration flow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if there had not been a tradition of return, of homecoming migrants buying free land to build their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retirement houses, of remaining kin ready to welcome them back, and even of official paths to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resettlement easier. Community and family culture was thus crucial in explaining the flows both ways across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The migratory model has to be refined in a further fundamental way, for as Chamberlain clearly shows it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also shaped by gender. She demonstrates this through an analysis of the differences between male and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female storytelling. Men tend to present themselves more as independent actors, autonomous, inspired by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zest for adventure, making sudden decisions and then telling their families; and where they succeed, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exude individual pride. Thus a London Transport driving instructor claimed, `I made a first, I was the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black man who has ever done it... )] TJ ET BT 197.984 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That is my story)] TJ ET BT 274.988 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.' Women by contrast talk in terms of family decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with serious thought and much planning for practical help. Only a few see themselves as independent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellious migrants, `strong head'. And in contrast to men, they dream much less of return. As Chamberlain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puts it, `there were no old women telling their stories of adventure and heroism, of building the canal, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding oil, or working the foundries. There were no grandmothers returning from Panama to build the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("upstairs house" or buy a fleet of fishing boats'. For women, she suggests, if there is a `mistress narrative' it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is rather to settle somewhere for the long-term, to build a family and to acquire a house: `own your own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house, you know?... You were more independent.' And whatever their dreams, even to get a decent council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house could seem like a step towards paradise. `When I got my own kitchen... that was like heaven'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps most original of all, however, is Chamberlain's introduction of the intergenerational family to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of migration processes. Instead of interviewing 85 scattered individual Barbadians in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the West Indies, she has chosen her subjects as transatlantic family clusters, thirty-nine themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants to Britain, twenty of their children also here, and twenty-three of their parents and three children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back in Barbados. This carefully chosen sample - also balanced for occupation, education and gender - has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided her with a fresh perspective. Few historians, as she points out, recognise the significance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family `in understanding, even driving, historical transmission, behaviour or movement'; instead family is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most often seen as a passive reflection of wider class structure and culture. Chamberlain on the contrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposes `to see the family as both the tool )] TJ ET BT 242.996 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 260.996 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the material which creates and shapes historical mentalities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and identities. It recognises that the family is not merely the bridge, but the conduit, between the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the collectivity.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The West Indian pattern of temporary individual migration, rather than the permanent emigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistently encouraged by local governments, dates back to the 1830s, the years immediately following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation from slavery. Remarkably too, right from the start as many of a third of these migrants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women. It does seem very possible that this unusual pattern was made possible by the pattern of West Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, which has not changed fundamentally since emancipation: a consanguineal pattern, that is, based an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended network of blood relationships, both `inside' and `outside', rather than on the European model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conjugal couple and nuclear household. Because the West Indian family provided a very dispersed form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of potential support for kin, which could stretch across many countries, but at the same time allowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual members more autonomy, it was clearly particularly suitable both for generating and sustaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outward and return migration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally important, Chamberlain shows how within the overall culture each of these Barbadian families also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display important diversities in their particular stories, myths and practices. In using this form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation she is deploying ideas which were first developed by the family psychiatrist John Byng Hall - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspired by his own personal experience of traditions, almost compulsive `scripts', going back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shooting of Admiral Byng for cowardice after the loss of Minorca in 1754 - and more recently developed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Bertaux and myself in a series of studies of families and social mobility in Britain, France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia. This approach has not been used before in migration studies, and )] TJ ET BT 386.636 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narratives of Exile and Return)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6487 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows clearly that it not only makes sense in this new context, but opens up exciting new perspectives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. If we take the families studied in detail, for example, it turns out that only one takes as its theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the `love to travel' in all three generations; another is rather a story of successive failures, and hence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced returns; and a third, by contrast, is of setbacks and betrayals - being abandoned, or `robbed' of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inheritance - which are successively overcome, again in each generation. Most particular of all is a family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which traces its `specialness' six generations back to a sole white ancestor, and uses this to explain why they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrated by unusual paths, settled successfully, but then returned to buy their own independent land: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially, because they were `not the labourer type of person.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am left entirely convinced by the importance of these innovative approaches. But at the same time - and I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think that ultimately this is more a compliment than a criticism - I long for the work to be taken further down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the path which Chamberlain has opened. This is above all true of the intergenerational family dimension. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to know whether there are clusters of different kinds of family traditions, what they are, how they relate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to class and place, and how they shape their members' lives. We also need to develop ways of describing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these families, which are inherently so much more difficult to grasp than individual biographies: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent to the statistician's shorthand graph. Now that Mary Chamberlain has opened the door, I hope that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she will not only come back with a thicker and more broadly-based book herself to follow up this fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starter, but that other historians will quickly follow her down the path.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.746 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(References:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Bertaux and Paul Thompson \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 241.988 489.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between Generations: Family Models, Myths and Memories)] TJ ET BT 531.608 489.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, 2)] TJ ET BT 314.360 475.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993)] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Bertaux and Paul Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 212.000 448.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pathways to Social Class: a Qualitative Approach to Social Mobility)] TJ ET BT 543.008 448.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Byng-Hall, )] TJ ET BT 116.348 408.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rewriting Family Scripts: Improvisation and Systems Change)] TJ ET BT 413.672 408.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Guilford Press, New York, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Byng-Hall interviewed by Paul Thompson, `The power of family myths', in Raphael Samuel and Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 121.340 353.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myths We Live By)] TJ ET BT 229.316 353.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Routledge, London, 1990: 216-24)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homi Bhabha, )] TJ ET BT 107.012 327.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Location of Culture)] TJ ET BT 222.692 327.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Routledge, London 1994)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Homi Bhabha interviewed by Paul Thompson, `Between identities', in Rina Benmayor and Andor Skotnes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 63.008 286.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Migration and Identity)] TJ ET BT 172.340 286.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET BT 179.336 286.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Yearbook of Oral History and Life Stories, 3)] TJ ET BT 459.680 286.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Oxford University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, Oxford, 1994: 183-99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jung Chang, )] TJ ET BT 97.016 246.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China)] TJ ET BT 286.688 246.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Harper Collins, London, 1993)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Giddens, )] TJ ET BT 125.012 220.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age)] TJ ET BT 458.300 220.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Polity Press, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 205.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, 1991)] TJ ET BT 34.016 179.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Gilroy, )] TJ ET BT 95.684 179.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness)] TJ ET BT 374.996 179.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Verso, London, 1993)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall, `White visions, black lives: the free villages of Jamaica', )] TJ ET BT 384.116 153.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Workshop Journal)] TJ ET BT 512.108 153.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Autumn 1993\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oscar Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 100.328 112.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Children of Sanchez: Autobiography of a Mexican Family)] TJ ET BT 400.304 112.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Penguin Books, London, 1964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oscar Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 100.328 86.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pedro Martinez: a Mexican Peasant and his Family)] TJ ET BT 349.964 86.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Penguin Books, London, 1964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has accepted the review, and is pleased with its content, feeling that no further comment is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 812 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 724.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 707.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 707.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/46)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 705.801 m 316.316 705.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 680.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/370)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 706.1155 316.3157 717.9955 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/46) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000005177 00000 n 0000005286 00000 n 0000005396 00000 n 0000005505 00000 n 0000009066 00000 n 0000009194 00000 n 0000009278 00000 n 0000009343 00000 n 0000016032 00000 n 0000016097 00000 n 0000023681 00000 n 0000023746 00000 n 0000030632 00000 n 0000030697 00000 n 0000038150 00000 n 0000038215 00000 n 0000044755 00000 n 0000044839 00000 n 0000045703 00000 n 0000045831 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45925 %%EOF