%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723181310+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723181310+01'00') /Title (Martin Luther King Jr) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4097 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Martin Luther King Jr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Luther King, Jr. remains arguably the most recognisable African American figure in world history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First thrust into the international spotlight courtesy of his leadership of a boycott of the public bus system in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montgomery, Alabama, where he was pastor of a local church, King became the lightning rod for the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights movement that emerged in the wake of the successful boycott. During the 1960s he gave innumerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speeches characterised by oratorical genius, led a succession of mass marches in the heart of segregated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and helped to reconstruct American race relations before his assassination in 1968. Ever since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montgomery he has attracted the attention of biographers and historians keen to understand what made him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a magnetic and inspirational leader and what made the story of the civil rights movement so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling. John A. Kirk?s succinct biography of King confirms that these two stories remain thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entwined, and suggests that a traditional biographical approach is inadequate if we are to understand King?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to black America and his significance in American history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies of King and the civil rights movement have passed through three distinct phases. The initial surge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil rights scholarship depicted King as the leader of the movement, suggesting that the movement took its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cue from King?s leadership of mass protest throughout the South. These works often directly relate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative successes of the mid-1960s ? the 1964 Civil Rights and the 1965 Voting Rights Acts ? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns in Birmingham, Alabama during 1963, St. Augustine, Florida in 1964 and Selma, Alabama in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(460)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 June, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Kirk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582414318X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(230pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearson Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joe Street)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7491 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1965, all of which were coordinated by King?s organisation, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(SCLC\). The early studies note that the movement stuttered after these events, not least because of King?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the Vietnam War and his failure to define a new direction for the movement now that its initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aims ? desegregation of public facilities and voting rights for African Americans ? had been achieved. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so, the early civil rights studies established a ?Montgomery to Memphis? teleology, from King?s first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance on a national stage during the Montgomery Bus Boycott to his final curtain at the Lorraine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Motel, suggesting that the civil rights movement effectively ended at this point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second wave of scholarship took issue with the King-centred periodisation of the movement, deepening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and broadening our understanding of the roots of the civil rights movement. State studies of Louisiana, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mississippi and Georgia, alongside studies of cities such as St. Augustine, Birmingham, Selma and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montgomery itself revealed the effects of the complex weave of long-term organising and intergenerational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links in individual black communities, and the impact of municipal politics on the development of black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest. These rich studies suggested that local leaders in the South were perhaps as important to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismantling of segregation as King. Local activists spent years slowly and quietly building up a grassroots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement that King almost inevitably took advantage of in his quest to redeem the soul of America. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local studies were complemented by a raft of biographical and autobiographical works devoted to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures in the movement, which confirmed that King?s leadership relied on a vast network of local leaders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in some cases undercut King?s claims to greatness. We are now in a third period, where studies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused more on interactivity, between national and local, politics and culture and ? importantly for Kirk?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study ? leaders and the led. This third phase has also seen a subtle transformation in the biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches to King. Recent works, most notably Michael Eric Dyson?s pugnacious interpretive biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Peter J. Ling?s more traditional yet highly nuanced study, have offered us a King steeped in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions of the African American church, a man whose own temporal fallibilities did not detract from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatness as a human being, a deep thinker heavily burdened by his role within the movement and by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of history, and an instinctive social democrat who became so radicalised by his experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s that he was moving towards a thorough critique of America?s moral, social and political rectitude.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 412.419 m 48.008 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirk?s biography arrives at an opportune moment for a concise reconsideration of King?s importance. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion in Longman?s Profiles in Power series, however, strikes a curious note. As King himself noted, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to Vietnam might have made him a suitable candidate for a ?Profile in Courage? but he did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider himself powerful in the traditional sense. In fact, much of his life was devoted to undercutting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional American notions of power, to challenging the tyranny of white powermongers, and in his later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, to moderating the Black Power message of radicals such as Stokely Carmichael. Kirk addresses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradox in his opening paragraphs, noting that King?s leadership was largely interactive and heavily reliant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the work of friends, colleagues and a vast network of African American and white activists ? in a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more reflective of Hegelian dialectic than of traditional conceptions of leadership. Thus King?s power was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more indicative of the cohesion of the black community than of his own charisma. This placing of King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the wider tapestry of local movements, national organisations and scores of individuals results in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book being more than a simple biography; it is also a potted history of the civil rights movement during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirk offers a subtle depiction of the interaction between various movement factions, and especially between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complex and often conflicting goals of the national and local movements. He is also sensitive to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resentments that King?s position as the nominal leader of the civil rights movement provoked with the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders on whose work he relied. He points out that many of the strategic decisions that led to King?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest successes were made by others: the decision to campaign in Birmingham was taken at the behest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local leader Fred Shuttlesworth; the decision to start marches during lunch hours so as to maximise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement was by committee; King?s associate, James Bevel, made the potentially fateful yet ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumphant decision to enlist schoolchildren to march in the city. Thus we understand that King relied upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(network of co-workers and that one of his major sources of power was his ability to build on the decisions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others ? and in his sensitivity to their egos. In particular, Kirk is keen to point out that the SCLC?s major )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 412.7335 48.0077 424.6135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7836 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns were rarely successful in achieving concrete achievements for the local black community. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they often succeeded in revealing the brutality of segregation and the feral nature of white supremacy, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarely transformed the local social structure. That King brought the media with him certainly aided local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to challenge white supremacy, yet his departure presaged the departure of the media, leaving local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders to deal with the backlash from resentful white communities and exhausted black communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirk?s King, then, is at heart a leader-by-committee who spends much of his time deliberating on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy of his campaigns with his team of advisers and fellow preachers. Yet one major aspect of King?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership is missing: his oratory. Kirk frequently offers the voices of King?s friends, enemies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colleagues but not enough of King?s itself. Kirk acknowledges the problems inherent in documenting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words of a speaker so noted for his oratorical skill but his interpretation of King would have enriched by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeper engagement with these words. Certainly, a study addressed to the exploration of the sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s power must examine this aspect of King?s public persona. This is not to state that Kirk ignores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of King?s speeches but that the focus of his inquiry into King?s oratory is the response of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s audiences. There is, for example, a long discussion of the acclamation for King?s speech at the 1963 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March on Washington but no systematic investigation into what made this speech \(or, indeed, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s other speeches\) so momentous. This was the point at which King?s powers were at their peak and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when, according to many observers, he held thousands, perhaps millions, of white and black Americans in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the palm of his hand, but Kirk offers a short exegesis of this moment, quoting only the most famous phrases: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I have a dream? and ?let freedom ring.? In overlooking how the speech explores the American relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with democracy, race, honesty and good government, how it weaves the Exodus narrative with the African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American quest for equal citizenship, and how the repetition in King?s words transported the crowd into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future without racial discrimination, Kirk underestimates the power of one of the great American speeches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the twentieth century. Nor is there a sustained examination of key tropes in King?s rhetoric such as his use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of metaphor and frequent citing of the spirit of the Declaration of Independence, both of which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly important to his popularity and success as a public speaker. Kirk also skirts around King?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sermons, which were a hugely significant weapon in his armoury. Without a systematic inquiry into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between King, the pulpit and Christianity, we read of King without one of the major sources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his power. In reducing the impact of Christianity to its political and organisational effects, Kirk loses a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of King as a spiritual leader, instead offering a secular political leader. Thus we lose a sense of what made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King special, why people responded to him in such numbers and with such passion. Shorn of his voice, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King is a rather uncharismatic presence, and certainly one at odds with the mellifluous preacher and spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader of Dyson?s biography. In fact, Kirk suggests that King?s famously nettlesome critic, Ella Baker, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct to suggest that the ?prophetic leader [sometimes] turns out to have heavy feet of clay?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.912 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.912 326.883 m 499.904 326.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 499.904 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps the heart of the book?s strengths and weaknesses. Kirk?s perspective offers an excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of King?s leadership and organisational role within the civil rights movement and the SCLC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his sensitive mediation between the SCLC and various power brokers. Yet readers receive little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation of why King was such a compelling individual; they get little sense of why so many reacted so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotionally, politically and physically to King, and might conclude that King?s leadership was more prosaic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than prophetic. A greater appreciation of King the speaker would have given readers a greater sense of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One further problem is due in part to the tight word limits on the ?Profiles in Power? series. Given the need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to detail the genesis and day-to-day micromanagement of the SCLC?s major campaigns, there is little room )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for King?s intellectual history. Since the discovery of King?s plagiarism in his doctoral dissertation, scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have become increasingly interested in King?s intellectual development and in his relationship with black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and white cultural and intellectual traditions. While scholars agree that King offered very little original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical thought, there has been considerable investigation into the roots of King?s philosophy. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published writings were at pains to demonstrate the influence that King took from his academic training. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, some scholars have stressed the importance of white liberal intellectuals including Reinhold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niebuhr on King?s thought. Others challenge this interpretation, pointing to the fact that King?s books were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written with a white liberal audience in mind, one which would respond more favourably to an African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American who could demonstrate his erudition. These scholars emphasise the African American influences )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.9117 327.1975 499.9037 339.0775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7291 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on King, who had a long apprenticeship in the ways of the black church: his father, after all, was a preacher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of some renown, and he had grown up in a segregated community in the South. These influences offer great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the development of King?s thought in the late 1960s and into the righteousness of the mature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King. Similarly, King?s first meeting with the legendary civil rights activist and pacifist Bayard Rustin is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed too readily. Rustin was an indefatigable foe of oppression, and an important figure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transplanting the nonviolent philosophy that had been so successful for Gandhi to the United States. He and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King first met during the Montgomery Bus Boycott, soon after King had experienced a long night of the soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he heard God?s voice tell him to continue his \(and His\) work. Kirk acknowledges the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this moment, but offers little comment on the transformative effect that the meeting had on the young leader. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rustin convinced King to do away with his bodyguards and to embrace a lifestyle that rejected violence as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution to any problem. This meeting arguably represents the moment at which King began to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power and the true meaning of nonviolence; when he recognised that nonviolence was more than a mere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactic calculated to prove the humanity of the practitioner but was a way of life designed for higher purposes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s commitment to nonviolence only grew after this point, reaching its apogee in his 1967 attack on US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in Vietnam. An inquiry into the power of King?s message for the world must emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of this moment; without a sustained discussion of King?s intellectual development we get little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of what made King tick.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the final chapter offers a deeper and richer appreciation of King?s internal life. Where the King of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first third of the book is a slightly bewildered figure, buffeted by the winds of change that were swirling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around him, and the King of the second at the eye of the storm, the King of the third act rages against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempest, attempting to summon the power with which to neutralise the maelstrom. During the last three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of his life, King became an uncompromising critic of the Johnson administration, particularly over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the Vietnam War on the administration?s domestic policy. He spent less time organising and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducting demonstrations, and more pondering the question of an all-out attack on discrimination. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric broadened to encompass a critique of western militarism and capitalism as well as racism. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows Kirk greater room to discuss King?s words and deeds as well as his deliberations. While Kirk is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptical of Peter Ling?s assertion that during these years King was a heroic figure whose failings on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational and practical level were compensated for by the moral force of his convictions, he tacitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepts that the King of these years was a more complex, and perhaps more interesting, figure than the man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who led the most successful American social movement of the twentieth century between 1956 and 1965. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This section is the first in which Kirk truly grapples with the dilemmas that King faced as a public figure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the midst of the 1960s and is the most successful and wide-ranging of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirk?s )] TJ ET BT 69.008 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Martin Luther King Jr )] TJ ET BT 179.684 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? like its subject ? is flawed, but it has many strengths. While the demands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British academic life prevented Kirk exercising his considerable talents as an archival researcher, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates a mastery of the secondary sources. He is a little overreliant on King?s autobiography, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was patched together from numerous sources in 1998 by Clayborne Carson, the senior editor of the Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luther King Papers, but he adeptly forges conclusions from occasionally contradictory evidence. Kirk offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable insight into King?s successes and failures as a civil rights leader. While greater use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available archival sources would have given a more authoritative hue to his portrait, it still serves as a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fine introduction to the major themes of the civil rights movement and will certainly find its way onto a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of undergraduate course bibliographies. Kirk?s main intention was ?to demonstrate how King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated [his] ideas, influences and abilities into action, by formulating a strategy to pursue social, political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and economic change for blacks? \(p. 184\). In this, he succeeds. General readers wishing to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s role within the movement will certainly achieve a sound understanding of King as a social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political activist and will definitely be led away from lionising the man. Kirk?s work will certainly compel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers to investigate King and his times in greater depth. Indeed, Kirk demonstrates that to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil rights movement is to understand King rather than vice versa; that King?s leadership was as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent upon his followers as they were on him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.539 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2346 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. E. Dyson, )] TJ ET BT 131.348 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I May Not Get There With You: The True Martin Luther King, Jr.)] TJ ET BT 446.012 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2000\); P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Ling, )] TJ ET BT 103.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Martin Luther King, Jr.)] TJ ET BT 217.028 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.020 780.819 m 309.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ella Baker, ?Bigger than a Hamburger?, )] TJ ET BT 259.964 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Southern Patriot)] TJ ET BT 340.304 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(June 1960\) quoted in R. Cook, )] TJ ET BT 497.300 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sweet Land )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Liberty: The African-American Struggle for Civil Rights in the Twentieth Century )] TJ ET BT 471.356 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Harlow, 1998\) p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(154.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 738.051 m 139.004 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 240.992 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/460)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2456)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11526)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.0197 781.1335 309.0077 793.0135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 738.3655 139.0037 750.2455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 240.9917 695.4775 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11526) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/460) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000531 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000004762 00000 n 0000004871 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005090 00000 n 0000008651 00000 n 0000008779 00000 n 0000008863 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000016491 00000 n 0000016521 00000 n 0000016647 00000 n 0000016683 00000 n 0000016767 00000 n 0000024656 00000 n 0000024686 00000 n 0000024814 00000 n 0000024850 00000 n 0000024915 00000 n 0000032259 00000 n 0000032364 00000 n 0000034763 00000 n 0000034891 00000 n 0000034946 00000 n 0000035073 00000 n 0000035128 00000 n 0000035255 00000 n 0000035356 00000 n 0000035484 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35579 %%EOF