%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150328181203+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150328181203+00'00') /Title (Film and Community in Britain and France. From La Rgle du Jeu to Room at the Top) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4767 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Film and Community in Britain and France. From La Rgle du Jeu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(to Room at the Top)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the last 25 years, academic writing on film and the cinema has been dominated by two analytical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems. On the one side of the theoretical spectrum there have been structuralists, primarily working within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fields of visual and textual studies, who have taken as given responses to the film product. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars insist that a film?s visual and narrative structure is always the last determinant. On the other side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spectrum there have been culturalists, principally historians and sociologists, who jettison analyses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic meaning of the text in favour of focusing exclusively on its social function. Whilst both theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches have significant merits, neither has helped to adequately define a film?s meaning, nor fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain why specific films are chosen by the cinema-going public. Neither structuralist nor culturalist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, has sufficiently demonstrated what social and cultural tasks films, or indeed going to the cinema, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perform.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.668 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.668 136.497 m 89.660 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.660 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What has been productive, though, is the rise in recent years of an interdisciplinary approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which combines the best practices of both structuralists and culturalists.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.644 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.644 122.241 m 392.636 122.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.636 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The most important advocate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an approach is John B. Thompson. In his groundbreaking work, )] TJ ET BT 367.976 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideology and Modern Culture: Critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Theory in the Era of Mass Communication )] TJ ET BT 275.348 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1990\), Thompson identifies the production and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption of cultural goods as an active and mutually constitutive relationship \(pp. 303?313\). Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structuralists and culturalists, then, Thompson does not give prominence to production or consumption, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead begins to draw a map of the operation of agency in the cultural field. Whilst Thompson?s work is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(461)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Butler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1860649556)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(252pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert James)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.6677 136.8115 89.6597 148.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.6437 122.5555 392.6357 134.4355 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholly theoretical, such an approach certainly provides a way forward for the film historian. For, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the importance of agency in the production and consumption of a film, the film historian can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to discern what determinants influence these processes, and thus embark on an enquiry which is both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academically rigorous and theoretically sound. Margaret Butler?s )] TJ ET BT 351.284 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film and Community in Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(France. From La Rgle du Jeu to Room at the Top)] TJ ET BT 276.992 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important contribution to film history in this respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film and Community in Britain and France)] TJ ET BT 244.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( examines British and French cinema during the 1940s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s. Whilst the history of British film during the Second World War has been written extensively by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Aldgate, James Chapman, Sue Harper and Jeffrey Richards, and whilst French film production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this period is only slightly less explored \(Andr Bazin, Evelyn Ehrlich and Susan Hayward have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched French cinema during the war\), the post-war cinemas of both countries have only recently begun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be surveyed in significant detail. Butler?s choice of periodisation is thus extremely timely. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially productive. By focusing on film production and consumption during these unstable and traumatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades, Butler can demonstrate how markedly different the 1940s film product was from that of the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, more importantly, reveal how this shift was caused, in part, by the changing tastes of cinema audiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler?s use of ?community? as a conceptual tool to demonstrate these differences is instructive. As she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states, the way in which community was articulated in British and French cinema both during and after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War was consistent with the distinctive socio-political environments in which both countries? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film-makers were operating. Film-makers thus tapped into the wider social mindset and used the film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium to raise questions about social and national unity and disunity, stability and turmoil, and integration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and segregation. In such ways, Butler contends, film-makers produced films in which ?representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community were complex and perceived as reassuring and welcoming, but also threatening and alienating? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler?s stance on the benefits of community as a conceptual tool is problematical, however. She argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an approach moves the focus away from the ?far too restrictive? concept of class \(p. 4\). Whilst Butler is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to draw on Jeffrey Richards?s notion that people carry with them ?bundles of identities?, her contention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that class ?tends to prohibit a more objective, insightful analysis? is tricky \(p. 5\). Firstly, is class such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibitive concept? Surely one can use class as a conceptual tool whilst appreciating that individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess a number of identities? Moreover, whereas community is concerned with rank and status, there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discursive formations and practices which are class-specific. Second, is Butler arguing that notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community are more objective and insightful? Community is a sociological category with, arguably, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherent sentimentality and can be just as limiting a concept as class if used in a narrow sense, and no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian can really claim to provide an objective account of the period being investigated \(even if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would like to think they are doing so\). Despite these linguistic failings, Butler?s conceptual approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective in drawing out the differences between the two countries? film cultures in this period. Focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, then, enables Butler to explore ?the ways in which film captured two societies undergoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searing and contrasting experiences? \(p. 180\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s comparative analysis is particularly fruitful in this respect. Butler?s selection of Britain and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France \(and their markedly different experiences during the period under analysis\) provides a much greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into the workings of agency in the film-making process than say, an account of the experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain alone. For example, she can describe how, between 1939 and 1945, many of Britain?s film-makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(with considerable encouragement from the British government\) endeavoured to make use of film to convey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of a national community. In Occupied France, on the other hand, the divided nature of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society was reflected in the film industry?s struggles to conceptualise and project an image of a united )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation, resulting in a cinema that was far more ambiguous in its depiction of community. In fact, by drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to both countries? use of rural and urban imagery in both war-time and post-war cinema \(chapters 3 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 4 are devoted to this\), Butler can demonstrate how each country?s distinct historical and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate heavily influenced the film-makers? ability to incorporate such imagery into their films. In Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, rural imagery was used during the war to emphasise ?why we fight?, but in France the fear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing to endorse Vichyite policies led many film-makers to concentrate primarily on depicting urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images \(specifically Paris\) in their ?rural? films to retain a semblance of unity between the city and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8504 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside. In the post-war period, Butler notes, the symbolic function of the rural and the urban was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radically altered because of the pressure wrought by changing social conditions and raised expectations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because the experiences of Britain and France were different, however, each country?s film-makers had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporate notions of community in very different ways. It is Butler?s skill at bringing such contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts into sharp focus that helps us begin to understand the full extent of the various determinants placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the film-maker in all areas of the film-making process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, one of these determinants is the consumer. Films have to be pleasurable to watch if they are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercially successful. Film-makers, therefore, need to remain aware that they are part of a reciprocal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. Butler?s assessment of the appeal of these films, as well as their meaning, situates her analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the very centre of this relationship. She can thus clearly demonstrate how the widely divergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of British and French society during this period required equally different representations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film. Consequently, Butler can claim that in Britain films such as )] TJ ET BT 349.676 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Which We Serve)] TJ ET BT 441.308 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1942\), )] TJ ET BT 482.300 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Millions Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Us)] TJ ET BT 47.348 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1943\) and )] TJ ET BT 105.668 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gentle Sex )] TJ ET BT 181.316 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1943\) encapsulated the dominant ideas of a united community. In France, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, she illustrates that through films like)] TJ ET BT 257.000 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( L?Assassin habite au 21 )] TJ ET BT 380.012 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1941\), )] TJ ET BT 418.004 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Ciel est vous)] TJ ET BT 503.336 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1944\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Corbeau)] TJ ET BT 111.344 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1943\), the cinema of the occupation captured the multifarious tensions prevalent in French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. Significantly, then, Butler ably refutes orthodox assumptions which have posited that French cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this period simply bowed to the demands of the Vichy regime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is Butler?s close analysis of the films themselves that allows her to challenge such assumptions. Indeed, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is this aspect of her work which is most productive. By paying considerable attention to the films? visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail, Butler frees herself from the often limiting reliance on plot paraphrase. Subsequently, she offers a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new appreciation of the meaning and appeal of the films she analyses. Moreover, her close reading of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films provides her with the material to challenge other preconceptions regarding the film culture in this, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed any other, period. An often-repeated indictment against the film medium which Butler rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges is its provision of escapist entertainment. While Butler is less willing to challenge the term itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although how can we do so when many cinema-goers claimed their primary reason for visiting the cinema )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to escape the drudgery of daily life?\), she refuses to use it as a blanket phrase. Indeed, Butler valuably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematises it, and thus recognises the many attributes of so-called ?escapist? texts. Throughout this book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, Butler capably demonstrates that ?escapist? films can be viewed as active producers of specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological meanings. Moreover, through her assessment of the films? appeal, she can reveal how they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to convey their messages extremely successfully.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 6 and 7, which focus on how film-makers responded to the changing expectations and aspirations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women after the war, best exemplify the benefits of this practice. Butler explores the manner in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s film-makers eagerly incorporated newly-forming images of community, with women central to it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into their film discourses. Her close reading of films such as )] TJ ET BT 325.976 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perfect Strangers)] TJ ET BT 410.300 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1945\), )] TJ ET BT 451.292 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Loves of Joanna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Godden)] TJ ET BT 72.008 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1947\), )] TJ ET BT 113.000 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Blanche Fury)] TJ ET BT 178.652 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1948\) and )] TJ ET BT 236.972 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Woman in a Dressing Gown )] TJ ET BT 375.968 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1957\) reveal that the British film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry?s portrayal of women was not so rigidly defined as has often been argued, but was, in contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptionally diverse and complex. Butler agrees, however, that French film-makers struggled to incorporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?new woman? into a discourse of community. Women in French cinema, Butler observes, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?casualties of outdated laws, attitudes and assumptions which ensured that identifying their place within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society was a task of great complexity? \(p. 174\). None the less, Butler?s careful reading of a film such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Boule de suif)] TJ ET BT 96.680 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1945\) reveals how even stereotypical images of women, in this case a prostitute, could be seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have shown women in a more assertive, independent and, therefore, positive light.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Film and Community in Britain and France)] TJ ET BT 244.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( takes a concertedly historical approach to its subject, and places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much emphasis on empirical evidence which is derived from a wide range of sources. However, there are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few problems with Butler?s methodology. Many references are taken from secondary academic texts rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than directly from the archive. Additional problems arise when Butler skips over issues which remain highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested. Her discussion of British society?s experiences during the Second World War is a case in point. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes rather too glib a perspective on an extremely complex issue. Whilst debates are duly noted, they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glossed over too easily. In chapter 1, for example, Butler refers to the ?communal experience of ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s war??, and states that: ?During the first two years of the war in particular, people of all classes were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8027 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering in equal measure.? \(p. 6\) There is a wealth of material \(both archival and academic\) which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradicts this view. Although Butler does later acknowledge that some inequality remained, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding evacuation, she none the less persists in drawing inspiration from the ?popular memory? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. It would appear that the sentimentality intrinsic to notions of community has led Butler to oversimplify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complex historical evidence available, and thus neglect the class, gender and ethnic divisions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionably prevailed throughout British society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other problems to do with the oversimplification of the British film industry. It was not ?[d]espite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the monopoly held by Rank? that film-makers were able to ?produce ambitious and creative films? \(p. 20\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather )] TJ ET BT 83.336 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(because)] TJ ET BT 121.988 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of it. As Sue Harper has noted, with such a large organisation at his helm, Rank was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too preoccupied to control everything that went on within it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.324 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.324 654.771 m 337.316 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, Butler?s contention that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?serious dialogue about class relationships? evident in )] TJ ET BT 296.984 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Millions Like Us)] TJ ET BT 376.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1943\) ?would rarely have arisen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a pre-war film? \(p. 47\) ignores the significant number of films made during the 1930s which drew attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this issue. )] TJ ET BT 96.692 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hindle Wakes )] TJ ET BT 166.676 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1931\), for one, warned of the dangers of cross-class relationships. In fact, Mrs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffcote?s remark concerning her son?s working-class sweetheart Jenny \(?that type of girl is beneath him?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not a million miles away from Charlie?s comments to Jennifer \(?The world?s roughly made up of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of people ? you?re one sort and I?m the other?\) that Butler employs as her example.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another problem is the coverage of audience response. Throughout the book, Butler profitably insists that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(films ?are particularly revealing both in terms of the response they elicited from their audiences and in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections on the society which produced them? \(p. 175\). If audience responses are so revealing \(which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly are\), why does Butler use them so infrequently? It would have greatly enhanced this book if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more examples had been included and a more systematic approach used. Indeed, the real meaning of film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts can only be established when the popularity of a film is addressed. There is also the problem of using a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflectionalist model. A film can never reflect the period in which it was produced. Films are culturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constructed ? they are produced, distributed, and marketed by a multitude of people ? and are thus not one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person?s perspective but an accumulation of many. As such, the evidence presented is not a reflection of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, but an interpretation of it. Nevertheless, by alluding to some of the visual codes at work in the film )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts, Butler does marry together the textual and contextual analyses, and thus reveals something of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values of society in this period. They may fall short of an actual ?reflection?, but they are essential additions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to our understanding all the same.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a pleasurable book to read, and to equivocate about its shortcomings in no way detracts from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements. Writing in a fluid and very accessible manner, Butler takes the reader through the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intricacies of the British and French film industries during two tumultuous decades and skilfully explores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their responses to the various pressures placed upon them. Moreover, in her close visual analysis of a vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of film texts, some of which have long been ignored, Butler opens up for question some orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views of the film product and its uses during this period. Butler thus bestows a fresh and highly original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of British and French cinema history to the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a detailed examination of these terms, and a discussion of key texts, see John Storey, )] TJ ET BT 493.628 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theory and Popular Culture)] TJ ET BT 201.020 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(3rd ed., 2001\), pp. 37?81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.664 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.664 180.339 m 385.652 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Bennett charts this theoretical shift in his article ?Popular Culture and the ?Turn to Gramsci??, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 76.352 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural Theory and Popular Culture: A Reader)] TJ ET BT 309.020 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John Storey \(1998\), pp. 217?224.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.668 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.668 151.827 m 546.656 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sue Harper, )] TJ ET BT 124.328 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Picturing the Past: The Rise and Fall of the British Costume Film )] TJ ET BT 443.672 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1994\), p. 119.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.664 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.664 137.571 m 554.660 137.571 l S BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 123.315 m 78.008 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 79.471 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 61.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 61.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/461)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 60.297 m 322.316 60.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 35.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.3237 655.0855 337.3157 666.9655 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6637 180.6535 385.6517 192.5335 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.6677 152.1415 546.6557 164.0215 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.6637 137.8855 554.6597 149.7655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 123.6295 78.0077 135.5095 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 60.6115 322.3157 72.4915 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/461) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2469)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000005506 00000 n 0000005615 00000 n 0000005725 00000 n 0000005834 00000 n 0000009395 00000 n 0000009523 00000 n 0000009607 00000 n 0000009636 00000 n 0000009762 00000 n 0000009798 00000 n 0000009827 00000 n 0000009955 00000 n 0000009991 00000 n 0000010056 00000 n 0000017694 00000 n 0000017759 00000 n 0000026316 00000 n 0000026435 00000 n 0000034515 00000 n 0000034545 00000 n 0000034673 00000 n 0000034709 00000 n 0000034837 00000 n 0000034892 00000 n 0000035020 00000 n 0000035075 00000 n 0000035203 00000 n 0000035258 00000 n 0000035384 00000 n 0000035439 00000 n 0000035565 00000 n 0000035660 00000 n 0000035725 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36011 %%EOF