%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416191048+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416191048+01'00') /Title (Imagining London, 1770?1900) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4153 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Imagining London, 1770?1900)] TJ ET BT 64.016 275.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Metropolis is now before me: POUSSIN never had a more luxuriant, variegated and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting subject for a landscape; nor had SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS finer characters for his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvas than what we have already had a sitting for their likenesses to embellish LIFE IN )] TJ ET BT 64.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LONDON.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 117.668 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 117.668 231.417 m 131.660 231.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of Alan Robinson?s )] TJ ET BT 175.676 194.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining London, 1770?1900 )] TJ ET BT 327.680 194.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( prefigures the daunting task that the author sets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, evoking a vast body of images and fictional accounts from the long nineteenth century that reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the metropolis; works that continue to act on our imagination. The scope is potentially vast, far too vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a single book to consider, and Robinson has had to be selective about the painters and authors that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses. In choosing Dickens, Trollope and James, alongside ?modern life? painting of the mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and the later aesthetes, we are, for the most part, on familiar ground. Passing beyond the title and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s selection of writers and artists? responses to London in the nineteenth century, the analysis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion is illuminating, presenting a new and fruitful interpretation of often considered works. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis too of the less generally considered body of works in ?Paintings of Modern Life?. The originality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, which the title merely hints at, is the uniqueness of approach. Interdisciplinary studies of works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(art and fiction abound in book and exhibition, but Robinson achieves a rare balance of approaches, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(462)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 June, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Robinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1403932891)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(312pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Bills)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 117.6677 231.7315 131.6597 243.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6840 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens up stimulating and worthwhile analysis from a fresh viewpoint.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of the work also implies a greater fascination with the subjective ?agency? of the artist, which, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson points out in his preface, has in many contemporary studies been excluded through the emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on social structure. As the author states:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Criticism would be required not just to place a text within the cultural materialist context of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social practice, or within the ideological context of competing discourses, but also to treat it as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authored by an individual with a unique personality, bearing physically, linguistically and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychologically the traces of a distinctive history, and engaged in complex perceptual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction with his or her environment. \(p.xiv\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allowance for such subjective interpretations does not, however, lead to the discussion of works in isolation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this interdisciplinary study places cultural works in relation to the ?actual? times and spaces within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they were created, the material contexts in which they are embedded. With an approach that combines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives that are often in opposition, Robinson considers works created in the long nineteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the late eighteenth providing a useful cultural background as well as introducing the two leitmotifs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book: first, economics, or more specifically, the social relations induced by unregulated capitalism, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second, gender relations in a patriarchal society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is extremely well and neatly structured, chronological, yet allowing for the expansion of recurrent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and particular themes in its discussion. The first two chapters introduce the leitmotifs through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations in late Georgian London, economics in ?Unruliness and improvement,? and gender in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Gendered London.? The third chapter, ?Capital City,? gives a socio-historical account of nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London showing the transformations of the metropolis and the prevalent attitudes to the gulf of poverty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth created by )] TJ ET BT 121.652 425.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(laissez-faire)] TJ ET BT 180.320 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( capitalism. The rest of the book, using the foundations laid by these, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to the discussion and analysis of representations of nineteenth-century London, beginning with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Dickens in the chapter ?A Tale of Two Cities?. The following two chapters consider how painting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depicting the metropolis flourished from the mid to late nineteenth century, specifically focusing on two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct approaches and considering French influence and cultural modernity, up until now the almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive domain of the art historian. The works of Anthony Trollope and Henry James, considered through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book?s central themes, are the subject of the final two chapters, and are shown to provide an excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complement to the reading of the paintings discussed earlier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson?s sweep is by necessity selective, yet his examples of well-known images are representative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?high-art? forms, to the exclusion of the influence of popular culture and imagery. The illustrations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated London News)] TJ ET BT 152.696 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the journalistic works of Augustus Sala, and the cartoons of John Leech in )] TJ ET BT 518.648 270.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 549.308 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which exerted so much influence on the imagery and depictions of ?modern life? painting, are only used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a socio-historical point and not in relation to their being an imagining of London in their own right. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where also is Gustave Dor, that great imaginer of London in Biblical terms? Who can picture Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London without seeing those powerful hellish, wood-engraved visions of the metropolis? Yet the reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to him is singular and in passing. The same criticism cannot be applied to the discussion of popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. Robinson considers popular forms and models, such as the journalistic rambles through London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, of Egan?s )] TJ ET BT 148.316 170.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life in London)] TJ ET BT 218.996 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in relation to Dickens?s )] TJ ET BT 338.648 170.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sketches by Boz)] TJ ET BT 415.292 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This brings to me to another query into Robinson?s reading of paintings and fiction: the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination and its relation to the ?actual?. The idea that naturalism in fiction and naturalism in painting are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally different is not really explored. They come closest, perhaps in ?modern life? painting, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their literary equivalents in Dickens and contemporaneous literary jaunts through London. Yet it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misleading to dwell on that which is not covered by the book, for what is discussed is done so with a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fresh light.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6856 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Capital City? presents a fascinating history of unregulated capitalism and the gulf of wealth and poverty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it created. The landscape of London is painted as the pre-eminent heart of world capitalism and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered both in the moral and political dilemmas that it posed and the culture that evolved around it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly middle-class attitudes to poverty. This is very usefully illuminated by contemporary theory and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries, most interestingly through John Ruskin, giving a brilliant context for the artists that Robinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on to consider. The chapter ?A Tale of Two Cities?, beyond the reference to Dickens, refers to two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central dichotomies of London: the separated cities of wealth and poverty; and the ?actual? London and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London of Dickens?s rich imagination. Within the framework of the book as a whole it represents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition between Georgian and Victorian London. This is a very important chapter, which, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plethora of texts on Dickens?s imaginative landscape of London, is highly rewarding and represents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant contribution to Dickens scholarship. Using Dickens?s early novels, Robinson convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that this formative period provided the food for Dickens?s major themes. The novels reflect a reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the city forming an imagined geography around the degraded developments of capitalism, inhabited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters who derive their livings from its consequent poverty, such as Quilp in the )] TJ ET BT 441.620 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Old Curiosity Shop)] TJ ET BT 534.296 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who is both slum landlord and moneylender. Everything is a commodity which can be bought and sold, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including the detritus of the poor themselves: bones, bodies, hair and old clothes, which act as an everyday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(memento mori)] TJ ET BT 103.004 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Furthermore, Robinson argues that the cityscape reflects Dickens?s own personal anxieties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his own degradation, his street walking, the early pawning of his possessions, all of which are projected onto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his fiction. Death and resurrection are themes that have as their backdrop the London streets:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My thesis is that beneath their realistic engagement with a succession of newsworthy themes, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fundamental preoccupation of Dickens?s novels is a struggle between life and death, in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of destructive and self-destructive energies, and the yearning for a new life. As a romance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motif, resurrection or rebirth figures in several novels ? The theme becomes an obsession in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dickens?s middle age \(p.100\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the next two chapters, the author considers Victorian painting and is fairly wide in his scope, wider than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapter title suggests. ?Modern life? refers to paintings in the 1850s and 1860s that turned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary subjects, more particularly to London cityscapes and the life of the city?s people. British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modern life? painting has not received the attention that it has deserved and it is refreshing to read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson?s exploration of the reasons for its emergence. It is particularly intriguing to note that at the 1845 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Academy Summer Exhibition only two per cent of around the 1,500 paintings represented London. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author gives an outline history of mid-Victorian art and the changes in subject in relation to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a new urban audience with its accessible themes in place of ?high? art allusion. The narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content and exploration of how these paintings were read is illustrated by contrasting John Ritchie?s )] TJ ET BT 518.288 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hyde )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Park)] TJ ET BT 57.344 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Museum of London, 1858\) with Monet?s )] TJ ET BT 265.328 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Green Park)] TJ ET BT 321.644 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London \(Philadelphia Museum of Art, )] TJ ET BT 514.964 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 520.292 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.1871\): )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape )] TJ ET BT 84.332 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(versus)] TJ ET BT 114.992 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( narrative; impression and mood versus detail and didacticism. It has to be said, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such a comparison does not add greatly to our understanding of modern life painting; the modernity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequent superiority of French painting has been discussed many times before. To see Ritchie's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating and rich painting as a 'large-scale frieze of characters who obstruct the landscape...' \(p. 135\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depiction the author finds both visibly laboured and intrinsically hierarchical in form, is to dismiss its unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements and to miss its central point. Robinson?s argument that English critics reflect a desire for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity of social demarcation in such art is an interesting, if exaggerated point. The failings of English art are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained in part through the tight grip of a strong capitalist market, but I wonder whether conditions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so radically different in France.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7262 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of the representation of gender is illustrated through Augustus Egg?s )] TJ ET BT 432.632 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 514.628 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1858, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tate, London\) and William Holman Hunt?s )] TJ ET BT 246.992 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Awakening Conscience)] TJ ET BT 379.640 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1853?4, Tate, London\). It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important and useful that Robinson includes here Arthur Boyd Houghton as an artist whose frank depictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an underclass emerged from his role as draughtsman to the illustrated weeklies. This leads to a discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social realism in the 1870s, a subject that surely deserves a separate study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter on painting, like the first, provides a lucid introduction to contemporary images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century London. Robinson effectively selects the leading examples and explores them within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the London art market and consumer culture. In this he is original; as he states concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whistler and Ruskin trial for libel in November 1878, ?significant social issues on trial have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparatively neglected? \(p.167\). Considerations of the depictions of the Thames that utilise dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lighting effect against dense fog, lead to discussion of Robinson's central argument which surrounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity and the development of the 'naturalism' espoused by Ruskin to the 'impressionism' espoused by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whistler, the Impressionists and Sickert.British artists, such as Sickert, who turned their backs on Ruskin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were distinctive in their modernism which enshrined a distinctive mundanity in its urban imagery. There is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much in this chapter to provoke further study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is refreshing to read of Anthony Trollope in relation to his representation of London. Inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons with Dickens have undermined Trollope?s importance in portraying metropolitan life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robinson addresses this imbalance, and draws out Trollope?s deep understanding of the dynamics of society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the capital and of how money shaped class and gender relations. )] TJ ET BT 357.620 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Way We Live Now)] TJ ET BT 466.940 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1874?5\) is key in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discussion, although it is a shame that Frith?s series of five narrative paintings, )] TJ ET BT 433.316 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Race for Wealth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1880\), based to a great extent based on Trollope?s novel, is not discussed. Through Trollope?s)] TJ ET BT 491.612 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Prime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minister )] TJ ET BT 77.684 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1875?6\), Robinson brilliantly describes the manner in which the author ?conveys the transition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an obsolescent gentlemanly caste to an emergent plutocratic vulgarity through impressionistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations? \(p.198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry James makes, as the author suggests, an appropriate conclusion to the study. Through James we see a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transitional artist, gradually breaking with the conventions of Victorian fiction and looking forward to high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernism. As Robinson concludes, the novels of Henry James ?herald the increasing solipsism of High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modernist representations of that ?Unreal City?? \(p. 249\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gender issues, or more particularly aspects of the ?woman question? such as the marriage market, fruitfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupy many revealing discussions through the difficult subjects that it touches upon, and James?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent ?stylistic tightrope walking? \(p. 229\). Novellas such as )] TJ ET BT 356.984 308.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An International Episode)] TJ ET BT 478.316 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1878?9\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Siege of London)] TJ ET BT 133.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1883\) are given new readings. The wholesale commoditisation of innocence is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarding read, although it would have been interesting to have related this to high profile paintings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period such as Edwin Long?s )] TJ ET BT 178.328 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Babylonian Marriage Market )] TJ ET BT 323.312 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1875, Royal Holloway Collection\), highlighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by John Ruskin as a moral commentary on society. In terms of the London landscape with its ever present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty, James, in contrast to Dickens and Trollope, offers no critique, but instead gives us an impression, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phantasmagoria of middle-class fantasies:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bedraggled figures passed in and out, and a damp, tattered, wretched man, with a spongy face, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had been thrust suddenly across the threshold, stood and whimpered in the brutal blaze of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the row of lamps. The puddles glittered roundabout, and the silent vista of the street, bordered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with low black houses, stretched away, in the wintry drizzle, to right and left, losing itself in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge tragic city??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.324 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.324 126.579 m 163.316 126.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 89.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining London: 1770?1900)] TJ ET BT 184.016 89.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fascinating study of artists? and writers? depictions of London in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long nineteenth century. No one with an interest in the subject can ignore this book, but it is a shame that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not contain a bibliography. Although the strands of argument weave through the book, it reads as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.3237 126.8935 163.3157 138.7735 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 3351 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of separate essays and studies, usefully brought together in one volume. The separation of painting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fiction by individual chapter does, however, limit comparative discussion of complex relationships that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed between painting and literature. Perhaps that would be a different book. What the book has achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to open up many new lines of enquiry, such as the economic basis of the Ruskin/Whistler debate. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ground and the running themes open new and pertinent analytical vistas. Alan Robinson has produced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book that makes an important contribution to scholarship on the representation of London in the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. It is essential reading for anyone approaching the subject, serving as an introduction as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing a valuable new approach to the subject. It is a book that has long been needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierce Egan, )] TJ ET BT 127.664 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life in London; or the Day and Night Scenes of Jerry Hawthorn, Esq. And his elegant )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(friend Corinthian Tom, accompanied by Bob Logic, the Oxonian, in their Sprees through the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metropolis)] TJ ET BT 116.684 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1821\), p. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.676 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.676 601.251 m 238.664 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry James, )] TJ ET BT 132.332 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Novels 1886?1890)] TJ ET BT 221.996 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Daniel Mark Fogel \(New York, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.952 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.952 586.995 m 484.940 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literary London)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.literarylondon.org/london-journal/march2005/Phillips.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 532.227 m 375.692 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 378.692 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 528.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 511.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 511.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/462)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 509.721 m 322.316 509.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 484.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2471)] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.literarylondon.org/london-journal/march2005/Phillips.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6757 601.5655 238.6637 613.4455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9517 587.3095 484.9397 599.1895 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 532.5415 375.6917 544.4215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.literarylondon.org/london-journal/march2005/Phillips.html) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 510.0355 322.3157 521.9155 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/462) >> endobj xref 0 36 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000537 00000 n 0000000626 00000 n 0000004831 00000 n 0000004940 00000 n 0000005050 00000 n 0000005159 00000 n 0000008720 00000 n 0000008848 00000 n 0000008932 00000 n 0000008961 00000 n 0000009089 00000 n 0000009125 00000 n 0000009190 00000 n 0000016083 00000 n 0000016148 00000 n 0000023057 00000 n 0000023141 00000 n 0000030456 00000 n 0000030486 00000 n 0000030614 00000 n 0000030650 00000 n 0000030755 00000 n 0000034159 00000 n 0000034287 00000 n 0000034342 00000 n 0000034470 00000 n 0000034525 00000 n 0000034652 00000 n 0000034772 00000 n 0000034900 00000 n trailer << /Size 36 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34995 %%EOF