%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930094632+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930094632+01'00') /Title (Against the Cold War. The History and Political Traditions of Pro-Sovietism in the British Labour Party, 1945?89) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4303 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Against the Cold War. The History and Political Traditions of Pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sovietism in the British Labour Party, 1945?89)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Histories of the Cold War have often, for obvious reasons, concentrated on the grand struggle between 'East )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and West', 'Communism and Capitalism', the 'USSR and the United States'. The focus has tended to be on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the high politics and political dramas that led to the Korean and Vietnam wars, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second Cold War and the collapse of Soviet Socialism. However, since the end of the Cold War, historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have turned their attention away from the big story and looked more closely at the smaller, but certainly no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less important, details of the period. For the Cold War, this has produced books focusing, for example, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics of James Bond \(Jeremy Black\), the struggle for cultural supremacy \(David Caute\) and the untold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of Canada's nuclear weapons \(John Clearwater\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.436 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.436 122.241 m 306.428 122.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Histories of the Labour party have not followed the 'grand narrative' path quite so rigidly. There is a mixture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of general histories of the party's development, accounts of specific Labour governments and biographies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual members on offer. Darren G. Lilleker's work on pro-Soviet elements in the Labour party during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cold War is an important contribution to the 'non-grand narrative' approach of both Cold War studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(463)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darren Lilleker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1850434719)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(294pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ibtauris.com/Books/Society%20%20social%20sciences/Politics%20%20government/Political%20ideologies/Marxism%20%20Communism/Against%20the%20Cold%20War%20The%20History%20and%20Political%20Traditions%20of%20ProSovietism%20in%20the%20British%20Labour%20Party%2019451989.aspx?menuitem=%7BDFF51E2F-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C0BA-4928-ACC4-415188DCDEE8%7D)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Davis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.4357 122.5555 306.4277 134.4355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7060 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Labour party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As it is one of these 'smaller details' that is the real topic of )] TJ ET BT 319.640 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Against the Cold War)] TJ ET BT 423.980 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the East-West conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the all-important backdrop for Lilleker's specific history of the British Labour party. As such, it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book that will not necessarily be the first port of call for those seeking details about Soviet, American or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policies during the Cold War. Instead, Lilleker's work offers an insight into the political history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour party in this crucial era of twentieth-century history. In terms of specific Labour history, it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period that saw the party in power at the start of the Cold War and Korean War, and also when the Vietnam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War reached its peak.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, it is not a general history of Labour and the Cold War, but rather an intricate study of a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group \(though Lilleker makes it clear it was not a )] TJ ET BT 273.980 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(movement)] TJ ET BT 322.628 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in the party, as it explores pro-Soviet feeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the traditions of pro-Sovietism in the Labour party. This is a fascinating subject that deserves more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention than it has traditionally received. Why )] TJ ET BT 265.988 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 281.324 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( members of this social democratic party ? albeit one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with socialism as its professed faith ? offer such support to an authoritarian dictatorship that exploited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers and incarcerated intellectuals in the name of socialism? After all, these are two groups that have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally been very close to Labour's heart.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aim of this book is to show that those Labour MPs who adopted a less hostile approach to the USSR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Cold War sought to create a peaceful political and cultural coexistence with the Soviet Union and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also, in some cases, other countries of the Eastern bloc. It was hoped that this would aid the prospects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace between East and West. Lilleker aims to demonstrate that these MPs were not dangerous crypto-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communists, but instead principled, though largely ineffectual, parliamentary socialists endorsing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently revolutionary government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also highlights how the USSR made use of these pro-Soviet Labourites, as it wanted to change the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative way in which most people saw the Soviet Union. It is here that Lilleker introduces the term ?change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agent? into Labour history's vocabulary. This is a very useful term that defines those MPs the Kremlin used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to alter Western perceptions of the Soviet Union. This is something that I will return to, but according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilleker, there were ?differing gradations of pro-Soviet activity and different categorisations of utility to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union of these individuals? \(p. 16\). These could range from the traditional fellow travellers \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilleker is quick to point out that this term fails to represent the feelings and attitudes of many in the pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet tradition\), to socialists like John Platts-Mills, who sided with the USSR as part of the fight of ?good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(versus evil? \(the Kremlin was good, the White House evil\). Interestingly, the book also includes people who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought links with the USSR through business connections, like Ian Mikardo.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the more common traits that Lilleker picks out from the pro-Soviet bloc was that supporters were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply preoccupied with peace in the post-World War Two world. As Lilleker puts it, these Labourites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('believed that they were acting with the best intentions and on behalf of humanity as a whole. They created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linkage between the ideals of peace and co-existence and the goal of attaining a socialist future' \(p. 205\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some cases, it becomes clear that peace may even have been the main concern, as movements like CND )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracted great interest from the pro-Soviet MPs. And if this peace could bring socialism with it, then so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much the better.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the main strengths of this book is that Lilleker counters the general acceptance from many quarters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that anyone on the Left during the Cold War was pro-Soviet, and that anyone who was pro-Soviet was a spy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilleker deals specifically with this second allegation early on, and proves throughout the book that this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely incorrect \(though that is not to say that there were any no active spies in the party\). But he is careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to dismiss this idea out of hand, accepting that ?there is some substance to the allegations brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against pro-Soviet MPs. However, there remains little evidence to suggest that any Labour MP acted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavish agent of the Soviet Union? \(p. 10\). Lilleker correctly adds that ?there is often a more complex picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than that offered by the majority of commentators? \(p. 10\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly, he notes that there was a 'powerful Cold War espionage narrative, which classifie[d] all those )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6916 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were sympathetic to the Soviet Union as spies and traitors', and that it was the purpose of many writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('to expose those who they allege were agents working on behalf of the Soviet Union' \(p. 4\). While this Cold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War narrative was formed by people such as the former Conservative MP Rupert Allason \(pen name Nigel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West\), the most interesting of those Lilleker refers to is the Soviet double agent and defector Oleg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gordievsky \(who worked with Cambridge intelligence expert Professor Christopher Andrew to produce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelatory works on the KGB's foreign operations\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilleker points out that the works of espionage writers such as West and Gordievsky helped to shape public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of the USSR, 'cement[ing] the opinion that the West was constantly under attack and that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were those within the British parliament who sympathised with, and indeed worked on behalf of, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist enemy power? \(p. 4\). The Cold War writers played on the public?s fears that the Russians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only coming, but that they were already here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, unlike the McCarthy witch hunts of 1950s America, the British press, while undoubtedly taking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat of a Soviet invasion seriously, also offered us the ?loony leftie? caricature ? that dangerous brand of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist who worked to simultaneously impose rule from Moscow whilst also banning ?baa baa black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheep? in schools across the land. Lilleker claims that his work ?removes the subject from the connotations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the Cold War narrative and offers alternative perspectives of pro-Soviet activities? \(p. 10\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it is this approach that makes this book a welcome addition to the histories of the Labour party.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An interesting feature of this study is its use of new phrases to clarify the differences between different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MPs? actions during the period, and also their interpretation of the Cold War. According to Lilleker, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?zero-sum? interpretation of the Cold War, which saw the conflict in very black and white terms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infecting both sides to the point that both the Soviet Union and the USA became overtly paranoid about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of the other side.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There were also the aforementioned ?change agents?, and ?conduits of change?. MPs who were in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?change agent / conduit of change? camp could be relatively high-profile figures associated with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive movements \(such as peace activists\). Crucially, such activists did not even need to be a part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what has traditionally been described as the Communist Left. The very fact that the USSR was involved \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one way or another\) in causes such as the anti-Apartheid action in South Africa or the Troops Out campaign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Northern Ireland, meant that many members accepted that the USSR was itself a friend of peace and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive politics. This in turn meant that people like Konni Zilliacus, Frank Allaun and Stan Newens ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the MPs Lilleker focuses on ? ?did not openly support the Soviet Union, only world peace. But each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the Soviet Union had the greater propensity for negotiating peace while the United States was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised as a dangerous and antagonising force? \(p. 38\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such agents would be used by the KGB to do ?little jobs?, run ?errands? or pass on information directly to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(KGB officer. This then, was what the USSR got out of the relationship. The KGB was able to keep a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of agents both active and permanent. A member of the Czech Secret Services noted that ?a friend could drop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the business any day, a paid agent never, we ensured they received money from us and signed for it? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 9\). Lilleker notes that both payment and signature were very important, as it was written proof that an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MP was being paid by the USSR and this information could be used to ensure the MP?s co-operation again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This meant that those who were not selling themselves to the Kremlin were doing it because they, rightly or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrongly, believed in what they were doing. In essence then, part of the book tells the story of conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians, of people who believed that their actions would make the world a better and safer place to be, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this in itself is refreshing in a time of political spin, lies and public cynicism towards politicians. But one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way or another, one of the main purposes of the ?change agents? was to alter the way that the USSR was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived. While Lilleker is absolutely correct to point this out, he fails to note that this demonstrates one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key changes that had affected the Soviet Union since the early days of the Communist International: in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways the USSR had become a ?normal? nation state rather than a citadel of revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the Leninist period, foreign socialists were recruited to the Comintern for the purpose of spreading )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6668 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolution in the West. Now, part of the purpose of the pro-Soviet tradition was to re-market the USSR )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the West. It was to promote the USSR as the peace-loving nation that wanted Nikita Khrushchev's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peaceful coexistence. The fact that they largely failed in this \(the eventual re-packaging of the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment was down to Mikhail Gorbachev\) shows that these MPs were indeed largely ineffective in one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their main tasks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another of their duties was to end the party?s links with Atlanticists who favoured closer ties with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington during the Cold War. It was argued that it was really the White House and not the Kremlin that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the expansionist, imperialist threat to world peace. It was believed that ending American influence over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British policy would aid the causes of world peace and socialism, as, without American capitalism dictating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world affairs, social democratic politics and socialist economics would create a fairer, more peaceful future. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, as with the above point, their failure to end Labour?s Atlanticism also highlights the pro-Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloc?s failure and inefficiency.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilleker does well to show what the broad traditions of pro-Sovietism in the party were, and also how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed throughout the Cold War period. However, the book could have offered more on )] TJ ET BT 476.588 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 495.920 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed. There is the obvious ideological linkage through socialism, which is discussed here. But this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion is disjointed, taking place in both the early and late sections of the book. Chapters 1 and 2 deal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the history of pro-Sovietism in the party, but do not look at ideology in any real depth. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepts too readily that Labourites like the Webbs agreed with the Soviet experiment, while Walter Citrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not. The exploration of the ideological strands that allowed certain party members to find solace in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Labour party )] TJ ET BT 116.996 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 134.996 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the idea of the USSR, while mentioned throughout, is not dealt with in detail until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 7 \(?Perspectives of pro-Sovietism?\). The overall study may have been better served had this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion been included in the earlier chapters, thereby making the points raised in chapter 7 act as a basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for our understanding of pro-Sovietism before we look at what happened. Instead it half rolls into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, but does not act as the conclusion, thus making the structure and explanation a little confusing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also considers the pursuit of peaceful coexistence through the business connections of people like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Mikardo. Ramsay MacDonald placed great importance on this, making 'Trading with the Enemy' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(150\) a cornerstone of his foreign policy during the short-lived 1924 and 1929?31 governments. He believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this would help the prospects of peace in Europe and full employment in Britain. Lilleker does not refer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this, but it would have been interesting to see what he made of it, as this was a different strand of the pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet tradition, albeit a more pragmatic one. MacDonald did not have the ideological sentiments of the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pro-Soviet MPs, but he did see the USSR as a crucially important country that had to be included in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another reason given for the pro-Soviet tradition is that these MPs acted as they did because of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. The USA was seen as too powerful and controlling, and a counterweight was needed to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance to international politics. This is a good assessment, but more is needed on the context. While this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is about one aspect of the Cold War rather than the Cold War as a whole, there are areas where more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background information is needed to explain why certain things were important in Labour circles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, the 1956 invasion of Hungary and the 1968 Prague Spring caused significant problems for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many on the Left, not least members of the Communist party of Great Britain. But these events are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in depth. How did Labour?s pro-Soviet bloc deal with tanks rolling through Prague? How did these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same socialists feel as the USSR collapsed in 1991 \(and not in 1989 as is often stated here\)? In his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interviews \(which offer some very interesting insights\), Lilleker learns that some of his subjects still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that they were right, in spite of evidence that would be expected to make them reconsider. It would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been fascinating to learn )] TJ ET BT 180.308 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 199.640 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they still thought this.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3363 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Something must be said about the poor grammar, spelling and numerous mistakes in the book. The study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have benefited from some stricter editing. Examples of factual inaccuracies include attributing actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the KGB before it existed, using Budapest instead of Bucharest and repeatedly referring to the continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of the Cominform \(Communist Information Bureau\) long after it had been disbanded by Khrushchev.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Against the Cold War)] TJ ET BT 138.356 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does successfully fulfil its overall objective ? to show that those Labour MPs who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served Moscow in one way or another were not as dangerous to the state as has traditionally been thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were, on the whole, harmless. It makes an important contribution to studies of this subject, as it breaks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the conventional view that these MPs were dangerous traitors who wanted to end British democracy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and British ways of life. And perhaps the fact that we are still here, British ways and all, while the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union disappeared in 1991, also proves that they were not quite as effective or dangerous as the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spy writers told us they were.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.011 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 564.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Black, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 564.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of James Bond: from Fleming's Novels to the Big Screen)] TJ ET BT 440.888 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Westport, Conn., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 550.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\); D. Caute, )] TJ ET BT 147.008 550.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dancer Defects: the Struggle for Cultural Supremacy during the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 64.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2003\); and J. Clearwater, )] TJ ET BT 232.640 535.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Canadian Nuclear Weapons: the Untold Story of Canada's Cold )] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Arsenal)] TJ ET BT 125.012 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Toronto and Oxford, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.652 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.652 520.227 m 319.640 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 476.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 458.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 458.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/463)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 457.209 m 322.316 457.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2472)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.6517 520.5415 319.6397 532.4215 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 457.5235 322.3157 469.4035 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/463) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000000711 00000 n 0000005066 00000 n 0000005175 00000 n 0000005285 00000 n 0000005394 00000 n 0000008955 00000 n 0000009083 00000 n 0000009167 00000 n 0000009196 00000 n 0000009324 00000 n 0000009360 00000 n 0000009425 00000 n 0000016538 00000 n 0000016603 00000 n 0000023572 00000 n 0000023637 00000 n 0000030358 00000 n 0000030449 00000 n 0000033865 00000 n 0000033993 00000 n 0000034048 00000 n 0000034176 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34271 %%EOF