%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917034737+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917034737+01'00') /Title (Monks and Markets: Durham Cathedral Priory 1460?1520) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4351 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Monks and Markets: Durham Cathedral Priory 1460?1520)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is based on a University of Durham doctoral study by Miranda Threlfall-Holmes using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive archives of Durham Cathedral Priory. It is the first full-length study of its kind that concentrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively on the purchasing strategies and consumer behaviour of a monastic house in late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, and whilst the study period is limited to 1460?1520, the analysis of the material attempts to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive assessment of the cathedral priory?s involvement with the market in the North East of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and beyond. This provides the author with an opportunity to make some wider generalisations about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market behaviour and consumerism in late-medieval England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study is split into five main sections covering the monastic diet, factors influencing the priory?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing decisions, tenurial purchasing, market purchasing, and the suppliers of the priory. In addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is an introductory chapter that attempts to contextualise the priory in its regional place as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing the accounting systems of the monks; both essential concomitants to any understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priory?s consumer behaviour. The author also uses this introduction to suggest that the ?institutions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages are generally seen as unreflective, unresponsive, and uninnovative? \(p.1\); an attitude which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author immediately sets about disproving by way of her own assessment and reference to several other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent studies such as Dyer, Harvey and Stone.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.628 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.628 74.601 m 273.620 74.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.620 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Like these studies, her assessment is based on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atheoretical approach, that analyses and interprets the surviving data using well-established economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(464)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 July, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miranda Threlfall-Holmes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199253811X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(253pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Rushton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.6277 74.9155 273.6197 86.7955 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7165 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodologies without attempting to impose a theoretical narrative upon the consumerism and purchasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies of the priory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first main section examines the monastic diet at the priory and provides a useful comparison to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dietary practice of the monks at Westminster Abbey analysed by Barbara Harvey.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.584 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.584 740.307 m 440.576 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 440.576 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There was a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounting network within the priory that dealt with buying foodstuffs and then distributing it among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant departments. At Durham the main departments were those of bursar, cellarer and granator, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the account rolls of these officials that the data is obtained to analyse the monks? diet. The most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important item making up the monastic diet was grain. It is clear that at Durham, in line with the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Westminster, most of the wheat purchased for the priory by the bursar was used for bread for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refectory and that barley was used almost entirely as malting for ale. Oats were a minority purchase and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were used in the main for malting and for animal fodder. However, the account rolls do not allow for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further detailed analysis of the types of bread and ale being produced at the priory and the assessment is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to tracking the annual trends of grain purchases and consumption. Over the study period, average )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain purchase were made up of 1074 quarters of barley, 539.6 quarters of wheat, 440.3 quarters of oats and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64.6 quarters of pulses. The granators? accounts include a monthly record of grain usage for the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle grains and therefore allow the author to gauge how much of these purchases were consumed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks and their domestic staff: on average these sums were 1049.4 quarters of barley, 458.5 quarters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wheat and 91.9 quarters of oats. The granators? accounts also allow for the tracking of wheat \(and therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bread\) consumption over four-week periods in an average year. As would be expected, Lenten consumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was highest in order to compensate for the prohibition of other foodstuffs, and there was also a rise during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christmas period. This fluctuation through the year is the first hard evidence in this study that monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision and consumption was responsive to circumstances and not controlled by conventional portions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varied little over the course of a year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prodigious amounts of meat consumed at Durham outstripped the amounts eaten at Westminster Abbey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this period. Despite the difficulties in comparing the data from the two houses it appears that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks of Durham consumed almost four times as much meat as their southern compatriots and perhaps 50 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per cent more fish. It is suggested that this discrepancy can be accounted for partly by farming practices in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two different regions and the availability of grain and meat. The monks at Westminster also seem to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed higher quantities of dairy produce than those at Durham, which may have closed the protein-gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two houses somewhat.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further aspects of the monastic diet at Durham are considered: vegetables, honey, salt, spices, butter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wine, although the types of data rarely allow for the detailed analysis of distribution within the priory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, one important trend that is noticed is the per capita increase in consumption over the study period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most especially in the consumption of meat and fish, shown in table 2.2 \(p. 48\). The consumption of nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all fish and meat foodstuffs either doubled or trebled over the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter is a discussion of the factors influencing the priory?s purchasing decisions. In terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain there was a relationship between price and purchase. The author uses the percentage of wheat from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weighted average modal price for all grains over the study period to demonstrate that there was a correlation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between years of high prices and amounts purchased by the bursar, most clearly illustrated during the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harvest years of 1480?82, when the proportions of wheat to other grains fell by between 10 and 20 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 83\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wine, however, seems to have been purchased regardless of the annual cost per tun. Years of high prices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as 1475/6 and 1487/8, were not matched by decreased purchases, and the conclusion is reached that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monks were more willing to absorb the increased cost of wine than to adapt their consumption of wine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cloth purchases form an important element in the discussion of purchasing strategies at the priory. As would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be expected, there was a distinction between cloth for utilitarian usage and cloth used for purposes such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vestments and liveries. One of the cheapest types of cloth purchased in large quantities was hardyn; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bursar bought an average of 148.6 ells per year. The author suggests that there is a clear correlation between )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.5837 740.6215 440.5757 752.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7115 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the amount purchased and the price per ell. This is true for the period to 1494, but is certainly not true for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period 1495?1515 \(as demonstrated by the graph in figure 3.9\), eleven years of which \(1495?1506\) the price )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per yard [)] TJ ET BT 80.660 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 93.992 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] was a standardised 2)] TJ ET BT 199.964 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d)] TJ ET BT 205.964 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, suggesting that the bursar had contracted an agreement with a seller for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a term of years. Linen was used for a wide variety of purposes and represented the largest cloth purchase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the priory, averaging over 495 ells per annum, with purchases split between the three departments of sacrist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bursar and chamberlain. Purchases of linen were made at different times of year at varying prices and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price data is thus represented in a scatter diagram \(figure 3.11\). But the scatter diagram is rendered relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useless without some form of moving average to indicate trends. The conclusion is reached that there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correlation between linen prices and amounts purchased, but no interpretation is offered as to why there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively wide divergent amounts of the cloth purchased year by year.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The discussion of higher quality cloth purchases for vestments and clothing is generally hampered by a lack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tabulated and/or graphed data. Indeed, the only graph in this section of the chapter is figure 3.13, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows the prices paid by the bursar for livery cloth for the prior, obedientiaries, gentlemen, valets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grooms. This is a pity because as the author points out \(p.131\) there is a relative lack of evidence of cloth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing from other monastic establishments and the Durham data is an important benchmark for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study in this area. Unfortunately, this data is somewhat hidden within the discussion. This is partly due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative lack of price fluctuation during the period, and the subsequent flat-lining of price data \(as exampled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in figure 3.13\), but in terms of amounts of cloth purchased for clothing the monks and dependents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion would have benefited from more graphically represented data. However, the important point is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made that the monks were willing and able to shop around for various types and qualities of livery cloth, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were adaptable consumers. Despite having a relatively inflexible annual purchasing regime, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obedientiaries making the purchases were able to be flexible in their purchasing strategies and to buy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing at prices which reflected both the subtle distinctions between those who would be wearing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothes and the desire to find the best price from a variety of producers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4 covers tenurial purchasing strategies at the priory. All monastic houses engaged in purchasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods and services from their tenants, and Durham was no exception, with commodities being purchased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the occupiers of the priory?s lands between the Rivers Tyne and Tees. Most important amongst these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commodities was grain, the majority of which was purchased from priory tenants. A proportion of this grain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was acquired in lieu of rent, and the purchases therefore appear in the bursar?s rentals. Unfortunately, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only survive for a limited number of years and there is therefore a restricted amount of time-series analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that can be carried out. But from the surviving rentals it seems, rather surprisingly, that there was limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customary arrangement made between the bursar and the tenants to ensure grain supply to the priory. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s analysis of the grain rental payments from the priory?s manor of Cowpen Bewley \(pp. 142?4\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the payments were not fixed in relation to price by the priory. The ratios of rents paid in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grain, as opposed to cash, did not increase in years of high prices, as would be expected if the priory?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy was to minimise expenditure. Rather, the varying amounts of rental grain paid by the tenants was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not related to grain prices:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such variation would suggest that the way in which rents were paid was a matter for the tenants )] TJ ET BT 64.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to decide, and that their decision was based on their individual circumstances in each year rather )] TJ ET BT 64.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than being a matter of policy. If this were indeed the case, it would imply that the relationship )] TJ ET BT 64.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the priory and its tenants was cordial and based on a high degree of mutual trust and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding \(p.144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact that one of the most important commodities purchased by the priory from their tenants was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled by customary index-linking to prices is an important finding that has many implications for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of late medieval monastic landholding, reinforcing the idea that tenants were better off under monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords than under their less indulgent post-Dissolution secular counterparts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is able to identify sources of tenurial grain supply to the priory?s bursar and show that the grain )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was purchased from a relatively wide area that would have involved not inconsiderable transport costs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although the distribution map at figure 4.2 manages to leave off Durham\). This is also the case with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural foodstuffs, where the priory sourced livestock from diverse tenurial holdings and acquired fish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from as many as 32 places. It is shown that there was also a high level of fish specialism by geographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality, so that cod came primarily from the coastal areas and herring from the South Shields area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst a majority of agricultural foodstuffs were purchased using tenurial relationships, most imported and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufactured commodities were acquired through the market. Chapter 5 examines the priory?s market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing strategies, which were carried out either directly by priory officials or through a network of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents and credit arrangements. One of the most important aspects of market purchasing by the priory was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing proportion of goods that were bought from Newcastle merchants. The important point is made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that almost all the priory?s wine was purchased from Newcastle merchants by the beginning of the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and that this had been partly at the expense of York wine merchants. This is attributed in part to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recession in York during the fifteenth century, which is suggested as being a contributing factor to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bursar?s department turning almost exclusively to merchants operating out of the growing port of Newcastle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for its wine supply. Cloth purchases from the market also shifted away from York over the period, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially to the West Riding and to Durham.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter ends with a discussion of transport methods and costs for the purchased commodities. Once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again this is an important subject and the Durham material collected here may act as a benchmark for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research into monastic transport arrangements. However, there are problems with the analysis of these types )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of costs, not least of which is the frequent failure of the accounts to differentiate between the various types )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of commodities being transported to the priory. But the author manages to extract data for wine and cloth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transportation costs that can be usefully compared to studies by Dyer, Edwards and Hindle, Kowaleski and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masschaele.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.996 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.996 457.443 m 106.988 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter 6 the author emphasises the importance of the supplier-purchaser relationships to the priory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was reliant on levels of trust between the monastic officials and their agents and suppliers. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out most skilfully in the sections covering ?Commodity specialists and generalists? and a case study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the suppliers of cloth. The former makes it clear that for most commodities the priory used a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of suppliers, rarely forming long term relationships or contracts with individual merchants. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extent this was also true of cloth suppliers, although merchants supplying the priory with the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expensive types of livery cloth were more likely to receive repeat contracts. Between 1464 and 1520 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priory used only seven suppliers of livery cloth, one of the most important of these being the York draper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Marshall who supplied all of the priory?s livery cloth over a thirty year period to 1481.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis throughout this study is that Durham Cathedral Priory was a sophisticated consumer of goods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that its officers were able to manipulate their purchases from tenants and the market for the benefit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the priory in a competitive environment. The author succeeds in demonstrating that the priory was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptable institution, able to adjust its purchasing strategies and consumption on both an annual basis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the period of this study. Several important issues are demonstrated in the course of the analyses: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good relationship and high levels of trust both between the priory and its tenants and the priory and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market suppliers; the large number of suppliers used by the priory for most of its consumer goods; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of consumption within the priory that can be \(in part\) usefully compared to Harvey?s study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Abbey and also create a blueprint for further research at other monastic houses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study is limited by its relatively short timespan, and no explanation is given as to why the analyses are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not carried through to the Dissolution of the priory in 1539, although this is most likely due to the limitations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of account roll survival. This type of economic study would also have benefited from more graphical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of the data, as some of the more detailed statistical arguments become lost in the textual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. However, this detracts little from what is an important study that contains a detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative exploration of the consumption and purchasing patterns of a major medieval monastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution. It will provide a welcome addition to the relatively small but rapidly growing corpus of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessing medieval markets and consumption, as well as supplementing studies of the internal administration )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 92.9957 457.7575 106.9877 469.6375 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 4063 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religious houses in the later Middle Ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Dyer, 'The consumer and the market in the later Middle Ages', )] TJ ET BT 380.612 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 505.256 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 42 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1989\), 305?27; B. Harvey, 'The aristocratic consumer in England in the long thirteenth century', in ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Prestwich, R. H. Britnell and R. Frame, )] TJ ET BT 273.344 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thirteenth Century England 6: Proceedings of the Durham )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conference)] TJ ET BT 119.336 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 1997\), pp. 19?37; D. Stone, 'Medieval farm management and technological )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentalities: Hinderclay before the Black Death', )] TJ ET BT 298.460 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 423.104 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 54 \(2001\), 612?38.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.424 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.424 672.531 m 560.420 672.531 l S BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 658.275 m 78.008 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Harvey, )] TJ ET BT 119.336 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living and Dying in England 1100?1540: The Monastic Experience)] TJ ET BT 445.976 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1993\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34?71.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 96.344 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 96.344 629.763 m 150.332 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 108.008 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Everyday Life in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 278.648 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\), p. 262; J. F. Edwards and B. P. Hindle, ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transportation system of medieval England and Wales?, )] TJ ET BT 334.640 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Historical Geography)] TJ ET BT 492.968 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 \(1991\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(123-34; M. Kowaleski, )] TJ ET BT 178.340 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Local Markets and Regional Trade in Medieval Exeter )] TJ ET BT 444.308 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1995\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(268; J. Masschaele, ?Transport costs in medieval England?, )] TJ ET BT 353.636 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 478.280 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 \(1993\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(266?79.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 558.483 m 156.332 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is currently on maternity leave and thus unable to respond to this review, but is happy to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 462.127 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 444.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 444.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/464)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 442.953 m 322.316 442.953 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 417.976 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2474)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.4237 672.8455 560.4197 684.7255 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 658.5895 78.0077 670.4695 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 96.3437 630.0775 150.3317 641.9575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 102.3437 558.7975 156.3317 570.6775 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 443.2675 322.3157 455.1475 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/464) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005054 00000 n 0000005163 00000 n 0000005273 00000 n 0000005382 00000 n 0000008943 00000 n 0000009071 00000 n 0000009155 00000 n 0000009184 00000 n 0000009310 00000 n 0000009346 00000 n 0000009430 00000 n 0000016648 00000 n 0000016678 00000 n 0000016806 00000 n 0000016842 00000 n 0000016907 00000 n 0000024075 00000 n 0000024159 00000 n 0000031641 00000 n 0000031671 00000 n 0000031798 00000 n 0000031834 00000 n 0000031946 00000 n 0000036062 00000 n 0000036190 00000 n 0000036245 00000 n 0000036371 00000 n 0000036426 00000 n 0000036553 00000 n 0000036608 00000 n 0000036736 00000 n 0000036791 00000 n 0000036919 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37014 %%EOF