%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917012949+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917012949+01'00') /Title (Changing National Identities at the Frontier: Texas and New Mexico, 1800?1850) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3964 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Changing National Identities at the Frontier: Texas and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mexico, 1800?1850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Poor New Mexico! So far from heaven, so close to Texas!? It is just as well that this famous lament of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manuel Armijo, the last Mexican governor of the territory of Nuevo Mxico, is not quoted in )] TJ ET BT 483.956 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Identities at the Frontier)] TJ ET BT 197.360 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for the author, Andrs Resndez, shows that there are enormous benefits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be derived from bringing New Mexico and Texas close together in this sustained comparative scrutiny ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that should interest scholars across a variety of fields and disciplines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas and New Mexico were two starkly different lands that nevertheless shared a common fate in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the nineteenth century. Once jealously guarded northern outposts of the Spanish empire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas, both had fallen into the hands of the United States within a quarter century of Mexico?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence from Spain. Yet Resndez warns that this should not be interpreted as a ?simple-minded? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of ?American expansionism? and ?Manifest Destiny? \(pp. 5?6\). He insists instead that there is much to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be learned by examining the complex and lengthy processes of ?changing identities? that took place as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico?s Far North became the American Southwest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is as much about boundaries as about identities, but Resndez is not interested merely in the lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of demarcation fixed by international treaties. By closely examining the words and deeds of the denizens of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(466)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 August, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrs Resndez)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719071970X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(322pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Crisp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6206 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas and New Mexico, the author traces the development of other kinds of boundaries that were formed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, ideas, and articles of trade slipped past the official borders to create new, varied, and quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incongruent boundaries: of cultural and linguistic ascendancy, of commercial relations and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, of literary discourse and national imagination, of religious persuasion and church authority, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, the raw power of physical control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is because these multiple boundaries were almost )] TJ ET BT 283.976 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(never)] TJ ET BT 310.628 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( congruent on the American-Mexican frontier that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the identities shaped by them were, in the words of the author, both ?multiple? and ?fluid.? He admits that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early on in his research he had to abandon the assumption that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. . . deep within us, somewhere in the reptilian portions of our brains, we all belong to one group )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or another, however reluctant to take a public stance we may be \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Resndez found instead that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. . . identity choices almost always follow a situational logic. A person was not a mission Indian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a Mexican, a black slave in Mexico or an American, a foreign-born colonist or a Texan, but )] TJ ET BT 64.016 527.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be either depending on who was asking \(p. 3\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, because ?the state? and ?the market? ? the two most powerful forces creating the shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 474.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of the frontier ? were usually ?out of sync? \(p. 8\) with each other and pulling in opposite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions, the ?identity choices? \(p. 5\) faced by the people of both Texas and New Mexico could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agonising. The tension so pointedly felt by the )] TJ ET BT 259.676 446.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tejanos)] TJ ET BT 294.344 446.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of San Antonio ?between their origins, traditions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture on the one hand, and the preservation of their interests on the other? \(p. 170\) following the separation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Texas from Mexico \(by means of a revolution which they had largely supported\) was only an extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of the stresses experienced and the dilemmas faced across the whole extent of Mexico?s Far North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1800 and 1850.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 362.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A fundamental point emphasised by Resndez is that the citizens of Mexico?s northern frontier more often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 348.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found themselves at odds with their own national government than with foreigners ? and in this part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world, the term ?foreigner? usually referred to people from the United States. These foreigners came in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many guises: fur trappers, colonists, merchants, doctors, land speculators, slave owners, lawyers, unruly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filibusterers, and only in the last extremity, uniformed soldiers. And in )] TJ ET BT 375.992 305.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 388.664 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of these cases ? even the last ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newcomers were welcomed by Mexican frontiersmen with far more enthusiasm than they were received by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the representatives of Mexico?s central government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The foreigners and their influence brought both wealth and risk, and their arrival inevitably found Mexicans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Far North both divided amongst themselves and conflicted as individuals as to how they should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respond. But to most of the )] TJ ET BT 167.684 222.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(norteos)] TJ ET BT 209.684 222.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the promises of greater prosperity and the added capacity to repel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous Indian enemies were far more tangible than any potential threat to the integrity of the Mexican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 167.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico became independent from Spain in 1821, after a bloody and debilitating eleven-year struggle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed by internal upheavals which left the economy in shreds. Indeed, the economies of Mexico and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States during the first half of the nineteenth century, notes Resndez, ?were as different as night and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day? \(p. 93\). The disparity is stunning. While the United States saw an expansion in population from 5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million to 32 million between 1800 and 1860 and more than a twelve-fold rise in national income, Mexico?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(income actually declined by 10.5 percent while its population ?hovered around 6 million? \(p. 93\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When independent Mexico dropped imperial Spain?s rigid barriers to foreign trade and immigration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, both the populations and the economies of Texas and New Mexico began to rise dramatically. ?In )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7594 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the span of a few years,? writes Resndez, ?the frontier made the transition from economic backwater to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic crossroad of exchange? \(pp. 4?5\). Yet it was a Faustian bargain. Texas had seceded from Mexico )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by 1836, and by the time that war broke out between Mexico and the United States a decade later, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico was far more integrated into the economy of the United States than it was with the rest of Mexico ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70 percent of government revenues in New Mexico in 1846 came from import duties on goods brought in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along the Santa Fe Trail from Missouri. There was a corresponding reluctance among influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nuevomexicanos)] TJ ET BT 113.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to resist forcibly the military invasion from the United States when it finally came. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words of the author, ?the Americanization of New Mexico had been a long time in the making? \(p. 248\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Mexican government had seen the trouble brewing, but could do little to stop it. An official Boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission sent to the north-eastern frontier of Texas under General Manuel de Mier y Tern in 1828 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found the international border being blissfully ignored by people on both sides of a line that was quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally imaginary. Settlers from the United States, whether or not they had conformed to the laws governing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration to Mexico, were welcomed by state and local officials in Texas \(which was a part of the joint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas\), even as the newcomers retained ties to the commercial centers \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes even used the courts\) of American Louisiana. Mier y Tern, one of the most competent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respected officers in the Mexican army, became so despondent over his country?s prospects of holding on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas despite his best efforts to rectify the situation that he committed suicide in 1832. The loss of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico seemed neither as imminent nor as inevitable, but there, too, Resndez finds that the inhabitants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?quite oblivious to national boundaries? \(p. 29\) in the 1820s and early 30s as they welcomed the arrival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of merchants from the United States and eagerly formed both business and familial alliances with Americans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was the Native Americans of the Far North who were easily the most oblivious to the boundary lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn in Washington or Mexico City. Resndez describes an ?expanding Indian world? \(p. 45\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderlands, where Comanches, Kiowas, and other Indian groups benefitted from both trading and raiding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the most formidable military presence on the frontier. With horsemanship superior to the Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and weapons superior to the Mexicans, it was only the the Plains Indians who could travel freely from San )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonio to Santa Fe, and only they who could successfully enforce their claimed territorial boundaries!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the weaknesses of the fledgling Mexican nation-state in the face of these challenges from the )] TJ ET BT 515.240 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(indios)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 72.008 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(norteamericanos)] TJ ET BT 153.332 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, how could stronger links between the Far North and the rest of the country be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forged? In his second chapter, Resndez skillfully compares the contrasting networks of patronage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power that emerged in Texas and New Mexico. In Texas, which became something of an ?experiment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism? \(p. 73\) for Mexico, alliances between American investors and Mexican national officials \(who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often mingled in the new Masonic lodges being founded in Mexico\) created ?vast networks of landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests? \(p. 71\) from the )] TJ ET BT 161.324 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(baldos)] TJ ET BT 196.664 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(vacant lands\) of Texas. In New Mexico, however, the strongest network )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(binding nation to frontier was the ?priestly web? \(p. 74\) of the Catholic hierarchy, which served to represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexican national interests virtually in lieu of the state. Needless to say, this was a network far less open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or favourable toward the foreigners coming from the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Mexican government itself, chronically short of resources, had to rely for the most part on ritual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display ? patriotic pageants, proclamations, and processions ? to impress a new national identity on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizens in the Far North, but Resndez is careful not to leave the impression that he agrees with scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have portrayed Mexican national power as being in a hopeless state of decline in the years following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence. On the contrary, he argues, the Mexican state was beginning to flex its muscles by the 1830s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempting to put limits on American immigration and to rein in what had become almost shameless land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giveaways by self-interested regional politicians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the very process of centralisation created opposition in both Texas and New Mexico, as residents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both areas resisted reforms which threatened their ?entrenched business interests? \(p. 123\). Profits flowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in from the United States, says Resndez, overwhelmed the nationalising efforts coming from below the Ro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grande. His third chapter, ?The Spirit of Mercantile Enterprise,? shows \(with impressive archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation\) the extent to which Texas and New Mexico were pulled into the American economic orbit. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author follows, for instance, the cultural choices made by frontiersmen as they became dependent on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7528 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States for both medicines and alcoholic beverages that were in short supply in Mexico.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was also an inescapable economic dimension to the mixed marriages that became common across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borderlands between American husbands in search of citizenship, land acquisitions, and business alliances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in addition to female companionship\) and the Mexican wives whose families coveted commercial and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections with the United States. However, as Resndez demonstrates in his fourth chapter, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages became increasingly less common in New Mexico in the late 1830s, where fear of national loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory made the Catholic prelates who served as the gatekeepers to the Roman ritual more reluctant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanction such marriages. This was in stark contrast to Texas, where the only priest assigned to serve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing Anglo majority was an easygoing Irishman named Michael Muldoon, and where all church officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were far more accommodating to those who chose partners across the ethnic divide. In chapter four, as with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contrasting networks of patronage described in his second chapter, Resndez shows how the pervasive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tug-of-war between the countervailing powers of market and state played out in different ways in the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct frontier societies of New Mexico and Texas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar theme is developed through the fifth and sixth chapters of )] TJ ET BT 361.976 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Changing Identities at the Frontier)] TJ ET BT 530.648 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Resndez compares revolts against the Mexican national government that occurred in Texas and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico in the 1830s. The outcomes were vastly different, despite the fact that both began as responses to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralising moves from Mexico City. It is fascinating to review the all-too-familiar story of the Texas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution from the sophisticated and revelatory perspective that the author brings to this event. Ironies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abound in the description of an 1834 inspection tour carried out by Colonels Juan Almonte and Jos Noriega )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Texas and Coahuila respectively. While Almonte found the supposedly restive Anglo-American colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Texas ?thriving . . . and content? \(p. 151\), Noriega found Coahuila \(where, unlike Texas, there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelming Hispanic majority\) already in the throes of a revolution led by Mexican ?Federalist? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians who were striving to rouse the quiescent Anglos of Texas to help protect lucrative ?states? rights? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(such as control over land, trade, and immigration\) from interference by ?Centralist? rulers from Mexico )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(City.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem was that the Anglo colonists, who by 1835 accounted for nine-tenths of the population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas, had almost as much as disdain for the Federalists \(whom they suspected of corruption\) as for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centralists \(whom they viewed as tyrannical\). When in 1835 the Federalist Governor Agustn Viesca fled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Texas from Coahuila to escape capture by the forces of Centralist President Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Texans refused to recognise Viesca?s authority over them, though they were ready to fight against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Centralist troops sent by Santa Anna. Resndez argues that three groups then vied to fill the power vacuum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Texas: the Anglo colonists, exiled Mexican Federalists of national stature, and the )] TJ ET BT 443.636 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tejanos)] TJ ET BT 478.304 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is at this point in his analysis that Resndez fails to see the power of the market transforming itself into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the state. He underestimates the importance of American commercial interests in New Orleans in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sending men, weapons, and supplies to the incipient ?Federalist? revolt in Texas, as well as the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of American influence in turning the Texans? participation in a Mexican civil war into a fight for full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political independence. Resndez did not have the opportunity to incorporate into his narrative the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new work by Edward L. Miller, )] TJ ET BT 189.320 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Orleans and the Texas Revolution)] TJ ET BT 376.976 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.976 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.976 219.603 m 393.968 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Resndez also fails to take into account the degree to which the revolutionary Texan leader Sam Houston )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a conscious agent of the United States, working \(as he had promised President Jackson shortly after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the United States for Mexican Texas in 1832\) to see that Jackson?s goal of annexing Texas would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come to fruition. Resndez is correct, however, in noting that the ?multi-ethnic? coalition which fought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful revolution in Texas largely survived the turn to independence, with several )] TJ ET BT 448.940 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tejanos)] TJ ET BT 483.608 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(and even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent former Federalist from Yucatn, Lorenzo de Zavala\) participating in the government of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic of Texas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a very different coalition which rose up against the national government in New Mexico in 1837, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the rebels, like those of Coahuila y Tejas, sought to avoid the burdens and restrictions of living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under a Centralist regime. The Chimay Rebellion, as it became known, began like the revolt in Texas as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 379.9757 219.9175 393.9677 231.7975 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 6998 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense of the old Federalist Mexican Constitution of 1824. The rebels were angry over the loss of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy and the imposition of direct national taxation imposed by the Centralists. Significantly, they also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objected to the new religious centralisation and discipline brought about by an invigorated Mexican Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy, and to the imposition of an onerous \(and frequently deadly\) duty of compulsory military service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Mexican government?s many Indian adversaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The irony here, and a signal difference between the Chimay Rebellion and the Texas Revolution, is that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of the rebels were ?Indians? themselves ? the Pueblos and other sedentary Native American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups in New Mexico who were the main targets of new requirements for both religious orthodoxy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military duty. The presence of these ?domestic? Indians in the Chimay Rebellion helps to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful counter-revolution in New Mexico led by Manuel Armijo, who was rewarded for his successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crushing of the revolt by his ascent to the office of Territorial Governor, which he held until the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers arrived at his door in 1846. Resndez makes the obvious point that fears of a racial ?caste war? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among Hispanic )] TJ ET BT 115.340 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nuevomexicanos)] TJ ET BT 194.648 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( led to the successful smothering of the revolt, but I believe that the author, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as in his missed opportunities in the fifth chapter, fails to acknowledge that critically important material aid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the United States helped the Texan rebels to succeed, while the Chimay insurrectionists, without such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside support, failed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two chapters of )] TJ ET BT 152.324 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Changing Identities at the Frontier)] TJ ET BT 320.996 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(not unlike the first six\) are models of brilliantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived, assiduously researched, and gracefully written scholarship. The seventh chapter explores a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar and obvious topic, the military-commercial expedition launched toward New Mexico by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic of Texas in 1841. Resndez explodes traditional approaches to this subject by exploring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction to the Texan Santa Fe Expedition by the starkly disparate literary cultures of the Americans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Texans \(who are virtually indistinguishable by this point\), the Mexicans \(whose newspapers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially politicians? mouthpieces\), and the Indians \(through the medium of the remarkable Kiowa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Winter Calendars? ? pictographic records of events painted on animal hides\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter compares the relatively peaceful American military conquest of New Mexico in 1846 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Governor Armijo met with the Americans, protested their arrival, but retreated without a fight\) with the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American revolts which broke out in New Mexico in 1847. Showing \(as one might expect by now\) that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not a simple turn from a pro-American stance by )] TJ ET BT 292.628 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nuevomexicanos)] TJ ET BT 371.936 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the opposite position, Resndez )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates how )] TJ ET BT 124.004 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both)] TJ ET BT 145.340 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( events revealed the fissures and fractures in New Mexican society, revealing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring relevance of the old Federalist/Centralist divisions as well as the lasting power of the institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the army and the church ? institutions which had so often acted on Mexico?s behalf in lieu of a fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functional national state on the northern frontier, and which still showed life even when their connection to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Mexican nation-state had been severed by the American conquest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrs Resndez, equally at home himself on both sides of the border, has accomplished a remarkable feat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking us further than any historical writer yet into the minds of the diverse characters who inhabited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mexico?s turbulent northern borderlands in the early nineteenth century. The ?risky eclecticism? \(p. 10\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he has employed in this task has paid off richly ? but then there?s nothing like hard work and clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking to reduce the risks inevitably incurred in path-breaking scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 155.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward L. Miller, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Orleans and the Texas Revolution )] TJ ET BT 344.324 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(College Station, Texas, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.312 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.312 154.083 m 548.300 154.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 129.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 110.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 92.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 92.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/466)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 91.065 m 322.316 91.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 66.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2478)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.3117 154.3975 548.2997 166.2775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 91.3795 322.3157 103.2595 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/466) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004692 00000 n 0000004801 00000 n 0000004911 00000 n 0000005020 00000 n 0000008581 00000 n 0000008709 00000 n 0000008793 00000 n 0000008858 00000 n 0000015117 00000 n 0000015182 00000 n 0000022829 00000 n 0000022913 00000 n 0000030494 00000 n 0000030524 00000 n 0000030652 00000 n 0000030688 00000 n 0000030779 00000 n 0000037830 00000 n 0000037958 00000 n 0000038013 00000 n 0000038140 00000 n 0000038235 00000 n 0000038300 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38495 %%EOF