%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141002032212+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141002032212+01'00') /Title (Charles II and the Politics of Access) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4193 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Charles II and the Politics of Access)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Weiser takes as his subject the court and politics of Charles II?s reign, examining them through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glass of access. Following the examples of earlier historians of European courts, he is interested in how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch?s availability to his subjects reflects his policies and attitudes. Weiser defines a spectrum of access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging from open to closed, with various gradations in between. Open access monarchies were largely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing of the past in the latter seventeenth century, exemplifying a more medieval governing style, hearkening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to such examples as St Louis sitting under an oak, or Edward I roaming the countryside on progress. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More common by Charles II?s time were monarchies that surrounded princes with thickets of ceremony and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protocol. A king?s appearances in these baroque courts were carefully choreographed ? Weiser cites Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XIV as an obvious example, but the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs would make the point equally well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weiser argues that Charles II occupies a number of points on the spectrum during his reign, from attempting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be ?everybody?s king? \(p. 66\) to a cloistered monarch accessible only to the politically sound. In every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, changes in the ?politics of access? were connected with the broader political goals of the regime. Using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evolving architecture of Charles II?s palaces, including the existing hodge-podge that was Whitehall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windsor and the planned \(but never completed\) extravagances of Winchester, he demonstrates the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessibility as it waxed and waned. Household ordinances, laying down the rules governing admittance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the royal presence, also figure in Weiser?s account. The book?s chapters on the court and its architecture are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(467)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 July, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Weiser)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719071970X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victor Stater)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7319 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much the most useful part of the work, illuminating the inner workings of faction and the complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions between the king and his courtiers. The aurhor also provides a useful summary of Charles?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travels during the reign, and his periods of residence in his various palaces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Using the organisation of the court and the king?s accessibility as his starting point, Weiser then proceeds to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bigger picture, attempting to apply his analysis of the shifting currents of court access to the kingdom at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large. He does this with varying degrees of success. In succeeding chapters he discusses local politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade policy in light of Charles?s changing accessibility. From 1660 to 1681 Charles waffles back and forth, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from openness to exclusivity. In the early 1660s, influenced by Clarendon, Charles opts for openness; by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1670s, with Danby?s rise to prominence, a more exclusive attitude takes hold. Ultimately, the king denied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to those refusing to accept Royalist Anglican principles. The decisive break comes in 1681 as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Exclusion Crisis, which finally persuades Charles that rewarding his friends with a monopoly of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power was the only sure way to save the legal succession. The importance of the succession crisis has long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been known, of course, and Weiser also recognises it as a watershed. The resulting vision, however, while at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times illuminating, is fundamentally myopic; the king?s decision to embrace open access, ensuring open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines of communication \(or not\), trumps all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Weiser sees the lieutenancy as primarily an avenue of communication between the crown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality, and appointments to offices in it \(as lord or deputy lieutenants\) as part of the royal policy of access. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this ignores the fact that the lieutenancy?s principal role was security, not communication. He never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions, for example, Venner?s Rising of 1661 which, though in hindsight a rather pathetic failure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly frightened the court and spurred a much harsher attitude towards dissenters. Continued plotting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in subsequent years, followed by the Dutch Wars, ensured that security would remain at the forefront of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?s concerns. Not until the Exclusion Crisis did the lieutenancy begin to take on a serious political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role, as the enforcer of Royalist Anglican orthodoxy. Similarly, he treats the crown?s campaign to regulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(municipal corporations as exercises in communication: ?Quo Warranto proceedings exemplify the king?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to turn over all conduits of communication between town and crown into the hands of Anglican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stalwarts.? \(p. 118\) This is true, as far as it goes ? but the most important reason was Charles?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to control the make-up of any future house of commons. Like the Royalist Anglicans to whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he turned in 1681, Charles knew that the lesson of ?41 was not about communication: it was about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preventing the election of another runaway parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weiser?s chapter on accessibility and trade sits rather uneasily with his previous discussion of politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly Charles was interested in trade and made attempts to advance it. Equally certain was the conviction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of merchants and businessmen that the king could advance their interests if only they could capture his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal attention. Throughout the reign they struggled for opportunities to present their cases before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throne. After 1681, merchants who hoped for a polite hearing from the king had best tow the Yorkist line, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but Charles?s handling of trade matters also depended upon his own personal interests, and were in any case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always subject to pressures from parliament and foreign competition. Weiser?s attempt to bind commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy rigidly to the ebb and flow of Restoration politics does not allow for the complex reality of trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during a period of dramatic expansion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weiser?s focus upon access to the sovereign?s person is salutary; Charles II presided over a personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, and the king?s decisions about whom to admit to his presence had important consequences. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times the author seems to miss other important factors influencing Charles?s policies, and often he asserts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal intentions without demonstrating what the king actually thought. ?In the 1670s Charles II abandoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the task of uniting his nation, for he no longer believed England to be a naturally organic whole? \(p. 4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this might be true, it neglects the fact that England?s organic wholeness was purely imaginary from at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least 1640, and does not demonstrate that Charles II ever truly believed in the idea. Charles?s attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreate a medieval-style open access monarchy ? being 'everybody?s king' ? was short-lived and, arguably, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather half-hearted. But Weiser is undeniably correct to note the important change in royal attitude towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political foes from 1681: Charles did create a one-party state in order to assure his brother?s accession, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he used every reward he had at hand ? including regulating access to the court ? in the process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 240.992 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/467)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2480)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11617)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 240.9917 793.0135 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11617) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/467) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000533 00000 n 0000000615 00000 n 0000004860 00000 n 0000004969 00000 n 0000005079 00000 n 0000005188 00000 n 0000008749 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000008961 00000 n 0000009026 00000 n 0000016398 00000 n 0000016489 00000 n 0000017496 00000 n 0000017623 00000 n 0000017724 00000 n 0000017852 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 17947 %%EOF