%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721174820+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721174820+01'00') /Title (A Bitter Living: Women, Markets, and Social Capital in Early-Modern Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4180 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living: Women, Markets, and Social Capital in Early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Modern Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the 1970s historians have been redressing the longstanding omission of women from virtually all types )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history. We now know much more about women?s experiences in the past, both in their own right and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors to larger historical events, than had previously been the case. Unfortunately historians have yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to take up the full challenge of studying women?s experience in all its facets: there is, to date, very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(economic)] TJ ET BT 80.000 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history of women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The paucity of attention to women?s economic history has long puzzled many historians outside the field. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, many assertions about the place of women in historical societies turn on their role in the economy: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what women could own, the kinds of work they could do, their ability to contract in their own right, and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most importantly, the ability to earn, control, and enjoy an income as independent actors. That is, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of women?s secondary status take for granted a set of answers to questions about the how and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why of economic inequality. Some accounts of the Industrial Revolution?s impact on women, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do little more than apply some generalization taken from elsewhere \(?markets are good for women? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?markets are bad for women?\). By the standards usually applied in modern historical research, much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received literature would not be taken very seriously. )] TJ ET BT 292.292 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 363.632 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is part of a newer literature that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts to a very welcome, if long over-due, effort to properly study the role of women in economic life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(468)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 July, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheilagh Ogilvie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198205546X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(412pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Timothy Guinnane)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7895 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One path-breaking contribution of this sort is Claudia Goldin?s )] TJ ET BT 340.328 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Understanding the Gender Gap)] TJ ET BT 492.644 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first full-scale account of the economic history of women in the United States in the twentieth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This widely admired book used simple economic models and a lot of digging for evidence to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how American women?s economic roles were shaped by technology, biology, and the constraints of law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social custom. Goldin?s contribution reflects more than anything else her gift for ferreting out the empirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources ? many quantitative, some not ? that allow her to construct a fine-grained portrait of how American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women lived and worked. After all, if we want to know why women earned \(and earn\) less than men, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need detailed and credible information on women?s wages and how they compare to those of men. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple point seems to have gone missing in some of the literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goldin?s influence can be seen in much very welcome work in economic history, including the study under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review. The society at issue here, early-modern Wrttemberg, differed from twentieth-century America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along virtually every dimension, and Ogilvie?s emphasis differs from Goldin?s in many respects. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central task of the study is the same: Ogilvie sets out to describe how women?s economic lives differed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men?s, and then to explain both why they were different and the consequences of these patterns for both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people concerned and the larger economy and society. Given the state of the literature one can think of )] TJ ET BT 530.228 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 95.024 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as making two, distinct contributions. One contribution is factual: we get the what, the why, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the what it meant. In addition Ogilvie makes a strong, if implicit, case for a different methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the study of women?s economic histories. I consider each contribution in turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 105.356 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( focuses on two communities in the Wrttemberg Black Forest in the seventeenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth centuries. One of them, Wildberg, figures heavily in Ogilvie?s previous book )] TJ ET BT 460.952 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State Corporatism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Proto-Industry: the Wrttemberg Black Forest, 1580?1797 )] TJ ET BT 341.984 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\). In )] TJ ET BT 452.300 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ebhausen is paired with Wildberg to increase sample size and to provide a glimpse at differences across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. Several features of the economic and institutional history of this region suggest themselves for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study. The Black Forest had a strong and variegated economy, with multiple ?industrial? activities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to agriculture. The growth of textile industry in the sixteenth century had led to so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialisation that the region depended on imports of raw materials and foodstuffs ? a very highly market-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oriented economy for the period. In addition, the institutional arrangements that shaped this economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differed dramatically from well-studied societies such as England or the Netherlands. Two institutions are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar to students of much of central Europe. Communities in Wrttemberg were quite strong, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively carried out their assigned tasks of regulating marriage, mobility, consumption, and many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of their citizens? lives. Guilds \(and guild-like merchant associations\) controlled the right to enter into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many occupations, some of them surprisingly non-industrial \(my favourite being ?serving as public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executioner?\). Between them, the communities and the guilds created a world that strictly limited life for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both males and females. Few males could live and work in Wildberg or Ebhausen without a guild license as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(master, journeyman or apprentice. In consequence, most men emigrated if they did not have a guild position, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which meant, in practice, if they were not the son of a guild member. Women could work in guilded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupations only if they were the wife of a master or if they were a guild master?s widow, and had inherited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his guild licence. Even work in non-guilded activities was often strictly regulated, with maximum wage rates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for men and for women, limits on gatherings of female workers in the evenings to share light, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prohibitions against work on the Sabbath.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two sources lie at the heart of this study. One is a ?soul table,? which lists every economically independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person and the number of his or her dependents for the single year of 1736. A source like this can only be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much use, however, since most women were not allowed to be economically independent. The more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingenious effort here focuses on minutes of church courts \()] TJ ET BT 316.952 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kirchenkonventsprotokolle)] TJ ET BT 446.936 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Church courts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrttemberg were responsible for all church and family matters, as well as for infractions related to work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Sabbath or holidays. Ogilvie extracted from the court records every mention of a man or woman carrying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out a work-related task. This exercise yielded 2,828 instances of someone working in a way that came to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention of the church court. About half the mentions deal with allegations about Sabbath-keeping. The rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention someone working as part of another issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living )] TJ ET BT 108.356 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uses the court records especially to construct a rich and nuanced portrait of how women )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7814 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earned their living, and the various obstacles they encountered in doing so. One might worry about all sorts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of bias inherent in such a source; for example, if church courts were more or less worried about women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violating the Sabbath, women would appear in Ogilvie?s database either too much or not enough. Her entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence cannot be summarised here, but a subtle and thorough discussion \(pp. 22?36\) of possible biases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinces this reviewer, at least, that the most likely biases are slight, and that in any case Ogilvie is fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alive to the limitations of her sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 105.356 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( considers a wide range of arguments about women?s work and women?s lives, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results cannot be condensed here without doing the book an injustice. Some central ideas will challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of other times and places, however. Ogilvie is skeptical of those who claim markets were bad for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women \(sometimes resort to the labour market was all that Wrttemberg afforded women who could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry, given the male emigration, and who could not operate their own businesses, given guild regulation\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She is equally skeptical of claims that markets always improved women?s lot; as she demonstrates, markets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be distorted into one more way for the community or the guild to extract surplus from women. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds technological explanations of women?s status over-drawn; true, women had some \(relative\) advantages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in home production, but she emphasises the role of regulations in keeping women in the household, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes the numerous instances where a woman ? sometimes well advanced in pregnancy ? was out doing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavy work some think only possible for men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of Ogilvie?s analytical emphasis focuses on the role of the communities and the guilds. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger stakes to this debate. As she notes, some fans of ?social capital? and all it entails have noted that early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern corporatist communities, and guilds in particular, share many of the features these fans would like to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreate in suburban America \(or Britain\) today. Another literature within economic history attributes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds a host of Good Things: product quality, training, technological advance, etc. Ogilvie will have none of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 55.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 55.016 457.443 m 69.008 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 69.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it is hard to believe that any reader of )] TJ ET BT 277.628 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 348.968 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will disagree with her conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the misery experienced by the Black Forest?s women can be attributed to the guilds? ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulate economic affairs to their own ? which is to say, to men?s ? benefit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One novel feature of this study is worth special mention. Most of the existing economic history of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focuses on work, incomes, asset-holding, etc. A very different literature stresses consumption and its role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s lives, but rarely as the twin of women?s production.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.640 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.640 374.163 m 345.632 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.632 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Throughout )] TJ ET BT 408.296 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 479.636 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we see the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sumptuary laws restricted women?s right to use their income as they saw fit, and more troubling, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes grossly unequal allocation of food and other resources within households. Women?s future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic historians would do well to keep this second half of the production/consumption issue in mind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regarding methodology, much of what Ogilvie does reflects the old-fashioned virtues of judicious use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources. \(Anyone who has tried to read the handwriting in early-modern German records will have a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the effort required to gather 2,800 instances of anything.\) There are, sadly, those who view such efforts as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of epistemological navet rather than the mark of a good historian, but this particular foolishness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not specific to women?s history. Her book raises two other issues that warrant some discussion in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, however.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One is her use of what some might call a ?case-study? method. Some earlier reviews of )] TJ ET BT 456.260 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 527.600 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the point that this area of Wrttemberg had special features that might make Ogilvie?s conclusions of little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance for other regions of Europe. The unstated claim behind such remarks is usually that some more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?typical? study area would have yielded different results. Ogilvie anticipates this claim, but the criticism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so common and specious that extended defence is worthwhile. The familiarity with context and sources that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes )] TJ ET BT 67.676 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 139.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( so effective is simply not possible for a scholar trying to deal with a larger region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the implication that some other place is more ?typical? is just fatuous. We know enough of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound regional variation in the European economies to know that no single place can stand for all, and, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any case, to criticise a particular locale as bizarre requires more specific knowledge of everywhere than we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can claim to have.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another, more reasonable complaint in this context cannot be lodged against Ogilvie, but is warranted in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 55.0157 457.7575 69.0077 469.6375 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.6397 374.4775 345.6317 386.3575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7509 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cases where scholars rely on close study of small regions. There is now such much rich historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on so many times and places in European history that there is little excuse for not setting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular place in a broader context through careful comparison to what is known about other areas, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both similar and dissimilar. Ogilvie, for example, frequently remarks on how Wildberg and Ebhausen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differed from other areas with slightly different guild organisation, which is a way of asking whether some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle quirk of local organisation had produced a true anomaly. She also compares Wildberg and Ebhausen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to very different areas, such as England or the Netherlands, where guild power had completed eroded by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-modern period. Thus we get, from both the original research reported in )] TJ ET BT 409.928 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 481.268 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s discussion of the rich secondary literature, a sense of what was and was not unusual about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best possible version of the criticism about case studies is that the trade-offs required to achieve this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of detail are not worthwhile; that we would, in fact, do better learning less about more. Perhaps there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are situations for which this is true, although I cannot think of any myself. But if we want to learn what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ogilvie delivers for early-modern Germany, then I see no alternative to the case-study approach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 105.356 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( raises a second methodological issue that is more directly connected to themes in women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. The heart and soul of this work is the rich evidence, but Ogilvie organises and interprets that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence using some of the basic ideas at the heart of orthodox economics. As she notes explicitly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental point of departure is that households allocate time across different activities to maximise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-being of the household?s members subject to the constraints imposed on choice by institutions such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds. Different household members will be better at some tasks than others for strictly biological reasons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but differences in returns to time spent may also differ because of institutional constraints, such as maximum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage rates, or restrictions on production in ?guilded? sectors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This approach, to my mind, accounts for much of her account?s persuasiveness. It permits her to distinguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between differences in work patterns that reflect differences in innate abilities \(such as biological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences\); abilities that reflect different life experiences \(such as formal training or education\); and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences that reflect institutional constraints. No fair-minded person will accuse her of over-simplifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters: a sophisticated understanding of the distortions introduced by community, guild, and state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation pervades the book. But much of what is fascinating here reflects the judicious use of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. Women?s relative advantages in some aspects of home production meant that they were always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(close to the margin whereby economic change could alter their decisions to increase or decrease production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the market. Making sense of this kind of idea ? and understanding how to interpret it, when found in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical record ? almost requires the economic framework that underlies the interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This approach has not featured heavily in women?s history, but when it has, a common line of criticism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to dismiss the effort as at best nave. One line of argument has been to say that if women did X )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of Y, it does not reflect a choice of X so much as a lack of any choice at all. Part of this criticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rests on a semantic confusion raised again below. But part of it illustrates the value of the case-study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach and how much it can tell us about particular times and places. Ogilvie devotes considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the way the Wildberg guilds ruled out some alternatives for women. But, as she insists, the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions did not make all decisions for women. Women could still choose from a small group of activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the household, and there was also, of course, a decision about home production, market production, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or production on household-held lands. There is an old joke to the effect that economics is all about having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices, and sociology is all about how we have no choices. Perhaps some economists tend to exaggerate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of choice available to women in the past, but that is no less useful than claiming choice did not exist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it clearly did. The right approach, of course, is to figure out what choices historical actors did have, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then learn what we can about their lives from the choices they actually made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second and more ideological criticism of this approach takes the claim that ?she thought X was better for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her than Y? and turns it into a straw man: ?she thought X was great?. The obviousness of this ploy has not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for reasons that escape me, reduced its popularity. For example, Joanna Bourke?s )] TJ ET BT 428.264 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Husbandry to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housewifery: Women, Economic Change, and Housework in Ireland, 1890?1914)] TJ ET BT 424.304 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1993\) documents )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6898 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a reduction in paid female labour in Ireland at the turn of the twentieth century. Rural women switched to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoting more time to household production and to the housewifery )] TJ ET BT 363.320 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 392.312 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and less time to the paid labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market. Bourke?s careful study cannot be detailed here, but she argues that underlying this shift was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily, a change in the Irish economy that reduced the rewards of paid labour for rural women relative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of household work. In her review of this book, Cliona Murphy claims ?One must question her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Bourke?s] premise. To what extent was it [the shift out of the labour market] a choice on the part of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to improve their ?well being,? and to what extent were women making the best of difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.652 695.283 m 126.644 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.644 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The distinction is meaningless. More importantly, it is a distraction from the real point: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke, like Ogilvie, never claimed that women were happy about their choices. A central theme in )] TJ ET BT 515.588 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Living)] TJ ET BT 64.688 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in fact, is the relentless and heartless willingness of the male citizens of Wildberg and Ebhausen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impose considerable hardship on women just to avoid even the )] TJ ET BT 338.648 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(possibility)] TJ ET BT 387.992 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of some reduction in their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-being. To say that women exercised considerable ingenuity and fortitude in contending with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstance is not a defense of how they were treated. It is just true.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bitter Living)] TJ ET BT 105.356 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a significant work that will rightly takes its place alongside works such as )] TJ ET BT 476.324 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Gender Gap)] TJ ET BT 111.332 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Scholars of early-modern Germany in particular and of the economic history of early-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe more generally, will profit from the author?s careful use of sources and sound comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives. But the larger implications of this work will be felt among women?s historians. Ogilvie has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mounted a powerful, if sometimes implicit, challenge to received understandings of women?s experience in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period and to the way scholars approach women?s history overall. One can only hope that others take up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that challenge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Ogilvie, 'How does social capital affect women? Guilds and communities in early modern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany', )] TJ ET BT 116.828 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 252.812 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 109 \(2004\), 325?359.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.132 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.132 432.435 m 416.120 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a recent example of work that studies the relationship between female earnings and allocations )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the household, see Carolyn M. Moehling, '"She has suddenly become powerful": youth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and household decision making in the early twentieth century', )] TJ ET BT 430.472 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 65.2, \(2005\), 414?438.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 375.411 m 269.324 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Murphy, ?Review of Joanna Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 258.320 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Husbandry to Housewifery: Women, Economic Change, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housework in Ireland, 1890?1914)] TJ ET BT 229.340 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 235.340 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 371.324 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 100 \(1995\), 906?907.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.644 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.644 346.899 m 534.632 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Ogilvie has no comment to add to this intelligent and penetrating review by Professor Guinnane, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who accurately represents the theoretical approaches and empirical findings of this book, and perceptively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws out their wider implications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 237.363 m 240.992 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 234.031 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 216.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 216.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/468)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 214.857 m 322.316 214.857 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 189.880 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2482)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.080 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=9448)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.6517 695.5975 126.6437 707.4775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.1317 432.7495 416.1197 444.6295 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 215.3357 375.7255 269.3237 387.6055 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.6437 347.2135 534.6317 359.0935 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 237.6775 240.9917 249.5575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=9448) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 215.1715 322.3157 227.0515 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/468) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000005008 00000 n 0000005118 00000 n 0000005227 00000 n 0000008788 00000 n 0000008916 00000 n 0000009000 00000 n 0000009065 00000 n 0000017013 00000 n 0000017104 00000 n 0000024971 00000 n 0000025001 00000 n 0000025127 00000 n 0000025163 00000 n 0000025193 00000 n 0000025321 00000 n 0000025357 00000 n 0000025422 00000 n 0000032984 00000 n 0000033103 00000 n 0000040054 00000 n 0000040084 00000 n 0000040212 00000 n 0000040248 00000 n 0000040376 00000 n 0000040431 00000 n 0000040559 00000 n 0000040614 00000 n 0000040742 00000 n 0000040797 00000 n 0000040924 00000 n 0000041024 00000 n 0000041152 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41247 %%EOF