%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R 64 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141225130540+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141225130540+00'00') /Title (The Stones of Naples. Church Building in Angevin Italy, 1266?1343) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4600 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Stones of Naples. Church Building in Angevin Italy, 1266?1343)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main aim of this book )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.012 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.012 286.185 m 178.004 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.004 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to provide a social history of the religious architecture commissioned in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom of Naples under three generations of French kings \(from the conquest of Charles of Anjou in 1266 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the death of his grandson, Robert the Wise in 1343\). Bruzelius?s research is firmly anchored in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture itself, with significant revisions of chronology and style, but her primary concern is to relate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buildings to the history of the kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A similar approach, but focusing on painting, informs the work of Ferdinando Bologna on the Angevin court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Naples, to which Bruzelius?s work can be seen as a complement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.612 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.612 188.649 m 373.604 188.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.604 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author?s purpose to deal not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with issues of form and function, but also conception and production, is ambitious. Bruzelius is conscious of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the difficulties of the task, as she acknowledges in the introduction: direct technical and architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis is often impossible, either because of the Baroque remodelling of interior spaces \(which, at times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely conceal all those elements ? mouldings, bases, capitals ? that allow the recreation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction process or the identification of an architect, master mason or sculptor\) or because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restorations following the devastating bombardments of 1943. By combining a thorough rereading of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published sources with a patient and detailed analysis of the physical fabric \(which justifies her choice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoting Ruskin?s book in her title\), the author brilliantly sets the material remains of Angevin architecture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their historical and social context, often convincingly challenging traditional concepts radically ingrained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(469)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caroline Bruzelius)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300100396X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Bolgia)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.0117 286.4995 178.0037 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.6117 188.9635 373.6037 200.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7216 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the main clichs tackled by Bruzelius is the idea that Angevin rulers in a Francophile court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced ? above all under Charles of Anjou ? French architecture executed by French architects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(builders. Having already devoted years of research to St Denis and the court of Louis IX, the author is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware that the traditional idea of a court style, one-sided, unchanging and dictated by the ruler, is a myth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along the lines of Paul Binski?s remarks on the court of the English kingdom )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.000 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.000 711.795 m 423.992 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.992 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Bruzelius provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of the patronage in the Angevin kingdom as varied, changeable and eclectic. Yet the difference with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the famously energetic builder kings of the thirteenth century, Louis IX of France and Henry III of England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not be more striking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the author?s great contributions is to demonstrate that the patronage in the kingdom of Naples was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not exclusively ?royal?: the role of mercantile and civic authorities, as well as of the ecclesiastical hierarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and urban elites, in shaping the aesthetic agenda of the kingdom vividly emerges from the pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruzelius?s book. Opposing the traditional view that tended generically to attribute much southern Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction to foreign architects, Bruzelius persuasively shows that, if the patronage was far from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely ?French?, the architects and workmanship were also mainly non-French and local. One of the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great strengths lies in the reconstruction of the ecclesiastical architecture of the kingdom as bilingual, based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a skilful combination of new Gothic signifiers \(pointed arches, window tracery, stained glass and crocket )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitals\), with local traditions, materials and building methods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author convincingly argues that if ?importation? did take place \(examples of ?pure? imported Gothic are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tomb of Isabelle of Aragon in Cosenza cathedral and parts of S. Eligio al Mercato in Naples\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial culture of the Angevins in Italy led to a standardisation and an ?ossification? of the imported Gothic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements, as attested in particular by the architectural detailing of S. Lorenzo Maggiore and the Cappella )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tocco in the cathedral of Naples. Also, the sovereigns were not the only source through which Gothic forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were introduced: another of Bruzelius?s merits is to focus the attention on the role of other forces ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mendicant Orders \(in particular the Franciscans\) and the Papal Curia \(filled with French Popes and clergy\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the process of transmission of Northern architectural ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of the book is roughly chronological, based on the assertion that the character and design of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches reflect the political tendencies of each reign. The volume is introduced by two plans \(of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kingdom and of Naples at the death of Robert the Wise in 1343\) and two very useful genealogical tables \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the House of Anjou and of the Norman Kings of Sicily and the House of Hohenstaufen\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter is dedicated to the religious buildings associated with Charles I, either by traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attribution or documentary evidence. The author challenges the frequent interpretation of Charles as a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patron of arts, who played a significant role in shaping church buildings in the kingdom, and reconstructs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him as a ?passive, incidental, or even ?accidental? patron of church building? \(p. 11\), who mainly provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands, or the rights to the use of forests and quarries, in response to specific requests. Bruzelius expunges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the buildings traditionally ascribed to Charles I?s patronage both the cathedral and the Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church of S. Lorenzo Maggiore in Naples. The most important religious commissions of Charles I remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the now-ruined Cistercian abbeys of Vittoria and Realvalle, for which rich documentation survives. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scaling down the role of Charles I as a patron of churches, the author simultaneously reassesses his role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the construction of secular buildings \(especially fortifications\) and the role of other figures in the patronage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ecclesiastical buildings, such as the Burgundian Archbishop of Naples Ayglerius and the three French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrons of S. Eligio al Mercato, who have been identified as members of the merchant community by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giovanni Vitolo in a forthcoming study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Along with issues of patronage, questions of topography, original dedication and the cult of the saints are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised and discussed. The author demonstrates that the churches constructed in the kingdom at the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I \(1266?1285\) reveal a simple and austere aesthetic choice, very different from the Rayonnant style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the contemporary Paris of Louis IX, and better compared with the earlier patronage of Charles I?s father )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or with Charles I?s own commissions in Provence \(S. Eligio al Mercato, in its lean and austere vocabulary )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 409.9997 712.1095 423.9917 723.9895 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8146 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and adoption of flat wall surfaces, resembles St-Jean-de-Malte at Aix-en-Provence, built in the 1270s for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burial of Charles?s first wife\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The choice to dedicate the entire second chapter to one church is understandable: Bruzelius deals here with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Franciscan S. Lorenzo Maggiore, one of the most studied and debated churches of the kingdom. Its ?aura )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Frenchness?, as the author calls it, due to the adoption of a choir with ambulatory and radiating chapels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has lead scholars to read this building as the most significant example of importation of French architectural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts by Angevin kings and as the product of Cistercian architectural ideas and workmanship \(from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royamount near Paris, through the mediation of Realvalle\). Bruzelius overturns accepted chronology to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that building activity preceded royal support. According to the author, construction was episodic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermittent, driven by the need for subsidiary altars for the friars and by the foundation of private family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapels for local donors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The architectural detailing of S. Lorenzo does not compare with what remains in Realvalle and the supports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the hemicycle have no Cistercian comparisons; the best parallel can be identified in the choir of S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francesco at Bologna \(which was a Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 262.292 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studium)] TJ ET BT 300.296 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, like S. Lorenzo\). Building on Schenkluhn?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations about the relationship between plans with ambulatory and radiating chapels and Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(studia)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.356 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.356 557.235 m 77.348 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.348 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Bruzelius convincingly reasserts the role of the Franciscans in the diffusion of northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural ideas in Italy. In the attempt to readdress the problem of the Franciscan contribution, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she goes too far: she attributes the chevet of S. Lorenzo to Franciscan expertise \(p. 60\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea that the chevet of S. Lorenzo is based on models used elsewhere within the Order is compelling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the author?s strong belief ?that the religious orders, and in particular the Franciscans, brought their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural experts to supervise and quite probably design the churches of their order? \(p. 158\) is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing. This suggestion has the merit of questioning the hitherto unchallenged leading role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cistercians builders as disseminators of Gothic forms in Italy; however, it would have been useful to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more evidence. Bruzelius promises to consider the issue of the Franciscan architectural vocabulary as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the final chapter of the book ?in relation to the startling consistency of moldings in the smaller Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches of Campania, a consistency that can be most sensibly explained as the work of itinerant Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural builders? \(p. 58\). Nevertheless, the last chapter simply contains the statement that a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repertoire of standard elements \(such as window mouldings\) were repeated from one Franciscan site to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another, in places such as Teano, Eboli, Nocera Inferiore, Nola and Aversa \(p. 158\). More visual evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support this assertion would have been helpful, and it should have been shown that such similarities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mouldings were exclusively limited to Franciscan sites. Without such evidence the similarities can be most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonably explained as the work of itinerant )] TJ ET BT 252.968 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(local)] TJ ET BT 276.968 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( architectural builders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a pity that two remarkable books that shed new light on the problem of Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 453.632 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maestranze)] TJ ET BT 508.292 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published almost simultaneously with Bruzelius?s book, and consequently the author could not include their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcomes in her volume.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.672 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.672 262.371 m 166.664 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 166.664 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Le Pogam?s book, in particular, contains significant well-documented examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of friar-architects and master masons working in the construction of public buildings, cathedrals or churches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrelated to their own order. Also, when Bruzelius mentions known examples of Franciscan artists, she just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records ?Fra Jacobo Torriti? \(p. 60\) as mosaicist in Rome and Filippo de Campello as architect at Assisi. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing so, she ignores the thorny debate about Jacopo Torriti, who ? according to some scholars ? was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friar, and ? according to others ? was both friar, architect and mosaicist.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.260 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.260 191.091 m 392.252 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.252 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As the question of Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise forms an important part of Bruzelius?s discussion, this debate should have been at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged in a footnote.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems that, when the author leaves the safe ground of the Angevin kingdom \(where she moves freely with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great competence and clarity\), her arguments become less convincing. It is the case of the discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tomb of Cardinal Philippe d?Alenon \(after 1397\) in S. Maria in Trastevere in Rome, used by Bruzelius as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison to support her hypothesis that the remains of frescoes \(a Nativity and a Dormition of the Virgin\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the west and east side of the south transept of S. Lorenzo in Naples were originally part of wall funerary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monuments \(pp. 63?64\). The d?Alenon tomb as it appears today is the result of a radical rearrangement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the remodelling of the south transept in 1584. The effigy figure, inscription and low-relief with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dormitio Virginis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.3557 557.5495 77.3477 569.4295 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.6717 262.6855 166.6637 274.5655 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.2597 191.4055 392.2517 203.2855 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are now to the left of the tomb, which includes non-pertinent parts. Bruzelius publishes a )] TJ ET BT 463.628 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing by Seroux )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d?Agincourt \(1730?1814\) as a testimony of how the monument originally looked, but she does not take into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account earlier drawings by Eclissi, showing that the monument was already in its present form in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century \(and, probably, as early as 1584\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.616 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.616 752.307 m 306.608 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.608 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Seroux d?Agincourt?s drawing, therefore, is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconvincing reconstruction: it is untenable to suppose that the Dormition relief appeared originally below )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the effigy of the Cardinal, as it is made to be seen from below and, within the medieval symbolic hierarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the image of the deceased Virgin )] TJ ET BT 195.308 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(below)] TJ ET BT 223.976 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that of a deceased man would have been inconceivable. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely that the d?Alenon tomb included a mural painting )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.660 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.660 695.283 m 337.652 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 337.652 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the whole idea of the scenes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nativity and Dormition in S. Lorenzo as parts of tombs is very problematical. Medieval wall sepulchral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monuments often included murals, but never ? to my knowledge ? scenes of Nativity: they usually showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kneeling deceased introduced to an enthroned Virgin and Child or an enthroned Christ by saints. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, throughout the book, this reader would have liked to have read more about painted or sculptural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programs, liturgical furniture and the cluster of tombs and altars that formed an integral part of the ?stones? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Naples. But this is literally to quibble at the edges of Bruzelius?s excellent book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter focuses on religious architecture during the reign of Charles II \(1285?1309\) and Mary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary. Unlike his father, Charles II \(upon his return from captivity in 1294\) was concerned with church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buildings, possibly because for circa fifty years there had been very few major religious construction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises in the kingdom. As the new political and administrative centre after the loss of Palermo, Naples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the recipient of most of the urban works and church projects, but other centres ? such as Lucera, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L?Aquila, Rossano, Gerace, Manfredonia, and Aversa ? were also involved in this intense building activity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, Bruzelius provides a well-documented reconstruction of all these architectural enterprises, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their nature and significance: they were profoundly different both from those associated with Charles II?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father in the kingdom and the contemporary ones in France \(including ? significantly ? Charles II?s major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commission at Saint-Maximin-la-Saint-Baume in Provence\), and were based on Roman and indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campanian models. In the case of the cathedral, the lavish deployment of spoils and the adoption of Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building techniques \()] TJ ET BT 135.344 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opus reticulatum)] TJ ET BT 216.344 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 239.672 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opus mixtum)] TJ ET BT 300.668 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and architectural features were a vivid reminder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the antiquity of the site and of the alleged apostolic foundation of the Church of Naples. Charles II and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop of Naples, Filippo Minutolo, must have been aware that, in the reconfiguration of Naples as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major European capital, the cathedral would play an important role in shaping the historical past of the city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The general plan type of the cathedral \(a long nave with compounded piers and a projecting transept with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two polygonal chapels flanking a polygonal apse\) is strikingly similar to that of other monuments erected by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles II: S. Domenico Maggiore in Naples, S. Domenico in L?Aquila and the cathedral of Lucera, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves bear a strong typological resemblance to the Dominican churches of Santa Maria sopra Minerva )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Rome and Santa Maria Novella in Florence. The author suggests possible explanations: a Dominican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of inspiration, or an architect with experience in a Dominican context, or the presence of a Dominican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural advisor or supervisor. The peculiar plan of Santa Maria Donnaregina, constructed for the Clares )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Mary of Hungary, introduces the important issue of the enclosed female community, which is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed in the chapter on Santa Chiara in Naples. In the case of Donnaregina, the adoption of a raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallery occupying the first four bays of the nave may be explained by the need to guarantee strict enclosure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in response to Boniface VIII?s bull of 1298 on the separation of religious female communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth chapter deals with religious buildings associated with Robert the Wise and his wife Sancia of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mallorca \(1309?1343\), therefore concentrating on the magnificent Franciscan double convent of Santa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chiara, the only surviving church from that time. Here, the location of the nuns? choir \(behind the flat end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wall of the church, with grated windows overlooking the main altar\) represents an interpretation of strict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enclosure in deliberate contrast to Donnaregina \(while in the latter the female community had no visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access to mass, in Santa Chiara they had a privileged view\). A thorough discussion of foundation and site, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with the analysis of the actual physical building and its historical context, lead the author to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the shift of royal attention away from the cathedral \(still under construction\) to Santa Chiara \(with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of the latter for state ceremonial and royal burial\) was probably part of a larger movement to shift the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centre of gravity in Naples towards the new elite quarters in the southwest, around Castel Nuovo and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.6157 752.6215 306.6077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.6597 695.5975 337.6517 707.4775 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8760 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arsenal, and, simultaneously, was part of a short-lived programme to propose a \(Spiritual\) Franciscan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to the authority of the papacy that had moved to distant Avignon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the fifth chapter Bruzelius provides a fascinating overview of civic and aristocratic patronage in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naples and the secondary courts of the kingdom. She vividly reconstructs the aristocratic families? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predilection and strong support for the Franciscan Order, as well as the role of both the protonotary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bartolomeo da Capua and Giovanni Pipino da Barletta, one of Charles II?s most trusted agents and advisors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in creating an architectural language, a ?rhetoric of building?, which responded to the specific situation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the kingdom in the different moments of its history. In the background of the activity of figures such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis of Taranto at Montevergine and Filippo Sangineto at Altomonte, or families such as the Filangieri at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nocera de? Pagani, the Orsini at Nola and the Della Ratta at Caserta Vecchia, the author paints a nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and multifaceted picture of the spiritual, cultural and politico-diplomatic interchange and collaboration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is completed by five appendices. The first provides a remarkable insight into the organisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour \(much of the workforce was conscripted, a typical aspect of royal workshops\), wages and building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices in the Angevin kingdom, based on the edited documents regarding Vittoria and Realvalle. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second and third appendices are very welcome for providing respectively a discussion of the Rufolo fine \(a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant source of funding for S. Lorenzo Maggiore\), and the transcription of the two 1283 texts referring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this fine. The fourth and fifth appendices, a list of churches and religious foundations in the kingdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dating from the mid thirteenth to the mid fourteenth centuries and a number of drawings of base profiles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will prove a useful tool for scholars and research students.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The quotation of primary \(and secondary\) sources is vital, and this reader would have liked more citations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the footnotes. This may, however, have been an editorial, rather than the authorial, choice. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other aspects of this handsome edition are to be highly praised: a magnificent body of illustrations \(both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colour and black and white\) lends visual support to Bruzelius?s arguments, while numerous plans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruction drawings clarify the different building phases and original appearance of the buildings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stones of Naples)] TJ ET BT 135.020 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an important contribution, distinguished by its intellectual balance, its common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense and its sensitive approach to problems: it is a book that should be read by every medievalist working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on social history or Gothic architecture, and will be an indispensable reference for both scholars and students.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 298.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Also available in Italian as )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.996 298.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le pietre di Napoli. L'architettura di Napoli religiosa nell'Italia angioina )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.996 296.817 m 553.508 296.817 l S BT 64.016 283.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1266?1343)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 282.561 m 118.016 282.561 l S BT 118.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Viella, Rome, 2005\), ISBN: 8-883-341-46-5, 60)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.016 282.387 m 362.660 282.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.660 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 379.652 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.652 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.652 282.387 m 436.640 282.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferdinando Bologna, )] TJ ET BT 168.344 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(I pittori della corte angioina di Napoli: 1266?1414)] TJ ET BT 414.692 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Saggi e Studi di Storia )] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dell?Arte, 2, Rome, 1969\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 192.332 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 192.332 253.875 m 246.320 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Binski, ?The Cosmati at Westminster and the English Court Style?, )] TJ ET BT 415.016 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Art Bulletin)] TJ ET BT 471.356 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 52 \(1990\), 6?33; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Binski, )] TJ ET BT 125.696 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets: Kingship and the Representation of Power, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1200?1400)] TJ ET BT 118.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, Conn. and London, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 314.648 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 314.648 211.107 m 368.636 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 198.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfgang Schenkluhn, )] TJ ET BT 177.668 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordines studentes: Aspekte zur Kirchenarchitektur der Dominikaner und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Franziskaner im 13. Jahrhundert )] TJ ET BT 226.340 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berlin, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.332 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.332 182.595 m 351.320 182.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 169.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise Bourdua, )] TJ ET BT 147.008 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Franciscans and Art Patronage in Late Medieval Italy )] TJ ET BT 432.656 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre-Yves Le Pogam, )] TJ ET BT 179.324 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les matres d?oeuvre au service de la papaut dans la seconde moiti du XIIIe )] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sicle)] TJ ET BT 91.340 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Collection de l?cole Franaise de Rome, 337, Rome, 2004\), pp. 49?72. See also Joanna )] TJ ET BT 64.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cannon, ?Sources for the Study of the Role of Art and Architecture within the Economy of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mendicant Convents of Central Italy: A Preliminary Survey?, in )] TJ ET BT 375.320 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?economia dei conventi dei frati )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minori e Predicatori fino alla met del Trecento, Atti del XXXI Convegno Internazionale, Assisi 9?11 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(October 2003)] TJ ET BT 130.340 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Spoleto, 2004\), pp. 217?62, esp. pp. 253?58.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.656 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.656 82.803 m 405.644 82.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 69.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the scholars who do not believe that Torriti was a friar: Gerhart Burian Ladner, )] TJ ET BT 485.264 69.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die )] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papstbildnisse des Altertums und des Mittelalters )] TJ ET BT 304.688 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3 vols, Vatican City, 1941?84\), ii, 237 and 245; )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 194.9957 296.9575 197.9957 308.8375 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.viella.it/Edizioni/LibriViellaArte/LibriViellaArte_09.htm) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.0157 282.7015 362.6597 294.5815 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.viella.it/Edizioni/LibriViellaArte/LibriViellaArte_09.htm) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.9957 296.9575 553.5077 308.8375 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.viella.it/Edizioni/LibriViellaArte/LibriViellaArte_09.htm) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 282.7015 118.0157 294.5815 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.viella.it/Edizioni/LibriViellaArte/LibriViellaArte_09.htm) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.6517 282.7015 436.6397 294.5815 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 192.3317 254.1895 246.3197 266.0695 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 314.6477 211.4215 368.6357 223.3015 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.3317 182.9095 351.3197 194.7895 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.6557 83.1175 405.6437 94.9975 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R ] /Contents 65 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Length 4323 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlo Bertelli, ?L?Enciclopedia delle Tre Fontane?, )] TJ ET BT 315.296 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paragone)] TJ ET BT 362.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 235 \(1969\), 24?49; Alessandro Tomei, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Un frammento ritrovato dal mosaico del monumento di Bonifacio VIII in S. 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