%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721165257+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721165257+01'00') /Title (The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3867 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Kaiser and His Court: Wilhelm II and the Government of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it first appeared in hardback in 1994, John Rohl's remarkable collection of essays won the Wolfson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Prize. And clearly it deserved to. This is how history should be written--with lucidity and originality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displaying on every page the workings of an inquiring mind, one that has examined and re-examined all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available sources to reach its own, independent conclusions. Rohl deserves the congratulations of the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical profession for his research, for anyone interested in the history of modern Germany now stands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanently in his debt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His main conclusion regarding Wilhelmine Germany is that from 1897 it was run as a "functioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy" with power concentrated in the hands of one man \(thought by many who knew him to be mad\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that, as a result, "the Kaiser, the royal family, the Kaiser's circle of friends, the [imperial entourage and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court form[ed] the heart of this system on which the very highest officials of the Reich and state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy \(as well as the leaders of the army and the navy\) were psychologically dependent." The Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chancellor could therefore become, in Bulow's phrase, merely "the executive tool of His Majesty, so to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak, his political Chief of Staff" with the result that "the restoration under Kaiser Wilhelm II of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(47)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 January, 1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Rhl)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521565042)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CUP)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cup.cam.ac.uk/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521565042)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Sked)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7425 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely functioning monarchy claiming legitimation by Divine Right one hundred years after the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution was even more forced, artificial, anachronistic [and] grotesque" \(than the government of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany had been under Bismarck.\) Rohl proves this by examining not merely the character of the Kaiser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his court, but by analysing the roles of the higher civil service, the armed forces, the diplomatic service )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the "kingship mechanism" which held the whole system together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Rohl, the new system emerged in stages: the period 1888-1890 was dominated by the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the 'all-powerful" Bismarck; the years 1890-1897 were ones of transition from an "improvised" to "an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalised personal rule" \(the latter phrase borrowed from the German constitutional historian, Huber\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period 1897 -1908 represented Bulow's promised "personal rule in the good sense" \(i.e. with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation of a sycophantic Chancellor\), a period which may well have extended till 1914 \(Rohl calls for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more research here\); while during the First World War, Rohl agrees with the historical consensus that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilhelm was merely a "shadow emperor".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almost all the controversial legislation of the Wilhelmine period, according to Rohl, can be traced back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Kaiser's own initiative. Such legislation included the Lex Heinze of 1891 against prostitution; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education laws announced in his speech of December 1890; the great Army Law of 1893 which the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minister was simply "commanded" to prepare through a Flgeladjutant on the third anniversary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaiser's accession to the throne; the moderate trade treaties and customs tariffs of the early 1 890s and again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a decade later, which the Kaiser demanded despite the extreme demands of the East Elbian landed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility; although the best examples of the Kaiser's personal rule, according to Rohl, were "the social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist policies, the gigantic fleet-building programme and the Prussian canal policy." The building of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fleet was, of course, to have tremendous consequences driving Great Britain into the arms of Russia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France and thus helping Germany lose the First World War. Yet even Admiral von Hollman, the Secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of State in the Reich Navy Office admitted in 1896 "that there [were] not as many as ten people in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reichstag in favour of the great future fleet plans" while Tirpitz himself wrote to the Grand Duke of Baden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1903 that "genuine enthusiasm among the people and therefore also among their parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives is lacking for the vigorous development of our forces at sea.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was little wonder, therefore, that by 1902 Maximilian Harden was writing in Die Zukunft that "the Kaiser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(was\) his own Reich Chancellor" and that "all the important decisions of the past twelve years [had] been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by him." The situation was such that no high-ranking minister, army or naval officer, courtier or civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servant would risk disagreeing with the Kaiser in case he dismissed them- negative personal rule" in John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rohl's phrase. Thus Bulow once told Holstein: "I cannot consider it useful to make suggestions to His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Majesty the Kaiser which have no prospect of actual success and only make him annoyed with me." Tirpitz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise informed the Grand Duke of Baden regarding a hoped-for intervention: "I would be worsening my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position in relation to H. M. for a subsidiary aim without any hope of success." Wilhelm did not even like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers to submit their own resignations--that showed too much independence- although a frosty glance, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curt dismissal, a lack of conversation or an imperial contradiction might all be motives for resignation none )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the less. In the end courtiers, diplomats, civil servants and officers all became sycophants. Amongst the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaiser's most intimate circle, this sycophancy could take the strangest forms--with one mediatised imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(count allowing himself to be led before the Kaiser imitating a poodle "with a marked rectal opening" while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chief of the Military Cabinet could dance before him dressed in a tutu and a feather hat. Bulow, none the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less, could justify the regime before the Reichstag in 1903 with the words: "The German people do not want )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a shadow Kaiser, the German people want a Kaiser made of flesh and blood. ")] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The one they got was probably mad. Certainly, he always remained immature, with one courtier complaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1908: "he is a child and will always remain one." He was also an egomaniac with a complete over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimation of his own abilities which he loved to talk about. Unfortunately these did not include a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality, for he saw things only as he wished. Thus the French and English were once described in a racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diatribe as " not Whites at all but Blacks" while Jesus of Nazareth, he claimed, "had never been a Jew." Nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did he have any sense of proportion or moderation, always calling for revenge on enemies who had to die or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be punished, since he hated all sorts of groups and classes, not to mention individuals such as his parents. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His sense of humour, perhaps not surprisingly therefore, included hitting, beating, stabbing or otherwise )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7301 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humiliating colleagues and servants. As far as his sex life was concerned, he had innumerable affairs with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes before ascending the throne in 1888, after which time he became more interested in men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly- soldiers. Whether he was an active homosexual is open to dispute - although Harden believed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he had hard evidence. What is not open to dispute is that through his close friend Count Philipp zu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eulenburg and his circle, he did mix mainly with homosexuals. Indeed, Rohl comments: "It is indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbing to reflect that the generals who took Germany and Europe into the Armageddon of 1914 not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrequently owed their career to the Kaiser's admiration for their height and good looks in their splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniforms.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet homosexuality, repressed or not, was not the fundamentally disturbing fact of the Kaiser's life. That was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, his physical and mental problems. He had a withered left arm and was later to suffer deafness in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right ear. The most important fact, however, was that he suffered from growths and discharges in the inner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ear near the brain, a condition which drove him al most mad. Lord Salisbury thought him "not quite normal", )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Edward Grey, "not quite sane". Other European dignitaries thought him "mentally ill" or having "a screw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loose." Leading German princes and statesmen felt the same, with Bismarck explaining that he had only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to remain in office after 1888 because he knew of Wilhelm's "abnormal mental condition", )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which even Eulenburg was shocked and frightened by. Indeed, on one occasion Eulenburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded: "Pale, ranting wildly, looking restlessly about him and piling lie upon lie, he made such a terrible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression on me that I still cannot get over it.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such Hitler-like rages made Eulenburg predict an imperial nervous breakdown, something, however, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never occurred. Still, there were occasions when rumours spread that the Kaiser would have to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed--again, something which never actually took place. Fits of rage, unfortunately, were not the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic that the Kaiser shared with Hitler. Full-blooded anti-Semitism was another and Rohl makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfectly clear that Wilhelm II had nothing to learn in this respect from the Fuhrer. If, like Hitler, he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish friends as a youth, he later turned on the Jews as Germany's most deadly enemy, informing Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Grey, for example, in 1907 that "They want stamping out." He also believed in a international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy of Jewish capitalists and communists - the Golden International, blaming the First World War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany's defeat and his own - abdication on an international} conspiracy of Jewish freemasons, so that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exile in Holland his anti-Semitism reached fever pitch. In 1919 he wrote to General von Mackensen: "Let no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German.... rest until these parasites have been destroyed and exterminated." He called for an international, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian-style pogrom against them condemning them as a "nuisance" that humanity must in some way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroy. Then in his own hand, he added: " I believe the best would be gas." It was altogether natural, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, that, before he died in June 1941, he welcomed Hitler's victories as confirmation of the fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualities of the troops of 1914-1918. He boasted: " The hand of God is creating a new World and working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(miracles....We are becoming a U.S. of Europe under German leadership, a united European Continent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobody ever hoped to see.....The Jews are being \(sic\) thrust out of their nefarious positions in all countries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom they have driven to hostility for centuries.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rohl also believes that, like Hitler, the Kaiser was responsible for starting a world war. His analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1912 War Council makes clear that the people who counted were the Kaiser's naval and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends and that the civilian leaders--the Chancellor and the Foreign Secretary-- took second place. As a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result, the 1913 Army Bill was pushed through, naval plans for war against Britain were prepared, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stockpiling of gold and fodder was approved and the course set for war in 1914 when the Kiel Canal would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be ready - as Tirpitz demanded. Moltke, of course, wanted war straight away. Rohl makes clear that, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early doubts, the Kaiser gave unconditional support to Austria during the First Balkan War and was ready to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unleash a world war to defend Austria- Hungary's position in the Balkans. In short the "blank cheque" of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914 was ready for delivery as soon as the other preparations were completed. Rohl doesn't say so in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, but I know from seminar discussions with him, that he suspects that Berlin may even have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind Franz Ferdinand's assassination at Sarajevo in 1914.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other main point of Rohl's book is the importance of court society for both the Kaiser and the "kingship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanism." If, once again, there are parallels here with Hitler's Reich, Rohl does not make them. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he is concerned to demonstrate in great detail how anachronistic imperial Germany was at the top. Thus, in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7562 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of the civil list, it proved to be the most monarchical society in the entire world, for with an income )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from state revenue of 2.2 million marks annually, the court of Kaiser Wilhelm II cost more than the Reich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chancellor, the Reich Chancellery, the Foreign Office \(including the whole of the diplomatic corps and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consular service\), the Colonial Office and the Reich Justice Administration put together. To compare this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with foreign monarchies, Rohl points out that Edward VII received only the equivalent of 11.6 million marks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(per annum, with only Franz Joseph of Austria-Hungary receiving a nearly equal sum of 19.2 million marks. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(The King of Italy received 12.8 million.\) Yet, as Rohl reminds us, within the boundaries of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany were to be found around twenty other courts whose own civil lists were substantial. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bavarian court with 5.4 million marks and the Saxon court with 4.2 million stood at eighth and ninth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in the world respectively immediately after Japan. Altogether these other courts received about 20 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million marks in state subsidies leaving the Germans to pay around 42 million marks in taxes for courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Kaiserreich. The British meanwhile paid only a quarter of that for a court which was the centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a world empire. Altogether the Prussian-German court under Wilhelm II employed at least 3,500 officials of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom 2,320 were salaried. Together they formed a huge and prestigious body, far larger than the Prussian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Reich bureaucracy combined, with many diverse functions. The court itself divided members into 62 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different grades \(the Austrian and Saxon courts had five, the Bavarian three\) and the system of court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precedence was a matter of the greatest importance to aristocrats. Not that everyone was impressed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise and endless ceremonial. The younger Moltke wrote in 1905, for example, of the court: "....it is as if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dead had risen up complete with pigtails and powder. " Still, many of those excluded from it, would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done practically anything to join it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is now time to consider Rohl's work more critically. It seems to m e that there are three aspects of it which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompt questions. First, does he not exaggerate its uniqueness? Secondly, has he taken it out of t h e wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of German social and political history? Finally, can his Fischerite -views on Germany?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for the outbreak of World War One be supported? Regarding the first question, Rohl's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion that "historically speaking this attempt by the Wilhelminians to introduce, on the threshold of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century, a monarchy by the grace of God with a neo-absolutist court culture can probably be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared only with the absolutist designs of Charles I of England, who was beheaded in the middle of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil War in January 1649, or with Charles X of France, who had to flee abroad after the bloodless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution of July 1830, however wanting such comparisons are bound to be'', strikes me as preposterous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does he think the Habsburg Monarchy was run under Franz Joseph or imperial Russia under Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II? Both had anachronistic courts, both considered they ruled by the grace of God, neither believed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism, neither was particularly bright, both were prepared to risk world war, and both kept a tight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command on their armed forces. It would also be enlightening to know what proportion of their state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenues were devoted to their courts. Would the picture in terms of percentage of GDP have been very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from the one for Wilhelm's Germany? Even the example of Napoleon III might have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant and less distant in time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to internal German developments, Rohl is, in my view, on firmer ground. Wehler's model of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany run by the "anonymous forces of authoritarian polycracy" does not very evidently fit the facts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decisions after all, in any polity, have to b e taken by real individuals and in the case of imperial Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rohl has shown that the most important ones were mainly taken by the Kaiser. The anonymous forces, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other hand, seem to have been the elites who surrounded him but who failed to make their voices heard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or to offer any political opposition. Nor can any weight be lent to Volker Berghahn's view that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracy and other groups took control of the country during the second half of Wilhelm's reign. Neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holstein papers, the Eulenburg papers, Walter Peter Fuch?s' edition of reports from the envoys of Baden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Berlin, nor the works of distinguished historians such as Hull, Lerman and Afflerbach support such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion. Nor did foreign diplomats notice that the influence of the Kaiser had been undermined. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is perhaps a case for agreeing with David Blackburn's judgment in his recent Fontana history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany that Rohl "may be pressing the case a little hard." He might for example have pointed to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable vigour of popular politics in Wilhelmine Germany with turn-outs for Reichstag elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measuring 84% in 1912 and 94.2% in a by-election in 1913. There was also a brisk trade in tickets for seats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Reichstag gallery. The rise of the SPD and the popular press might also have been investigated. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5632 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps Rohl's book could have been profitably rounded off with a chapter putting the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("kingship mechanism" into the wider context of politics at large with a view to demonstrating the tensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that arose from operating such a system in an emerging democracy, albeit a pseudo-democracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was the result, for example, the need to wage a war in order to win popular approval? It is here that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confront the Fischer thesis with which Rohl agrees and which he believes most historians now accept. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally am a great admirer of Fischer, but I would hesitate to state that he has won the argument. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, I would like more emphasis given to the situation in Vienna, where the Emperor Franz Joseph was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly guilty of deliberately starting a war. His main reasons, were great power politics and the need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserve imperial honour. Why then did Wilhelm give him a blank cheque? Clearly, the decision-making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes were not all that different in Berlin, nor indeed, were the motives. The same, I think goes for St. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petersburg. None of the monarchs involved felt that he could suffer or honourably survive a diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setback. But were issues of domestic policy primary? And was war inevitable? Fischer \(and Rohl\), I believe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are correct in pointing to German plans for war and aggression and for demonstrating the secondary weight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Bethmann-Hollweg. On the other hand, Wilhelm in July 1914 - just as during the First Balkan War - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved capable of changing his mind and was probably not thinking primarily of domestic forces at all. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if Austria-Hungary and Germany been constitutional monarchies in 1914, I think the risk of world war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking out would have been grave.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, a few thoughts on continuity in German foreign policy. The more one reads Rohl, the more one is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressed by the similarities between the Kaiser and Hitler. Even the court system was in many ways a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prelude to the Third Reich where courtiers like Goering, Goebbels, and Himmler all competed for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fuhrer's favour, there being no alternative bureaucratic system. Hitler's anti-Semitism, his war aims, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rages etc. were all frighteningly similar to the Kaiser's. Still, as Rohl wisely points out; "the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not have t o come. " Friedrich III might have survived; Wilhelm I might have died much sooner, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing liberalism a chance to flourish in Germany under his son rather than a personal rule under his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandson. On the other hand, these similarities between the Kaiser and Hitler cannot simply be dismissed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincidences. Hitler, after all was a product of both the Habsburg Monarchy and Wilhelmine Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however unfair that may seem to the latter. His ideals were those of many young Germans, even if his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination and anti-Semitism dwarfed theirs. He was the product not only of his own personality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genes, but of his time and place. That he, at one end of the social scale in German Europe, could develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views so similar to Wilhelm's at the other indicates that there remains a need for an intellectual dimension to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial history that today may sound rather old-fashioned. None of this, however, is meant to detract from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Rohl's excellent book. Rarely have I enjoyed reading a collection of essays so much. Rarely have I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yearned for more. Perhaps a second edition will deliver further chapters for our enlightenment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 256.783 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 239.003 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 239.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/47)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 237.609 m 316.316 237.609 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 212.632 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/380)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 237.9235 316.3157 249.8035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/47) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004577 00000 n 0000004686 00000 n 0000004796 00000 n 0000004905 00000 n 0000008466 00000 n 0000008594 00000 n 0000008678 00000 n 0000008743 00000 n 0000016221 00000 n 0000016286 00000 n 0000023640 00000 n 0000023705 00000 n 0000031320 00000 n 0000031404 00000 n 0000037089 00000 n 0000037217 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37311 %%EOF