%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140820005028+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140820005028+01'00') /Title (Making Sense of the Census Revisited. Census Records for England and Wales, 1801?1901. A Handbook for Historical Researchers) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4080 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Making Sense of the Census Revisited. Census Records for England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Wales, 1801?1901. A Handbook for Historical Researchers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eddy Higgs?s work on the census is much valued, not least because he is both a working, researching and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing historian as well as an experienced archivist. This is a revised and extended version of an earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, and readers will recognise much from earlier versions and points Higgs has made in a variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations. However I want to review this as if it were a new book. This is because it should be read not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by people like me who ought to have listened more carefully when we were first told these things, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the main audience ought to be the great numbers of graduate historians, community and family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who come to the census enumeration manuscripts as the Holy Grail of modern history. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs careful reading and has implications far beyond the census itself. Indeed, it should have a place in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the increasing number of ?training? courses for historians, for the book has lessons not just for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who would use the documents, printed and archived, of the census in England and Wales, but also for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who might use a wide variety of particular instance papers. The careful account of the creation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of the records, their interpretation and analysis, and of issues of research design could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to many structured and semi-structured record types, such as wills, court records and poor law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Higgs continually makes the reader aware that the census was never and could never be an objective account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(470)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Higgs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300100396X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(244pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institute of Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Morris)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7794 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the population. His account of the background makes brief reference to issues of ?governmentality? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?liberal citizenship? but in the main the historian is invited to see the creation of the census with reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very practical matters: the military strength of Britain, worries over the poor and poor law, the needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actuarial science and of public health enquiries, and later of eugenics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A large part of the book focuses on the problems of interpretation and the imperfections of the census. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes people simply got things wrong. Many did not know their age or place of birth. Others would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mislead, thinking that the document might be used to check up on a child working under age. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting is and was the struggle of the census makers to place their information within ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints of value and perception. The notion of a ?house? was fine in a middle-class terrace or even a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back-to-back, but in tenements and sub-divided properties the notion of a ?house? became very flexible. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Higgs feels that distinctions were easier in the countryside, the presence of living-in farm servants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in the north of England, probably created equally porous boundaries between house and house. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same went for family and household. It was not until 1861 that the notion of commensality was used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(try and bring some order to the boundaries of families and households. Even this was an artefact of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census. We need to extend this discussion as our notion of family and kin is still very much dominated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census and household studies. My recent studies of wills, for example, indicated that the notion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended family was crucial to individual life course strategies but was combined with rather than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antithetical to nuclear family based strategies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.976 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.976 540.723 m 267.968 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 267.968 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The census record can be a prison as much as a guide for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian of family and household structures and cultures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.644 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.644 526.467 m 341.636 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A large and valuable part of this book is full of warnings of the imperfections and potential distortions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census record. This is especially important as the census records still carry with them the aura of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical movement with its search for facts and objectivity. At the same time it is important not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mesmerised by this. It is part of the historian?s task, with any class of record, to think through the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised by the distorting lens of the record and evaluate the risks taken. The social scientist?s notion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept and indicator needs to be brought forward here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is especially true in the section on occupation and occupational classification. More emphasis needs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be given to the manner in which the census record does not give an occupation, it attributes an occupational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title to an individual, perhaps as a result of a claim by that individual or a ?head of household?. As Higgs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out this raised all sorts of issues, especially in relationship to seasonal work, multiple occupations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered ideologies of women?s occupational status as well as the meaning of the title ?servant?. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable work has been done on occupational titles since the 1970s, the issues raised again need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken further. When nominal information from a variety of records is linked, for example, from commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directories, poll books as well as census records, it is clear that many records have a high probability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating to the same person \(all nominal record linkage is probabilistic\), but show different occupational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles. The merchant or the solicitor became a ?gentleman? and the cabinetmaker became a ?second hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furniture dealer?. The very necessary task of occupational categorisation or classification makes matters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even more complex. The printed census itself provided some tempting help in the printed reports, but moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from groupings based upon materials worked with, to one based upon industrial output and upon a concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of status closely related to eugenic enquiries about fertility and death. Higgs offers a sympathetic critique of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the so-called Booth-Armstrong classification which is still often used in local studies. We have come a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way since the 1970s in understanding occupational titles and classifications. It is crucial that the historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins the choice of classification by defining his or her own purpose and interest, and by admitting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some sort of multi-dimensional coding may be required to get best value from the information implied by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupational titles.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 146.067 m 156.332 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 156.332 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Only then should the possibility of adopting a widely used existing system be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered for comparative purposes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are many other goods things in this book. There is a list of the days on which the census was taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1841 and 1901 and a nice lecture on the administrative and geographical areas used in the census. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All very tedious until the historian needs to know. If the impact of seasonality is a concern, which census )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was taken in June? \(The answer is on p.167.\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.9757 541.0375 267.9677 552.9175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.6437 526.7815 341.6357 538.6615 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 146.3815 156.3317 158.2615 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 3336 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an invaluable and very welcome book. It will be widely used for reference and in teaching. No-one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should use the printed or manuscript records with any seriousness without having a copy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 735.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 704.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. J. Morris, )] TJ ET BT 127.352 704.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men, Women and Property in England, 1780-1870)] TJ ET BT 371.324 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.644 704.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.644 703.299 m 522.632 703.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 690.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Leonore Davidoff and others,)] TJ ET BT 226.304 690.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Family Story. Blood, Contract and Intimacy, 1830-1960)] TJ ET BT 519.956 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esp. pp.1-50, for an account of the break out from this 'prison'. The work of anthropologists on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluidity of notions of family and kin is also crucial, see ed. Janet Carsten, )] TJ ET BT 417.644 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Relatedness)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 646.275 m 212.324 646.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. J. Morris, ?Occupational Coding: Principles and Examples?, )] TJ ET BT 371.324 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Research/Historische Sozialforschung)] TJ ET BT 247.676 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 \(1990\), pp.3?29; )] TJ ET BT 351.332 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Use of Occupation in Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Analysis)] TJ ET BT 104.684 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Kevin Shrer and Herman Diederiks \(Max Planck-Institut fr Geschichte, St Katharinen, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 589.251 m 149.000 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Professor Morris for this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 519.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 501.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 501.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/470)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 499.977 m 322.316 499.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 475.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2486)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.6437 703.6135 522.6317 715.4935 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 646.5895 212.3237 658.4695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 589.5655 148.9997 601.4455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 500.2915 322.3157 512.1715 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/470) >> endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000620 00000 n 0000000702 00000 n 0000004834 00000 n 0000004943 00000 n 0000005053 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000008723 00000 n 0000008851 00000 n 0000008935 00000 n 0000009033 00000 n 0000016880 00000 n 0000016910 00000 n 0000017038 00000 n 0000017074 00000 n 0000017104 00000 n 0000017232 00000 n 0000017268 00000 n 0000017298 00000 n 0000017426 00000 n 0000017462 00000 n 0000017567 00000 n 0000020956 00000 n 0000021084 00000 n 0000021139 00000 n 0000021267 00000 n 0000021322 00000 n 0000021449 00000 n 0000021504 00000 n 0000021632 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 21727 %%EOF