%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818072208+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818072208+01'00') /Title (Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3980 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first glance, Virginia DeJohn Anderson?s )] TJ ET BT 250.976 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creatures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 349.640 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a welcome addition to the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the environmental history of early America; on closer observation, the work is very much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than this. Indeed, it is more a cultural history than an environmental history. Focusing on the first seventy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five years of English colonisation, Anderson examines the ways in which ?animals not only produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in the land but also in the hearts and minds and behavior of the peoples who dealt with them? \(p. 5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At one level, little of the study is intrinsically new. For several years historians, including Anderson herself, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have examined the role of the colonists? livestock in provoking confrontations between settlers and Indians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in New England. Nor does Anderson exploit previously underused source material; indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work relies almost exclusively on published personal accounts and town and colony records. What is new is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the masterful way in which Anderson analyses ?details of life so ordinary that they have rarely been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered the stuff of history? \(p. 7\) to present a highly original study of the development of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work is divided into three sections. Part 1, ?Thinking about animals?, examines the contrasting ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about animals held by Native Americans and colonists. Native Americans viewed themselves as part of, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(471)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia DeJohn Anderson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(195158601X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Ward)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7273 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than distinct from, the natural world. In Indian languages, for instance, there was no word to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish ?animals? in general from humans, simply words to identify separate species. Native Americans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with animals was largely reciprocal, reflecting the belief that many creatures possessed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own spiritual power or manitou. For English colonists, in contrast, animals were property over which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a biblically ordained right to assert dominion; they were an economic resource to be manipulated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 2, ?Settling with animals?, examines the development of English livestock husbandry in seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century North America. When English settlers first arrived they saw an untamed wilderness waiting to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilised. Central to this ?civilisation? was the introduction of European agricultural practices, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introduction of livestock. The cow more than any other animal, requiring constant attention and care, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing meat, milk and manure, symbolised English agricultural superiority. Not only would the landscape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become civilised, but most settlers believed that by converting Indians into herdsmen of cattle they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly become settled and civilised. New World conditions soon began to challenge these presumptions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English settlers had imagined that they would replicate patterns of agriculture from England. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high cost and chronic shortage of manual labour meant that colonists were forced to allow their animals to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roam free in the woods, rather than penning them into enclosed fields. Soon the colonists? free-range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbandry came almost to resemble the Indians? hunting of wild animals, rather than the Indians coming to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resemble English farmers. Even the animals themselves became wild, with herds of feral hogs roaming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 3, ?Contending with animals?, examines the conflicts which developed between colonists and Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over livestock. By the second half of the seventeenth century, as English herds, and English colonies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded, conflicts with Indians increased. Initially, there was hope that some form of mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodation could be reached, but as the number of English animals increased, so the instances of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals trespassing on Indian fields or of Indians killing feral hogs or cows increased. Indians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishmen began to clash over a wide range of issues from the marking of animals to compensation for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss of animals or crops. As Indians became more accustomed to English ways and more accustomed to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals, they became less tolerant of English abuses and less inclined to accept the rulings of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts. Finally, along the entire frontier, from New England to the Chesapeake, Indians began to retaliate by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing and maiming animals. Eventually these disputes escalated into King Philip?s War in New England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bacon?s Rebellion in the Chesapeake and resulted in Indians being forced from their homelands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the work Anderson examines several core issues. The first of these is the role of animals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and society. Animals were central to the lives of both Englishmen and Indians. Practices of animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbandry dictated the rhythms of life in English villages and English towns. Livestock farmers typified the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English ideal of the civilised man. ?They were prudent and well-organised, following rigorous daily and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasonal routines dictated by climate, habit, economic goals, and their livestock?s needs. They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economical, saving table scraps for hogs and manure for their fields, as well as experimental, adopting new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture techniques? \(p. 89\). In towns, artisans would supplement their meagre wages by raising a hog or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two, or keeping a cow, even in the centre of London. Animals were also central to the lives of Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans but in a slightly different way. Hunting provided an important source of food and calories for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian peoples of north-eastern America. Some villagers even moved on a seasonal basis to make the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of the available resources. However, hunting was not a pure exploitation of animal resources, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Indian culture animals possessed a spiritual power that was recognised by important rituals when hunting. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunting was thus a reciprocal rather than an exploitative process, in which animal spirits were honoured and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarded.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These differences reflected a fundamentally different view of the importance of animals in Indian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English culture. The English were interested in taming and domesticating animals. Indeed, taming a wild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animal gave a degree of ownership over the animal. Ownership of animals was a concept completely alien to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native Americans. North America?s Indians had no important domesticated animals before contact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeans. In part, this was simply an accident of geography; North America had lacked suitable animals for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestication. Native Americans had, at least partially, managed to domesticate dogs, but they roamed semi-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7295 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wild around Indian villages, and to English eyes their similarity to wolves was proof of the Indians? inability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to domesticate any animal. Englishmen and Native Americans both saw hunting as an enjoyable and worthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit, although Native Americans would not have understood the concept of hunting merely for sport. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, to many Englishmen hunting was an aristocratic pursuit not one which could unify all the men of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a village. Indeed, the Game Act of 1605 had set strict property qualifications for hunters. An Englishman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed an annual income of at least 40 from land or the ownership of goods worth 200 to be allowed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunt. The law even went so far as to prohibit those with insufficient property from owning hunting guns or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunting dogs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowhere were these fundamental differences in attitudes to animals more apparent than in the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English settlers turned animals into commodities for trade. It was possible to put a price on every animal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a cow to a swan, from a deer to a hog. As Anderson argues, ?classifying animals not just in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their utility but also their market value added a new dimension to the relationship of dominion. Putting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price on animals symbolized the conversion of creatures into commodities? \(p. 68\). This again was a concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely alien to Native Americans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Anderson stresses, that not all the attitudes of colonists and Indians towards animals were at odds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Christian, and especially Protestant, ministers may have denounced the paganism of concepts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animal spirituality and manitou, some of these ideas were echoed in traditional English folklore. Perhaps in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of pre-Christian days, many animals in England were viewed as particularly fortuitous or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inauspicious. Ladybirds and black cats were bringers of good luck, while in Lancashire magpies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed as bringers of such bad luck that people would raise their hats in greeting to the birds and make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of the cross or cross their thumbs and spit over them. Such ideas, however, came under increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack in the wake of the Protestant Reformation as Protestant preachers denounced these beliefs as popish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superstition. Anderson concludes that ?in one of history?s many ironies, religious developments in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encouraged greater disdain for non-Christian ways of viewing the world just at the point when English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people encountered the inhabitants of the New World? \(p. 57\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anderson also pays substantial attention to the demographics of the livestock population. While many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies have examined the demographics of early settlement, none have paid attention to this important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of colonial society. Colonists for the most part brought some domestic animals with them. In first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of colonisation, as with the human population, the livestock population found itself prone to disease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and malnutrition. The North American environment did not replicate the lush meadows of England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American grasses were not as nutritious for animals. The trans-Atlantic voyage weakened many animals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made them susceptible to disease. The heat of the summers and the cold of the winters, especially in New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, also took their toll. Most importantly, the existence of large numbers of predators, in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wolves, also reduced the livestock population. It took three decades or more in the Chesapeake before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livestock population became self-supporting. In New England, as with the human population, this occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within little more than a decade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Animals played such an important role in the colonists? lives that converting Indians into husbandmen, into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livestock herders, was seen as an essential part of the English mission of civilising them. While other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have noted the drive to convert Native Americans into European farmers, few have noted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular significance of livestock here. By converting hunters into herdsman, Anderson argues, English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers hoped that they could spread the qualities of the sedentary farmer amongst their Indian neighbours. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Indians were reluctant to adopt English practices of livestock husbandry. Indeed, when Indians did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin to raise their own livestock, much to the horror of their English neighbours, it was not in the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion. Indeed, Indians were very selective about which animals they raised. Scorning sheep and cows, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid seventeenth century many Indians were successfully raising herds of hogs. Hogs appealed to Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibilities because they did not require a major cultural adaptation. They could rummage around the edges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of villages in much the same fashion as their dogs. They could be set loose into the woods with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimum of supervision to be hunted in much the same manner as deer or other wild animals. Soon many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians were successfully raising hogs, perhaps of most concern to English settlers, successfully competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with them. Indian herdsmen soon were purveying meat to the important markets of Boston and Manhattan. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7415 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Indian herdsmen displayed a remarkable degree of understanding of colonial markets. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly selling livestock, Indian herdsmen sold the butchered meat. This was exactly what English colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers desired. In addition, they sold their meat principally in the late spring when the demand from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers for provisions was at its highest, and hence prices were at their highest. So successful were Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herdsmen that they soon attracted the ire of colonial farmers who made it clear that owning livestock did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn Indians into Englishmen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economics of livestock rearing, and the ways in which economic pressures increased tensions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonists and Indians, also attract Anderson?s attention. In New England in particular, the profitability of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livestock raising soon made it a central export for colonists. As the price of meat increased, and the demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from other colonies and from the West Indies increased, so New England farmers responded by seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase their production. As colonists sought more lands for their herds, and increased the numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals grazed in the woods, tensions between colonists and Indians increased.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of livestock in generating these tensions between colonists and Indians is perhaps the aspect of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book which has been most studied by previous historians, but Anderson adds a new dimension to these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies by placing these tensions in a much broader context, and by demonstrating that such disputes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not limited solely to New England. Livestock generated tensions in several disparate ways. Most basically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonists and Indians argued over the ownership of livestock. Indians who killed livestock, even feral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals, in the woods were hauled before the courts and prosecuted, even though it was not always clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who owned the animals. However, it was difficult for Englishmen to conceive that pigs or cattle, even those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which roamed in the woods, could not be someone?s property. Livestock broke into Indian corn fields and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trampled upon their crops, but Indians found that if they retaliated by killing the livestock it was they who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be prosecuted. Indeed, Massachusetts authorities ruled that Indians should build fences around their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields and even went so far as to order colonists to help them. If unruly livestock broke into a fenced field, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians were simply to seize and impound them, often being required to herd the animals several miles to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearest provincial pound. Such rulings hardly seemed fair to most Indians. It was the colonists? livestock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who broke into Indian fields, yet it was the Indians who were punished if they tried to protect those fields. If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians sought compensation in the colonial courts, as they could in theory, any compensation was assessed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the neighbours and friends of the farmers whose livestock had created the problem. Not surprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Indians began to take matters into their own hands. By the late 1660s increasing numbers of Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to kill any English animal that they found in the woods. Such activities were not limited to New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, but could be found wherever English livestock had been established, from Long Island to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Shore of Maryland, from the James River in Virginia, to New Hampshire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English colonists could not tolerate such behaviour towards their livestock and as Englishmen sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline Indians and bring them into line, Indians responded by resorting to war and descending upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial frontier in King Philip?s War in New England, and Bacon?s Rebellion in Virginia. As war spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians specifically made clear their hatred for English animals, in particular the despicable cow. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing the animals directly, Indian raiders would mutilate an animal by cutting off its leg or cutting out its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tongue, and letting the animal die a slow and painful death, a death that their English owners would most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely witness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anderson?s final, and almost certainly most important argument, is that the animals which colonists brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with them were the principal agents responsible for dispossessing the Indians of their homelands. Anderson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that ?as agents of empire, livestock occupied land in advance of English settlers, forcing native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples who stood in their way either to fend off the animals as best they could or else to move on? \(p. 211\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The free-range husbandry practised in North America meant that colonists required much more land to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support their herds than would have been required in England. In New England the growth of the trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livestock and meat, first to other mainland colonies and then to the West Indies, provided the region with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal export. Colonists consequently required grazing land, and lots of it. The land on which colonists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to graze their herds was often the land occupied by Indian towns and villages. In the mid 1630s, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, colonists moved rapidly into the Connecticut River Valley, overrunning the rich meadows along )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the river, and prompting a violent response from the region?s inhabitants in the Pequot War. By the second )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 4771 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the seventeenth century, colonists began consciously to use livestock to dispossess Indians of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands. This dispossession occurred on several levels. English livestock destroyed the habitats that supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native game and the plants that provided medicines and utensils. Hogs and cattle trampled on Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cornfields and rooted out buried supplies of corn and other provisions. Perhaps most importantly, Indians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and settlers clashed repeatedly over the ownership of animals that wandered all but wild in the forests. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion, colonists even actively sought to provoke disputes by breaking down Indian fences and refusing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow Indians to brand or mark their own animals. Simple frustration at the repeated trespass of animals on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their lands was often enough to force Indians to move.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anderson?s argument is compelling, and by the end of the book, the reader is all but convinced that the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors of early American history, the great agents of empire, were not men like John Smith and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winthrop, but rather the herds of cattle and hogs which the settlers brought with them. Anderson concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?although livestock could hardly be blamed for everything that happened in early America, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly helped to shape the course of events. As indispensable to colonial survival as they were inimical to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian sovereignty, livestock enabled the English to extend their dominion over the New World with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable speed and thoroughness? \(p. 242\). Only in her study of the demographics of the livestock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and the economics of livestock could Anderson perhaps have probed a little further. A study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early probate records may have allowed her to paint a slightly fuller picture of the ownership of animals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early America and perhaps to have had a clearer estimate for the speed with which the animal population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was gr owing. Similarly, her discussion of the economics of livestock husbandry in early America lacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific details and economic figures. Such omissions, however, do not significantly detract from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of this work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Creatures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 132.680 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an impressive and highly significant work. By considering, the role of animals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(livestock in the culture of early America, Anderson has presented a novel picture of early American history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work prompts a major re-examination of the forces that shaped both the internal economic and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the seventeenth century English colonies, and the colonies? relations with their Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours. As such it must provide essential reading for all those with an interest in early American history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the nature of English seventeenth-century colonisation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 330.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 312.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 312.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/471)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 311.145 m 322.316 311.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 286.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2488)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 311.4595 322.3157 323.3395 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/471) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004691 00000 n 0000004800 00000 n 0000004910 00000 n 0000005019 00000 n 0000008580 00000 n 0000008708 00000 n 0000008792 00000 n 0000008857 00000 n 0000016183 00000 n 0000016248 00000 n 0000023596 00000 n 0000023661 00000 n 0000031129 00000 n 0000031213 00000 n 0000036037 00000 n 0000036165 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36260 %%EOF