%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819014848+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819014848+01'00') /Title (Review Article: Italian Fascism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2958 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Review Article: Italian Fascism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both these books have their origins in excellent PhD research theses, which have then been adapted into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book form. Both books are highly original, well-written and well-organised. Moreover, both volumes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome additions to the extremely rich literature on Italian fascism, looking at areas which have previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(473)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 September, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Baldoli)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1859737617)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(217pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Martin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1859737056)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Foot)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7786 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been overlooked by historians and aiming at new interpretations of the regime through well-worked case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies and focused research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Martin?s interesting and innovative study looks tries to unpack the complicated relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian fascism and football, and represents one of the first serious attempts to analyse this aspect of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.340 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.340 726.051 m 84.332 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.332 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Mussolini was always attuned to the use of popular culture in his desire to hold power and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform Italian society, and sport was a key part of this strategy. Fascists took control of the world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(football in the mid-1920s and proceeded to revolutionise the game, building stadiums all over the peninsula )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and creating a national team which was to dominate the international game for four years, winning two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world cups and an Olympic gold medal. The architect of the national team?s success was an extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character called Vittorio Pozzo ? who never received a penny during his long term in charge of the )] TJ ET BT 510.560 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(azzurri)] TJ ET BT 544.568 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pozzo had fought in the First World War and had an almost military attitude to the game, whilst maintaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fine tactical acumen that he had learnt in part in England in the 1920s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin shows how the tensions within fascism were translated into footballing policies. Modernist stadiums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were built in some cities ? like Florence ? whilst other clubs plumped for more classical structures, harking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to the Roman Empire. Football also created problems for the regime. Clearly, fandom encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regionalism, and created tensions between city rivals. This ?idiotic localism?, as one fascist called it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted starkly with the radical nationalism that was at the heart of Mussolini?s project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Football could be, as another journalist quoted by Martin wrote, ?an outlet for the old provincial grievances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that fascism has never tolerated?. Much of this was overcome through the triumphalism which surrounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the World Cup \(which Italy hosted in 1934\) and Olympic victories, which linked up to an imposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascistisation of the domestic game, where players were obliged to wear fascist symbols, clubs changed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names \(such as )] TJ ET BT 109.664 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Internazionale)] TJ ET BT 179.660 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? Inter ? which was pressurised into becoming a much more Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ambrosiana ?)] TJ ET BT 101.684 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they soon changed back to Inter after 1945\), and players gave the fascist salute before games. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Complete control of press and radio output imposed certain official versions of sporting events onto a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing public. No journalist dared to question the dodgy refereeing that helped Italy win in 1934. Further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems arose with the use of the children of Italian emigrants in the national team. Although many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players were integral to the first World Cup victory, an embarrassing incident in 1935 ? when three such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(players escaped to France to avoid military service ? took some of the gloss off the Greater Italy ideal which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emigrants were meant to represent. Martin?s book is particularly useful in its detailed treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific issues: the role of fascist local leader Leandro Arpinati, the architecture of fascist Italian stadiums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which reflected debates within architecture under fascism in other areas\) and key events such as the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cups and the Battle of Highbury ? when Italy narrowly lost to England in 1934.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much of the story, however, which Martin?s book cannot deal with. The Bologna and Florence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus tends to marginalise within the book the two capitals of Italian football ? then as now ? Turin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milan. Little mention is made of Juventus ? the FIAT team ? who dominated the game in the 1930s and won )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(five successive championships, becoming almost as popular as the national team, especially in the deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(south of the country. The book also tends to leave out the game of football itself. We get little sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual matches and many key players are simply ignored. Silvio Piola, for example, an extraordinary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful goal scorer who inspired the 1938 victory, does not even merit a mention. The comparative points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made in the last chapter are very welcome but needed much further development ? especially the obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases of Spain, Germany and Portugal. Nazi Germany, above all, is hardly mentioned ? despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of sport for that regime and the stage-managing of the 1936 Olympics. As such, Martin?s book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very good first step, but perhaps the title is a touch misleading. This is not really an overall history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Football and Fascism)] TJ ET BT 139.352 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, nor of the )] TJ ET BT 195.008 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Game under Mussolini)] TJ ET BT 350.012 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but essentially two very well-worked city-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based case studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudia Baldoli?s sophisticated study is all the more laudable for its straightforward style despite being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in the author?s second language. The subject of the book is focused but at the same time wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging. The Italian community in Britain has always been small, but also quite highly concentrated ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategically important in terms of the Italian presence in the world. Baldoli analyses both the policies )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3397 726.3655 84.3317 738.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7275 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted by fascism towards Italians in the UK as well as the reaction of Italians, and the British to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies. The main focus of the book is London, but there are also discussions of Italian communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldoli?s concludes that, as with Italians in Italy, the regime tried to ?make fascists? out of its citizens who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived abroad. These attempts ? through propaganda but also through institutional investment ? had various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of success and changed in line with the priorities of the regime. A fascinating section looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Italian fascists and Oswald Mosley?s British Union of Fascists \(BUF\). Baldoli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlines the vicissitudes of that relationship and the warped way in which information was passed back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini in Rome via the Italian Embassy. The story of the support shown by many BUF militants for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy?s imperialist adventures in the mid-1930s is both shocking and extraordinary. Some British Fascists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even went so far as to send back glowing accounts from the front in Africa, in which the Italian troops were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as ?crusaders? and a ?revolutionary army?. Baldoli?s work also contributes to the on-going )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates concerning the ?consent? enjoyed by Mussolini?s regime by showing how the ?rebirth of the Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial dream and the myth of Italy?s power had a remarkable influence in creating a sense of belonging to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Fascist community? \(p. 190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One criticism of Baldoli?s book concerns its timespan. As Antonio Gramsci once wrote about Benedetto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Croce, she ?chose her dates carefully?. We really needed to see how these complicated scenarios worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves out with the shock of the declaration of war and internment in 1940. The story, as it stands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to something of an abrupt \(and untimely\) halt. Moreover, further discussion was needed on the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-fascists in London \(and their links to British anti-fascists\) and, finally, it would have been interesting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hear from more grassroots sources rather than only from the leaders or official spokespeople involved in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story. We get too little sense of the actual communities, how they lived and their everyday lives in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted country. To this end, Lucio Sponza?s seminal work )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.980 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.980 457.443 m 338.972 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.972 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should have been exploited more for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the culture and patterns of migration to the United Kingdom. Despite these quibbles, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains an impressive piece of work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although see Robert Gordon and John London, ?Italy 1934: Football and Fascism?, in ed. Alan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tomlinson and Christopher Young, )] TJ ET BT 237.680 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Identity and Global Events: Culture, Politics and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spectacle in the Olympics and the Football World Cup)] TJ ET BT 327.332 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.640 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.640 334.899 m 475.628 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See particularly Lucio Sponza, )] TJ ET BT 214.988 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Divided Loyalties: Italians in Britain during the Second World War)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Bern and New York, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 201.980 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 201.980 306.387 m 255.968 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Baldoli's response:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would like to thank John Foot for the very kind and thoughtful review. He is right to underline some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects not covered in the book. In terms of time span, my interest was on Dino Grandi's terms of office at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the London Embassy, as it gave me the opportunity to intertwine the different strands that I most wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore: the impact in Britain of the complex and shifting relationship between the Italian Fascist state, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign ministry, the embassy, the Italian fasci abroad, the Italian community and the British right \(both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist and conservative\). Therefore the story ends when the needs of Italian foreign policy called Grandi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to Italy, and when, also as a consequence of the coming war between Italy and Britain, the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community abandoned fascist institutions and prepared for the worst. The impact of war on the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community has been brilliantly described in Lucio Sponza's book \()] TJ ET BT 355.148 141.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Divided Loyalties)] TJ ET BT 440.144 141.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cited by Foot in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review\); more study is certainly needed on Italian foreign policy, the fasci and the British Right during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A difficult history is that of Italian anti-fascist militants in London, because they were a small minority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the community, almost non-existent if compared with the French, Swiss, or Belgian experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same years. As I wrote in the first chapter of )] TJ ET BT 267.956 57.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exporting Fascism)] TJ ET BT 358.952 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, their newspaper was shut down as early )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.9797 457.7575 338.9717 469.6375 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.6397 335.2135 475.6277 347.0935 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 201.9797 306.7015 255.9677 318.5815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 2205 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 1924, and the only publication in London devoted to Italian anti-fascism, )] TJ ET BT 400.652 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Times and Ethiopia News)] TJ ET BT 548.000 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published during the years of Italy's aggression and war against Ethiopia, was prompted by the Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anarchist Silvio Corio and by Sylvia Pankhurst, but received no contribution from Italians in the community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two excellent recently completed PhD theses on aspects that my book has not covered but which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are related: Pietro di Paola \(Goldsmiths College\), reconstructed the life of the Italian \(mainly anarchist\) Left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the London community at the time when it was particularly lively, from the Paris Commune to the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War; and Richard Wright \(University of Manchester\) has thoroughly researched, using oral history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italians in Britain during Fascism: all those interested on the history of Italian emigration to Britain would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find them illuminating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 625.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 607.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 607.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/473)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 606.009 m 322.316 606.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 581.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2492)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2494)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 606.3235 322.3157 618.2035 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/473) >> endobj xref 0 32 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000003626 00000 n 0000003735 00000 n 0000003845 00000 n 0000003954 00000 n 0000007515 00000 n 0000007643 00000 n 0000007727 00000 n 0000007811 00000 n 0000015650 00000 n 0000015680 00000 n 0000015806 00000 n 0000015842 00000 n 0000015940 00000 n 0000023268 00000 n 0000023298 00000 n 0000023426 00000 n 0000023462 00000 n 0000023590 00000 n 0000023645 00000 n 0000023773 00000 n 0000023828 00000 n 0000023912 00000 n 0000026170 00000 n 0000026298 00000 n trailer << /Size 32 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26393 %%EOF