%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 31 0 R 39 0 R 50 0 R 58 0 R 88 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140709080202+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140709080202+01'00') /Title (History and Memory in the Carolingian World) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3911 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History and Memory in the Carolingian World)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the importance of history to the Carolingians there can be no doubt, though they were perhaps less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the events of their own time than with the lessons to be drawn from past events. Crucial here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were their awareness of the mutability of history itself, their desire to organise information about the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a systematic process, and their sense of the lessons to be drawn from deeds that seemed worth being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered and that could teach people \(readers\) how to think, live, or govern properly. Current studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including those essays revised and republished in this volume, have tended to stress the didactic features )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly present in medieval historical texts, but have seldom explained how lessons were to be taught or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the systematic organisation of the texts was as important: the term )] TJ ET BT 374.660 161.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historia)] TJ ET BT 412.004 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was always used to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constructed narrative, whose explicit and implicit categories require investigation. These essays treat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books known to Carolingians, and some books written by Carolingians, which may be regarded as historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works. We await a study of how this might relate to the exegetical concept of )] TJ ET BT 407.948 118.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historia)] TJ ET BT 445.292 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, as expressed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example in Christian of Stavelot:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 66.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studui autem plus historicum sensum sequi quam spiritalem, quia irrationabile mihi videtur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(474)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosamond McKitterick)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521534364X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(353pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Ganz)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritalem intelligentiam in libro aliquo quaerere, et historicam penitus ignorare: cum historia )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentum omnis intelligentiae sit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.020 780.819 m 260.012 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet many Carolingian authors of historical texts were not uninterested in understanding the senses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scripture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays collected here explore notions of Frankish identity and of social memory, drawing on the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halbwachs. Frankish historical texts are examined for their agreed vision of the past. They are 'the texts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which an elite defines itself' \(p. 7\), they 'forge a Frankish identity' \(p. 23\), 'reflect on political power and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulership' \(p. 57\), and have 'specific political objectives' \(p. 71\), 'a shared political memory' \(p. 120\); 'Their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex relationship with the past was articulated in many different contexts' \(p. 265 \). The decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigate shared values in texts as diverse as the )] TJ ET BT 276.308 632.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 403.628 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and confraternity book of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cathedral at Salzburg or the cartulary of donations to Fulda and Freising conveys a sense of how local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national, institutional and ethnic memories overlapped and checked one another. This is explored in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate modes of communication, and their interdependent oral modes. 'Because of the way and the contents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which literate skills were exercised in the middle ages, writing was more than a straightforward means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication' \(p. 162\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are detailed accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 199.292 534.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 326.612 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, particularly the entries for 751, 788 and 817 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some of the manuscripts of this text. \(I would see the insistence on the Franks in that text as a comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about shared power, a tradition in which the ruler claimed the support and consent of his nobles.\) There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(briefer treatments of the )] TJ ET BT 152.648 491.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Historiae Francorum)] TJ ET BT 284.648 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and its picture of the cultural identity of the Franks, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts and audience for some of the key sources of Carolingian history: the )] TJ ET BT 426.284 477.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Pontificalis)] TJ ET BT 510.632 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Einhard's )] TJ ET BT 81.836 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vita Karoli)] TJ ET BT 136.184 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 177.176 463.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Fuldenses)] TJ ET BT 267.500 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. A further chapter explores the date and the audience for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul the Deacon's )] TJ ET BT 122.492 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Langobardorum)] TJ ET BT 244.172 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, designed, according to McKitterick, 'to instruct the Franks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Lombard past' \(p. 23\). Donald Bullough pointed out that 'The Franks figure in Paul's narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost entirely as enemies' and the implications of that evaluation do not figure here.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.124 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.124 419.187 m 456.116 419.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A high point of the volume is McKitterick's assertion that the account of Pope Zacharias's deposition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last Merovingian king in 751 and anointing of Pippin is a later Carolingian invention. This is the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forceful presentation of the Franks constructing and manipulating their past, and matches what Mathias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Becher has found for the treatment of Tassilo's oath of loyalty in the )] TJ ET BT 364.460 351.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 491.780 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.780 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.780 350.163 m 508.772 350.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.772 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, first suggested by Werner Affeldt in 1980, is echoed in Joseph Semmler's monograph )] TJ ET BT 476.780 337.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dynastiewechsel von 751 und die frnkische Knigssalbung)] TJ ET BT 322.664 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which suggests that even in 754 Pippin was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anointed king, but merely anointed after his baptism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.660 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.660 307.395 m 301.652 307.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapters explore forms of social memory starting with cartularies and )] TJ ET BT 417.272 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Libri Memoriales)] TJ ET BT 501.608 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McKitterick writes that 'The )] TJ ET BT 172.820 268.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Salzburg Liber Vitae)] TJ ET BT 272.828 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is essentially a history book' \(p. 174\). With regard to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Libri Memoriales)] TJ ET BT 118.352 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Hrabanus Maurus saw their model as the Old and New Testaments:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 215.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Libri ergo memoriales sunt volumina duorum Testamentorum, in quibus quae justis pro bonis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actibus praemia, et quae iniquis pro peccatis poenae in futuro maneant, commemorantur.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.932 201.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.932 200.115 m 503.924 200.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of the institutional library as a guardian of memory is investigated in a chapter on the reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history at Lorsch and St Amand, with lists of 'History manuscripts' associated with Fulda and St Amand. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This raises crucial questions about how and why books were acquired, and what lessons they might have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught. The importance of the history of the church is rightly stressed. Long ago Momigliano suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the distinctive features of ecclesiastical history was its concern for documents. The creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority in the history of the church is the subject of a chapter which takes the literary bibliographies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerome-Gennadius, the ecclesiastical histories by Eusebius Rufinus and Cassiodorus's )] TJ ET BT 448.796 77.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Tripartita)] TJ ET BT 539.156 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts which affected the Carolinigan reform movement and their sense of the identity of the church. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplemented by an investigation of canon law collections known to the Carolingians, which makes the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.0197 781.1335 260.0117 793.0135 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.1237 419.5015 456.1157 431.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.7797 350.4775 508.7717 362.3575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.6597 307.7095 301.6517 319.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.9317 200.4295 503.9237 212.3095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 6749 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point that 'chronologically-ordered canon law collections are essentially history books' \(p. 255\), especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their views of the treatment of heresy and the claims for Episcopal and papal authority. Sadly the Pseudo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isidoran decretals do not feature: instead there are discussions of a substantial canon-law collection from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northern Italy now in Vercelli, with six illustrations of historical scenes. One of those, showing Helena )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding the True Cross, leads to a discussion of the illustrated )] TJ ET BT 331.328 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inventio sanctae crucis)] TJ ET BT 442.640 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in an Augsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript. I feel that this chapter tries to cover too much disparate ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concluding chapter opens with a discussion of sources for the rebellion of Bernard of Italy against Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pious in 817, which raises fundamental questions about how narrators and audience came by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of events, and what the role of hindsight in the later accounts of the rebellion was. Its use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefatory letter of Lupus to his life of Wigbert of Fritzlar reminds us how much information about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian notions of the writing of history and hagiography that life contains. This chapter also discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the perception of time, attitudes to biblical and Roman precedent and even Frankish influence on England: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has an almost breathless range of topics which define the subject and the scope of the whole book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian texts are firm about the distinction between history and annals, and I see no reason to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they ignored this distinction or its implications. So the rise of annals, and the paucity of narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories ? with the exception of Paul the Deacon's )] TJ ET BT 279.140 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Romana)] TJ ET BT 362.144 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 385.472 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Langobardorum)] TJ ET BT 507.152 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal histories of Freculph of Lisieux, Ado of Vienne and, at the end of the period, Regino of Prum ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands investigation. What was it that the annalistic form supplied which ensured its popularity? This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume is dismissive of the case for annals deriving from Easter tables, though our earliest brief annal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entries are certainly found in such manuscripts. Walahfrid Strabo's lines about the commemoration of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dead abbot Wetti seem relevant here:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.978 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Innumerisque bonis meritum superaverat omne;)] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quis mihi nunc misero verbum demonstrat adhortans?)] TJ ET BT 64.016 420.178 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 102.680 420.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( memorare dies mortemque notare)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quis cogit? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.012 405.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.012 404.499 m 136.004 404.499 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such formal commemorations could be integrated into a grander narrative, however laconic that narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be. Hrabanus Maurus in his commentary on Esther notes the biblical reference to annals:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 315.125 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leguntur coram eo historiae et annales priorum temporum, in quibus commemoratio fidei et )] TJ ET BT 64.016 300.869 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bonorum actuum Mardochaei continetur, quia rex sanctorum et princeps regum terrae, in se )] TJ ET BT 64.016 286.613 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idem manens, omnium temporum cursus et singulorum actuum notitiam uno contemplatur )] TJ ET BT 64.016 272.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intuitu, nec est apud illum quidquam recidivum, sed praesentialiter in conspectu ejus omnia )] TJ ET BT 64.016 258.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patent. Commemorantur ergo gesta Mardochaei coram hoc rege, quia bona opera sanctorum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 243.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctorum nunquam apud eum oblivioni tradentur, sed fit quod scriptum est: In memoria aeterna )] TJ ET BT 64.016 229.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erit justus, ab auditu malo non timebit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.356 229.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.356 228.195 m 269.348 228.195 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 191.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The commemoration of past events otherwise doomed to oblivion was itself a praiseworthy aim: the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a sense of identity was secondary. We urgently need a serious investigation of what the brief and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish annals have to say, why they chose to begin their accounts when they did, and what their form may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imply.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor McKitterick believes that there was and 'extraordinary revolution in historical writing to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed in the Carolingian period' \(p. 99\). But this revolution was a widespread rejection of those grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 93.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives about the history of the Franks, or Christian history, which had occupied the previous centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingians clearly spent more time copying and reading the works of earlier historians than they did in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing what they might have regarded as history. So it is worth asking whether Carolingian authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded )] TJ ET BT 78.992 51.029 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historia)] TJ ET BT 116.336 51.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a clearly defined genre. The groupings of texts in the Lorsch and Murbach library )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.0117 404.8135 136.0037 416.6935 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.3557 228.5095 269.3477 240.3895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 5207 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catalogues imply that they did. Canon law books were kept elsewhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a pity that Carolingian authors are silent in too much of this book. Isidore's distinction between )] TJ ET BT 514.484 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historia)] TJ ET BT 551.828 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(argumentum)] TJ ET BT 94.676 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 118.004 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fabula)] TJ ET BT 148.676 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an essential starting point for any mature reflections on the writing of Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, with its insistence that history is true. There is an important early Carolingian discussion of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Paris, Bibliothque Nationale de France \(hereafter BN\), MS. Lat 7530, which was printed by Halm in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhetores Latini Minores)] TJ ET BT 151.352 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historia est rerum gestarum et dignarum memoriae relatio: ea versatur aut in rebus bellicis aut )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in negotiis civilibus, id est pacis. Historici officia sunt tria: ut veras res, ut dilucide, ut breviter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exponat. Verae res sunt, si rerum actarum vetustas et obscuritas diligenter exploretur, si )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explorata libere, id est sine metu aut gratia aut invidia referatur. Lucida fit historia, si ut oportet )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(res pro temporibus, pro locis, pro actibus structura simplici et perfecta explanetur ... Opus )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiae est ut nos notitia rerum instruat.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.008 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.008 602.259 m 275.000 602.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A place in history was earned, and the historian followed rules of style and of source criticism in preserving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the memory of great men. This is a larger enterprise than the creation of a 'political memory'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader encounters lists of classical historians, Jewish and Christian historians and of barbarian histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(not a helpful term\) known to the Carolingians \(pp. 40?50\) but there is too little evidence as to how these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works were read. Some sense of the role of classical Roman historians is conveyed by the Poeta Saxo when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he affirmed that Charlemagne is superior to Camillus, Cato, Caesar, Pompey and the Gens Fabiorum. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hrabanus Maurus has a relevant comment, presumably drawing on his reading of Orosius:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 429.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regnum a gente in gentem transfertur, propter injustitias, et injurias, et contumelias, et diversos )] TJ ET BT 64.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dolos. Hujus sententiae veritatem omnium pene gentium notant historiae, et causas diversorum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populorum ostendunt. Nec hoc ignorare potest, qui Chaldaeorum et Persarum Graecorumque )] TJ ET BT 64.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentissima regna subversa legit, et Romanorum regnum vacillare conspicit, nec stabile aliquid )] TJ ET BT 64.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in mundo esse perpendit.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.004 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.004 371.187 m 197.996 371.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 334.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1934 Berlin dissertation by Fritz Landsberg, 'Das Bild der alten Geschichte im mittelalterlichen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weltchroniken' would have been helpful. Veronika von Bren's important article on how Lupus corrected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text of Livy and supplied marginal summaries or Sedulius Scottus's concern with the )] TJ ET BT 461.480 305.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Augusta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been noted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.656 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.656 290.163 m 164.648 290.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.648 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( If the )] TJ ET BT 196.304 291.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ilias Latina)] TJ ET BT 251.984 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is to be regarded as Roman history, why is there no mention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valerius Maximus? \(There seems to be a serious misunderstanding of the nature of Sallust's )] TJ ET BT 478.112 277.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiae)] TJ ET BT 523.448 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(41: only fragments of that work were transmitted to the Carolingians and to us.\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.0077 602.5735 274.9997 614.4535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.0037 371.5015 197.9957 383.3815 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.6557 290.4775 164.6477 302.3575 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 8625 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally important are the dialogues between different historical texts in the Carolingian age. McKitterick is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful on how manuscripts create implicit dialogues by assembling different texts, though her repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to Vienna, sterreichische Nationalbibliothek \(hereafter ONB\), MS. 473 do not convince me that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this collection was copied )] TJ ET BT 161.336 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for)] TJ ET BT 175.340 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Charles the Bald, rather than at his court. But she has less to say about how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earlier Annals of Metz use the )] TJ ET BT 183.980 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Historiae Francorum)] TJ ET BT 315.980 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, how Einhard assumes readers familiar with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 161.336 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Her account of the contents of the remarkable Verona collection of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts \(pp. 53?9\) draws attention to a major historiographical enterprise: I should have liked more about its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception of Christian history and the implications of the extracts from Jerome on Daniel. Its material on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Assyrians, Scythians and Romans seems to break out of categories of 'ethnic history'. The references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscripts of the )] TJ ET BT 125.672 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Pontificalis)] TJ ET BT 210.020 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 51?2, 142?50\) ignore several important Carolingian copies: Bern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS. 225 from Western France; Laon, MS. 342 from Reims and its twin BN, Lat. MS. 13729; Leiden Voss, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lat. MS. Q 41 copied before 844 which went to Auxerre; Florence Medicea Laurenziana Acquisiti e Doni, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS. 195 copied in Northern Italy and Paris; and BN, Lat. MS. 5516 from Tours. They might have lead to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of the nature of the Frankish reception of the several versions of this text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This practice of selective references to some of the surviving Carolingian manuscripts of the texts discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to me to misrepresent the evidence for their circulation: the )] TJ ET BT 353.624 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Tripartita )] TJ ET BT 446.984 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 194, 240\) survives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Naples VI D, MS. 18, second quarter of the ninth century, perhaps copied at Corbie with marginal notes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Freiburg Universitatsbibliothek, MS. 6 from the region of Lake Constance; in Munich Clm., MS. 6376 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from St Emmeram Regensburg; in Vatican, Pal. Lat., MS. 823 from Reims; in Paris, NAL, MS. 1603 from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tours; in Genua Biblioteca Durazzo, MS. 253 from St Denis; in British Library, Add. MS. 19961 from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgium; and in Monte Cassino, MS. 302.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manuscripts of Hegesippus are discussed on pages 46?7, 194, 201 and 212: in addition to the St Amand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragment in Koblenz, and the Lorsch manuscript in the Vatican there was a copy at the Reichenau, Karlsruhe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS Aug. perg LXXXII; at Fleury, Bern, MS. 180 \(copied in the Paris region\); at Laon, Laon, MS. 403 )] TJ ET BT 529.964 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from North Eastern France; and Leiden, MS. BPL 21 was copied in North Eastern France in the last quarter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ninth century. It is a pity that the very helpful list of Carolingian copies of Paul the Deacon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Langobardorum)] TJ ET BT 155.696 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on page 82 is not really integrated into the chapter on Paul's work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The bibliography has some gaps. The fundamental recent article on Carolingian historical writing by H.-W. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goetz is missing, as is Gertrud Simon's 'Untersuchungen zur Topik der Widmungsbriefe mittelalterlicher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geschichtsschreiber bis zum Ende des 12. Jahrhunderts', which is a careful investigation of what Carolingian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians asserted that they were trying to do. The single reference to 'sterile notions of intertextuality' \(p. 2\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it clear that readers of McKitterick should not expect to encounter the work of Rsen, Ankersmit or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koselleck. But much could have been learned from Marie Schulz, )] TJ ET BT 353.948 292.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Lehre von der historischen Methode )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bei den Geschichtsschreibern des Mittelalters VI?XIII Jahrhunderts)] TJ ET BT 360.632 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. For the question of history as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive genre. H.-W. Goetz's two articles, 'Die "Geschichte" im Wissenschaftssystem des Mittelalters' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 'Die Gegenwart der Vergangenheit im frh- und hochmittelalterlichen Geschichtsbewutsein' make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong case. G. Melville's 'Wozu Geschichte schreiben? Stellung und Funktion der Historie im Mittelalter' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also important, as are the three volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 258.644 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grundriss der Romanischen Literatur des Mittelalters)] TJ ET BT 518.312 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: xi: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La littrature historiographique des origines 1500)] TJ ET BT 285.368 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Heidelberg, 1986\). But the most serious and startling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission is that this volume has not a word to waste on Augustine's )] TJ ET BT 361.844 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City of God)] TJ ET BT 417.848 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.848 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.848 191.091 m 440.840 191.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In several cases the palaeographical arguments are at the very least contestable. There is no reason to believe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Heiric of Auxerre corrected a manuscript of Tacitus. I cannot see the features in the Bagford fragment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justinus \(pp. 43?4\) which suggest that it is 'a continental production by a Northumbrian scribe' rather than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English copy. I can make nothing of the remarks about b-d uncial in Lucca, MS. 490 \(p. 51\) that script was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used in the sixth century, and has nothing to do with the texts of Isidore or the )] TJ ET BT 411.320 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Pontificalis)] TJ ET BT 495.668 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Petersburg manuscript of Einhard \(pp. 21, 112\) is regarded by Mathias Tischler as having no evident link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a putative copy made for Charles the Bald, and Tischler also sees the assembling of the 'Lorsch annals' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Einhard in a single volume \(Vatican, Pal. Lat. MS. 243\) as later than the Carolingian period, in contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what is stated on page 204.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.336 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.336 50.787 m 196.328 50.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 196.328 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( No evidence is given to support the assertion on page 240 that the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.8477 191.4055 440.8397 203.2855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.3357 51.1015 196.3277 62.9815 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 10525 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript of Eusebius Rufinus in Copenhagen was made in St Amand: I am happy to attribute it to St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germain des Prs as Bischoff did. The manuscript of the )] TJ ET BT 308.972 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wessobrunner Gebet)] TJ ET BT 409.952 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was reproduced in a superb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete facsimile \(Munich, 1922\) which students might wish to consult. The detailed account of ONB, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS. 515, the contemporary copy of the 'Lorsch annals', nowhere reveals that Bischoff thought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript to be copied by two rather than four scribes, and that Hoffmann was convinced that the text was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not autograph, which surely modifies the picture presented.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.968 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.968 723.795 m 338.960 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.960 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Leipzig manuscript of the )] TJ ET BT 490.268 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fuldenses)] TJ ET BT 82.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 34?5\) has the correct shelfmark \(Rep. II 4 129a\) and was supposedly copied in Niederaltaich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Bavaria )] TJ ET BT 86.672 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 92.000 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.900 \(not 'of the last quarter of the ninth century'\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As I have suggested above, the treatment of surviving Carolingian manuscripts of texts discussed is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes selective, and I am not clear what governed the selection. Not even a footnote alerts readers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munich Clm. MS. 23618, a copy of the Revised Frankish Annals \(Kurze's E version\) for 806?821 written at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fulda. Has McKitterick consulted Vatican, Reg. Lat. MS. 617, another important ninth century manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 191.996 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? It is asserted that surviving copies of the )] TJ ET BT 396.968 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liber Historiae Francorum)] TJ ET BT 528.968 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 'the westerly and Rhineland area of the Frankish empire' \(p. 14\). Does this include Vatican, Reg. Lat. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MS. 913 from St Gall, Brit. Libr., Arundel MS. 375 from Southern France, the Hague, MS. 921 from North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern France, or Leiden Voss, Lat. MS. Q 86 from Paris?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The footnotes refer, with characteristic and exemplary generosity, to two unpublished Oxford DPhil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertations, to three unpublished Cambridge MPhil essays, one unpublished Cambridge MLitt dissertation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two unpublished Cambridge MPhil dissertations, and two unpublished Cambridge PhD dissertations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.684 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.684 514.467 m 538.676 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume, as I have tried to suggest, raises central questions about the conscious and implicit functions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolingian historical texts, their setting in a broader and more fluid historical narrative, and the evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they circulated. There are important demonstrations of how the manuscripts provide an amplification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a check on what a printed edition can reveal. To take a particularly telling case, Rosamond McKitterick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the first to examine the Sankt Maria im Kapitol fragment of the )] TJ ET BT 362.972 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 490.292 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bischoff had noted as copied close to the court of Louis the Pious \(pp. 21?2, 130, 271\). What it has to teach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can now be supplemented by a fragment of the )] TJ ET BT 261.632 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales Regni Francorum)] TJ ET BT 388.952 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from 825?826, in Leiden, MS. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BPL 2391b. This has readings found only in ONB, MS. 473, it is written in a clear small script with long f )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a distinctive g which I would date to the second quarter of the ninth century and which may also relate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the court or a Rhineland centre. The dialogue with manuscripts, as presented here, will not fail to instruct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian of Stavelot, )] TJ ET BT 169.352 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patrologia Latina)] TJ ET BT 255.704 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. P. Migne \(221 vols., Paris, 1844?1903\) \(hereafter )] TJ ET BT 530.660 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PL)] TJ ET BT 544.664 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cvi, col. 1253.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.344 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.344 280.131 m 186.332 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. A. Bullough, ?Ethnic history and Carolingians: Paul the Deacon?s Historia Langobardorum? in ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Holdsworth and T. Wiseman, )] TJ ET BT 222.668 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Inheritance of Historiography)] TJ ET BT 388.328 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 426.320 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 426.320 251.619 m 480.308 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Becher, )] TJ ET BT 120.668 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eid und Herrschaft. Untersuchungen zum Herrschaftsethos Karls des Grossen)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Sigmaringen, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.340 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.340 223.107 m 220.328 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Semmler, )] TJ ET BT 149.012 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Dynastiewechsel von 751 und die frnkische Knigssalbung)] TJ ET BT 459.320 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dsseldorf, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 194.595 m 118.004 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hrabanus Maurus, 'Expositio in librum Esther', )] TJ ET BT 292.988 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PL)] TJ ET BT 306.992 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cix, col. 651.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.320 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.320 180.339 m 429.308 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walahfrid Strabo, 'Ad Grimaldum capellanum de Morte Wettini', )] TJ ET BT 380.288 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monumenta Germaniae Historica)] TJ ET BT 542.936 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poetae Latini Aevi Carolini II)] TJ ET BT 208.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 1884\) p. 334.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.008 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.008 151.827 m 368.996 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hrabanus Maurus, 'Expositio in librum Esther', )] TJ ET BT 292.988 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PL)] TJ ET BT 306.992 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cix, col. 657.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 375.320 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 375.320 137.571 m 429.308 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. F. von Halm, )] TJ ET BT 144.356 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rhetores Latini Minores)] TJ ET BT 261.692 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Leipzig, 1863\), p. 588.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.344 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.344 123.315 m 432.332 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hrabanus Maurus, 'Commentariorum in Ecclesiasticum', bk. 2, )] TJ ET BT 368.636 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(PL)] TJ ET BT 382.640 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cix, col. 827.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.968 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.968 109.059 m 504.956 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V. von Bren, 'Livy's )] TJ ET BT 169.664 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Roman History)] TJ ET BT 242.660 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the 11th-Century catalogue from Cluny: the transmission of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first and third Decades', in ed. C. A. Chavannes-Mazel and M. M. Smith, )] TJ ET BT 435.128 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Manuscripts of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Latin Classics: Production and Use)] TJ ET BT 253.688 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Los Altos Hills, Calif. and London, 1996\) pp. 57?73.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.012 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.012 66.291 m 555.008 66.291 l S BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 52.035 m 84.008 52.035 l S endstream endobj 60 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.9677 724.1095 338.9597 735.9895 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.6837 514.7815 538.6757 526.6615 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.3437 280.4455 186.3317 292.3255 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 426.3197 251.9335 480.3077 263.8135 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.3397 223.4215 220.3277 235.3015 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 194.9095 118.0037 206.7895 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3197 180.6535 429.3077 192.5335 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.0077 152.1415 368.9957 164.0215 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 375.3197 137.8855 429.3077 149.7655 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.3437 123.6295 432.3317 135.5095 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.9677 109.3735 504.9557 121.2535 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.0117 66.6055 555.0077 78.4855 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 52.3495 84.0077 64.2295 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R ] /Contents 89 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Length 6133 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H.-W. Goetz, 'Vergangenheitswahrnehmung, Vergangenheitsgebrauch und Geschichtssymbolismus in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(der Geschichtsschreibung der Karolingerzeit', in )] TJ ET BT 298.784 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideologie e pratiche del reimpiego nell'alto medioevo)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Settimane di studio, 46, Spoleto 1999\), 177?225; Gertrud Simon, 'Untersuchungen zur Topik der )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Widmungsbriefe mittelalterlicher Geschichtsschreiber bis zum Ende des 12. Jahrhunderts', )] TJ ET BT 501.764 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archiv fur )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diplomatik 4)] TJ ET BT 127.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1958\), pp. 52?119, and 5 \(1959\) 73?154; Marie Schulz, )] TJ ET BT 403.640 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Lehre von der historischen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Methode bei den Geschichtsschreibern des Mittelalters VI?XIII Jahrhunderts)] TJ ET BT 435.620 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 1909\); H.-W. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goetz, 'Die "Geschichte" im Wissenschaftssystem des Mittelalters', in ed. F. J. Schmale, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Funktion und Form mittelalterlicher Geschichtsschreibung. Eine Einfhrung)] TJ ET BT 433.664 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Darmstadt, 1985\) and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Die Gegenwart der Vergangenheit im frh- und hochmittelalterlichen Geschichtsbewutsein', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historische Zeitschrift)] TJ ET BT 171.692 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(255, 1992\), 61?97; G. Melville, 'Wozu Geschichte schreiben? Stellung und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Funktion der Historie im Mittelalter', in ed. R. Koselleck, H. Lutz and J. Rsen, )] TJ ET BT 449.156 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Formen der )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichtsschreibung)] TJ ET BT 170.000 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Beitrge zur Historik, 4, Munich 1982\), pp. 86?146; )] TJ ET BT 430.304 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La littrature )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(historiographique des origines 1500)] TJ ET BT 248.024 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, dir. H.-U. Gumbrecht, U. Link-Heer and P.-M. Spangenberg )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Grundriss der Romanischen Literatur des Mittelalters, xi, Heidelberg, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 435.956 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 435.956 609.747 m 495.944 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Tischler, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Einharts Vita Karoli. Studien zur Entstehung, Uberlieferung und Rezeption)] TJ ET BT 487.352 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hannover, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\), pp. 1540?47.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.340 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.340 581.235 m 220.328 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 568.378 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Bischoff, )] TJ ET BT 125.348 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lorsch im Spiegel seiner Handschriften)] TJ ET BT 316.004 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lorsch, 1989\), pp. 120?21; H. Hoffmann, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Untersuchungen zur karolingischen Annalistik)] TJ ET BT 287.672 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bonn, 1958\), pp. 87?88.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.996 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.996 552.723 m 470.984 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The PhD dissertations may be consulted in the Cambridge University Library, however the Seeley )] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(librarian tells me that not all MPhil and MLitt work is on deposit in libraries, and suggests that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospective readers e-mail )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 193.640 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeley@hist.cam.ac.uk)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 193.640 509.955 m 303.668 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.668 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 320.660 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.660 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.660 509.955 m 383.648 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has read this review and does not wish to comment on this occasion. Many of the points raised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the review have in the meantime been addressed in the Robert Conway lectures she delivered in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Institute, University of Notre Dame, in September 2004, which are to be published shortly by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Notre Dame Press as a monograph entitled )] TJ ET BT 308.972 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perceptions of the Past in the Early Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 543.620 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 397.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 379.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 379.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/474)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 377.913 m 322.316 377.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2496)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] mailto:seeley@hist.cam.ac.uk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 435.9557 610.0615 495.9437 621.9415 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 52 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.3397 581.5495 220.3277 593.4295 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 55 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.9957 553.0375 470.9837 564.9175 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 60 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 193.6397 510.2695 303.6677 522.1495 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (mailto:seeley@hist.cam.ac.uk) >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 323.6597 510.2695 383.6477 522.1495 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 63 0 R >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 378.2275 322.3157 390.1075 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/474) >> endobj xref 0 102 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000649 00000 n 0000004612 00000 n 0000004721 00000 n 0000004831 00000 n 0000004940 00000 n 0000008501 00000 n 0000008629 00000 n 0000008713 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000017342 00000 n 0000017372 00000 n 0000017500 00000 n 0000017536 00000 n 0000017566 00000 n 0000017694 00000 n 0000017730 00000 n 0000017760 00000 n 0000017888 00000 n 0000017924 00000 n 0000017954 00000 n 0000018082 00000 n 0000018118 00000 n 0000018148 00000 n 0000018276 00000 n 0000018312 00000 n 0000018403 00000 n 0000025205 00000 n 0000025235 00000 n 0000025363 00000 n 0000025399 00000 n 0000025429 00000 n 0000025557 00000 n 0000025593 00000 n 0000025691 00000 n 0000030951 00000 n 0000030981 00000 n 0000031109 00000 n 0000031145 00000 n 0000031175 00000 n 0000031303 00000 n 0000031339 00000 n 0000031369 00000 n 0000031497 00000 n 0000031533 00000 n 0000031624 00000 n 0000040302 00000 n 0000040332 00000 n 0000040460 00000 n 0000040496 00000 n 0000040526 00000 n 0000040652 00000 n 0000040688 00000 n 0000040856 00000 n 0000051435 00000 n 0000051465 00000 n 0000051593 00000 n 0000051629 00000 n 0000051659 00000 n 0000051787 00000 n 0000051823 00000 n 0000051951 00000 n 0000052006 00000 n 0000052134 00000 n 0000052189 00000 n 0000052317 00000 n 0000052372 00000 n 0000052499 00000 n 0000052554 00000 n 0000052682 00000 n 0000052737 00000 n 0000052865 00000 n 0000052920 00000 n 0000053048 00000 n 0000053103 00000 n 0000053231 00000 n 0000053286 00000 n 0000053414 00000 n 0000053469 00000 n 0000053595 00000 n 0000053650 00000 n 0000053774 00000 n 0000053829 00000 n 0000053949 00000 n 0000060135 00000 n 0000060263 00000 n 0000060318 00000 n 0000060446 00000 n 0000060501 00000 n 0000060629 00000 n 0000060684 00000 n 0000060812 00000 n 0000060892 00000 n 0000061020 00000 n 0000061075 00000 n 0000061205 00000 n trailer << /Size 102 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 61301 %%EOF