%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 33 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819050834+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819050834+01'00') /Title (Evidence, History and the Great War. Historians and the Impact of 1914?18) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4094 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Evidence, History and the Great War. Historians and the Impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1914?18)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book can be viewed in several ways. Each of its ten chapters by a different author deals with a discrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic \(women, gender, public opinion, photography and food supply\) without any pretence of thematic unity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Six of the chapters are wholly or partly concerned with Britain, while one each deals with its topic in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to France, Germany, Italy and Russia. The inclusion of the latter two countries is welcome, going beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all-too familiar focus on the western-front powers, but the volume remains firmly centred on Europe. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result is distinctly eclectic. With the exception of a chapter on ?shell shock?, soldiers do not figure, and little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention is given to race, empire or the USA. This does not necessarily matter but suggests that the unity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume does not lie in its formal subject matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet from a different perspective, that subject matter acquires more coherence. Six chapters deal with women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the war, suggesting that this is the heart of the project. Susan Grayzel looks at Britain and France, James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McMillan considers French women, Deborah Thom discusses the photographic collection of women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial War Museum, and Peter Gatrell and Simonetta Ortaggi discuss respectively the war experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian and Italian women. Gail Braybon?s chapter, ?Winners or losers: women?s symbolic role in the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story?, indicates the intellectual agenda of most \(though not all\) of these contributions, which is to scrutinise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the work of gender historians on the war from the standpoint of an older, socially-oriented history of women. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(476)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 October, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gail Braybon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1571818014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Horne)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7827 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her editorial introduction, Braybon states her impatience with what she sees as an approach derived from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural studies which has ?fragmented? the sharp focus on women?s history of the earlier tradition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in often ?superficial? claims that the war was a ?watershed? in gender relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this critique of the newer cultural history of the war extends to other topics. Laurinda Stryker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticises some of the more fanciful interpretations of ?shell-shock? as a crisis of ?masculinity?, finding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary sources show little evidence of such concerns. The editor remarks in her introduction that ?we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have [...] seen far too many books which are weighed down with symbolism, or dominated by over-arching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories? \(p. 2\), resulting in unsustainable claims about the ?devastating? effect of the Great War. From this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third angle, then, the book seeks a debate between social and cultural histories of the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet a fourth approach is perceptible in the fact that six of the chapters adopt a revisionist position toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some established orthodoxy, although the target is not always the current dominance of cultural history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Allen?s chapter on provisioning Berlin contests the argument of recent scholarship that German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians were poorly fed during the war not just because of the Allied blockade but because administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaos and an insensitive military government from 1916 made a bad situation worse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.632 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.632 585.747 m 455.624 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 455.624 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Allen finds that an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive coalition of municipal authorities and voluntary bodies experimented with the collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision of midday meals and also ensured bread supplies, not just during the war but down to the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great inflation in 1923 ? a striking example of the resilience of German civil society noted by Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fritzsche?s study of the longer-term legacy of the war for Nazi Germany.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.588 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.588 528.723 m 400.580 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.580 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Adrian Gregory scrutinises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth of ?war enthusiasm? in Britain in August 1914 and paints a far more nuanced picture in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance of the conflict was widespread but remained muted until the German forces overrunning Belgium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and northern France seemed to endanger Britain itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as Gregory remarks, the striking thing is the absence of previous scholarship on British public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the outbreak of war, in contrast to France and Germany, so that the ?myth? he deconstructs is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created in the inter-war period not by historians but by politicians justifying a decision to go to war which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had become shrouded in retrospective ambivalence.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 282.620 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 282.620 416.931 m 296.612 416.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 296.612 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Here Gregory touches on the construction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the war as such, a theme taken up by Catherine Moriarty?s excellent chapter on war memorials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and family photographs which amounted to a contrapuntal system ? public and private ? for commemorating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separation and death. The institutional construction of particular visions of the war is also the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deborah Thom?s revealing study of how the contemporary photos by Horace Nicholls, which heroised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s wartime work and were deposited in the Imperial War Museum \(itself a wartime creation\), fixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain images of women?s war experience to the exclusion of others. In a fifth and final perspective, then, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume contributes to the work \(pioneered by cultural historians\) on how individual and collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories of the war were constructed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inevitably, multiple perspectives risk of a loss of focus. But Gail Braybon anticipates the problem in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction. For she claims that the ultimate purpose of the book is to break down big, simplifying theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while also challenging the continued dominance of national histories by showing how the re-examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar themes and the opening up of entirely new ones is a continuous necessity. The very heterogeneity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book testifies to these activities, and becomes an invitation for the reader to engage with whatever seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most rewarding in the perspectives on offer. While all the chapters can be read with profit as independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, their collective importance for this reviewer lies in two issues ? the reassessment of women?s history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in relation to the Great War, and what cultural and social historians have to offer each other on this and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?watershed? view, which presents the war as a decisive moment in women?s ?emancipation? or in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations between the genders, has a double origin, as explained by Gail Braybon in her chapter. An older )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of women?s history, impressed by the roles opened to women by the war and the introduction in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some countries of women?s suffrage, saw the conflict as a positive episode, a view reinforced by Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marwick?s influential Women at War 1914?1918 \(1977\) and his Open University course on war and society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent emergence of gender history \(often practised by feminist scholars coming from literary or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural studies\) reframed the ?watershed? view by presenting the war as a pivotal moment in cultural )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.6317 586.0615 455.6237 597.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.5877 529.0375 400.5797 540.9175 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 282.6197 417.2455 296.6117 429.1255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of femininity and masculinity. While this did not necessarily lead to an optimistic view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war?s impact on women, it placed the tensions of gender at the heart of the war and its impact on society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? with men both emasculated by war and seeking to ?remasculinise? society, and women sensing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation while accommodating themselves to the preeminence of male sacrifice. As Mary-Louise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts wrote in one of the best-known works in this genre, gender was central to ?postwar France?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural self-representation, as well as to its organization of identity and power?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.612 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.612 723.795 m 433.604 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One undoubted benefit of the newer gender history has been the insistence on the need to study constructions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of masculinity as well as femininity and to see the two in relation to each other. But the thrust of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism in this volume is that a preoccupation with what Roberts called ?the cultural production of change?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than with real social evolution, has inflated the importance of the war and neglected the deeper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities in women?s roles along with the sheer diversity of their wartime experience ? much of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(by reason of the sources\) is difficult to study. Both James McMillan and Susan Grayzel pursue this critique. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grayzel probes some of the contemporary stereotypes which, used uncritically, have fed the idea that the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freed up codes of female conduct. She suggests that contemporary campaigns against female drunkenness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illegitimate births and prostitution expressed wartime anxieties rather than fundamental changes in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of behaviour. Even if the war did create a slightly greater latitude for women?s sexual behaviour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was not accompanied by freer social attitudes, and thus was not experienced as ?liberation?. McMillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that measured against three yardsticks ? power relations, sexuality, and the boundary between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private and public life ? a careful reading of wartime debates and campaigns confirms the conclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier social historians \(including himself\) that the war had a conservative effect on French women.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 515.576 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 515.576 512.211 m 529.568 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters on women in Russia and Italy, though not explicitly addressing this conceptual agenda, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribute valuable insights. Peter Gatrell shows how the crisis triggered by the Russian army?s retreat in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer 1915, during which six million civilians were displaced and often mistreated, was particularly harsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on women, exposing them to exploitation and prostitution, evils which large-scale rural emigration before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war had already turned into subjects of official concern. But resettlement also opened up opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for middle class voluntary action on a large-scale. In the Italian case, the deep unpopularity of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among rural and working class communities in many regions created a culture of anti-war protest in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, because of their key role in wartime rural life and in the burgeoning munitions works of Milan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turin, played a central role. Nonetheless, there were also parts of Italy without a left-wing political culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or which were occupied by Austro-German forces after Caporetto, where women?s responses must have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been different. Middle-class women also mobilised behind the war and performed voluntary social work as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did in France, Russia, Britain and elsewhere. These points would have nuanced the otherwise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing portrait presented by Simonetta Ortaggi. Despite the post-war political turmoil and new regimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevism in Russia and Italian Fascism reaffirmed male authority and accorded women?s wartime role no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more recognition than it achieved in France or even Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly, the war affected women in complex ways that both challenged and reinforced existing roles. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional nature of the event and the even greater change in men?s roles \(with mass military service\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framed the larger context within which women responded. The relevant contributions in this volume rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw our attention to the need for much more research on the varieties of that response, which went well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond munitions work and nursing, before we can safely generalise. It seems reasonable to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when women entered traditionally male sectors of the engineering industry or when middle-class women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volunteered en masse for nursing, they were conscious of forging new roles, however temporary, which also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave them opportunities for new experiences. Other women, about whom we know much less, did what they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had long done but largely in the absence of men. This was the case with peasant women in France, Germany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy and elsewhere, and also of women in occupied areas of France and Poland, all of whom shouldered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic burden of the family. Yet wives, mothers and daughters remained the custodians of the family as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an emotional unit in the face of unprecedented separation, all too often confronting permanent loss or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return of a handicapped man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women were thus called on to act in different ways, which aroused the anxieties referred to by McMillan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Grayzel about prostitution, drunkenness and infidelity, while counterbalancing the transformation in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.6117 724.1095 433.6037 735.9895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 515.5757 512.5255 529.5677 524.4055 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7826 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men?s roles. Out of these conflicting imperatives were forged key aspects of the substantially feminine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of the home front, to which were added the differing degrees of hardship, military occupation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political upheaval which women \(like other civilians\) faced in the various societies. The task of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructing many of these experiences still remains, and the authors of this volume rightly call for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced, empirical studies to do so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How those experiences relate to the longer-term evolution of women?s roles and of gender relations more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly is a different, no less complex issue. It may well be true, as several of the contributors suggest, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on balance the impact of the war was conservative and that it did not disturb gender relations as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some have pretended. The French historian, Franoise Thbaud, has recently stated that the real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation came as a result of longer-term changes \(in work, consumption, control over fertility, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domesticity itself\) rather than from the drama of wars.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.296 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.296 640.515 m 308.288 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.288 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Certainly, the fact that women had less success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than other groups \(e.g. the labour movement or veterans\) in converting their war service \(officially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged by wartime rhetoric\) into permanent reforms, supports such a view. Yet some changes did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occur. These included women?s suffrage in Germany \(even if the consensus now is that the war had little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do with its introduction in 1918 in Britain\), broadened access to some areas of industrial and clerical work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and greater freedom in dress and personal comportment. The war widow, who embodied female suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war, would repay detailed comparative study as a figure who attracted a new legal and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status, and possibly some political influence, between the wars.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, official anxiety about women?s supposed wartime autonomy and a concern with maternity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and natalism ? which were particularly strong in a demographically weakened France, but by no means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to that country ? fostered a climate of sexual orthodoxy. Yet here, too, nuances are in order. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campaigns were waged for birth control, especially in Weimar Germany, and just as we should not mistake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the moral anxieties of wartime officialdom for women?s actual behaviour, neither should we do the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with post-war natalism. Indeed, to the extent that the campaigns for a higher birth-rate or a return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?traditional? morality were taken up by conservatives and the extreme right, they lend weight to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention of Marie-Louise Roberts that issues of gender became more charged after the war \(even if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not define social relations more generally\), and were experienced as such by contemporaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Which brings me to the question of the differences between social and cultural approaches to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war. While the authors who raise this issue criticise some of the pioneering studies of gender relations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrating on representation rather than ?reality?, to contrast ?the cultural historian?s examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric? with ?the social historian?s preoccupation with people? \(McMillan, p. 150\) scarcely does credit to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the breadth and substance of the cultural histories of the Great War which have appeared in the last fifteen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.336 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.336 302.883 m 76.328 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 76.328 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One might characterise these as studying, certainly, the codes and value systems by which societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbued the war with meaning and memory but also, and no less importantly, the subjective experience of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups and individuals who lived through it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, the call for dialogue is welcome. For the best social history has always been sensitive to language, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and experience, while a cultural history that ignores economic, social or political processes is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disembodied. Although cultural history has emerged as the dominant approach to the Great War, it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely effaced social history or the older tradition of military, diplomatic and political history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.288 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.288 205.347 m 508.280 205.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.280 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) Cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertilising these different approaches or establishing fruitful collaborations between them will provide the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most innovative and exciting research on the Great War, including in the field of women and gender.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To give a few of examples, official fears and anxieties about the unbridled sexual behaviour or financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence of women during the war may well be no guide to women?s actual behaviour. But together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with similar currents of concern evident in soldiers? letters, songs and trench newspapers, they form one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strand of the experience of gender relations, and the myths that informed them had a real social impact. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, the nature of intimacy between married couples, which both partners expressed in probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented ways owing to separation, became a central thread in the gendered relationship between home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fighting fronts, which can be studied through surviving correspondence. Or again, the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?marginality?, which figures in both social and cultural history, is one that can be adapted to studying other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.2957 640.8295 308.2877 652.7095 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.3357 303.1975 76.3277 315.0775 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.2877 205.6615 508.2797 217.5415 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 6657 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual relations and gendered identities in wartime, such as prostitution and homosexuality. Finally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered dimensions of situations or identities also defined by other criteria, such as race, ethnicity, region, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or class \(e.g. the Armenian victims of genocide or the million or so indigenous men brought from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies to work and fight in France\) offer challenges of historical method which are both social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural. The fact that many of its chapters are alive to the need to combine the cultural and social makes this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, hopefully, a harbinger of future developments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C.f. Thierry Bonzon and Belinda Davis in )] TJ ET BT 268.328 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Capital Cities at War. Paris, London, Berlin, 1914?1919)] TJ ET BT 542.024 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Jean-Louis Robert and Jay Winter \(Cambridge, 1997\), pp. 305?41, and Belinda Davis, )] TJ ET BT 499.616 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Home Fires )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burning. Food, Politics and Everyday Life in World War I Berlin)] TJ ET BT 377.336 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.664 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.664 629.763 m 553.652 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Fritzsche, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germans into Nazis)] TJ ET BT 237.008 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, Mass., 1998\), esp. p. 13?82.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.984 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.984 615.507 m 491.972 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C.f. Jean-Jacques Becker, )] TJ ET BT 190.640 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914. Comment les franais sont entrs dans la Grande Guerre)] TJ ET BT 495.956 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1977\), and Jeffrey Verhey, )] TJ ET BT 195.968 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spirit of 1914. Militarism, Myth and Mobilization in Germany )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 572.739 m 212.324 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary-Louise Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 173.000 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Civilization without Sexes. Reconstructing Gender in Postwar France, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1917?1927)] TJ ET BT 118.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago and London, 1994\), p. 213.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.664 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.664 544.227 m 352.652 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See James McMillan, )] TJ ET BT 170.672 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Housewife or Harlot. The Place of Women in French Society, 1870?1940 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Brighton, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.680 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.680 515.715 m 201.668 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franoise Thbaud, ?La Guerre et aprs??, in ed. Evelyne Morin-Rotureau, )] TJ ET BT 428.576 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914?1918: combats de )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(femmes )] TJ ET BT 103.004 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2004\), pp. 185?99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.324 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.324 487.203 m 284.312 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A good sense of what those appearing in French, English and German have entailed can be gleaned )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the annual yearbook of the Research Centre of the Historial de la Grande Guerre \(Pronne\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(14?18 Aujourd?hui-Heute-Today)] TJ ET BT 224.336 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, issues 1 \(1997\) to 7 \(2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.324 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.324 444.435 m 416.312 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Antoine Prost and Jay Winter, )] TJ ET BT 232.328 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Penser la Grande Guerre)] TJ ET BT 355.304 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.296 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.296 430.179 m 477.284 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gail Braybon replies: 'My thanks to John Horne for his review and his perspicacious comments. Like him, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hope that this book will play its part in encouraging collaborative and comparative research, and that we will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed see "innovative and exciting research" in the the years to come. We are at a very interesting point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our study of the Great War.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 317.311 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 299.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 299.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/476)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 298.137 m 322.316 298.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 273.160 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.760 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.360 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6637 630.0775 553.6517 641.9575 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.9837 615.8215 491.9717 627.7015 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 573.0535 212.3237 584.9335 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.6637 544.5415 352.6517 556.4215 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.6797 516.0295 201.6677 527.9095 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.3237 487.5175 284.3117 499.3975 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.3237 444.7495 416.3117 456.6295 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.2957 430.4935 477.2837 442.3735 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 298.4515 322.3157 310.3315 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/476) >> endobj xref 0 64 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004811 00000 n 0000004920 00000 n 0000005030 00000 n 0000005139 00000 n 0000008700 00000 n 0000008828 00000 n 0000008912 00000 n 0000009010 00000 n 0000016890 00000 n 0000016920 00000 n 0000017048 00000 n 0000017084 00000 n 0000017114 00000 n 0000017242 00000 n 0000017278 00000 n 0000017308 00000 n 0000017436 00000 n 0000017472 00000 n 0000017563 00000 n 0000025343 00000 n 0000025373 00000 n 0000025501 00000 n 0000025537 00000 n 0000025567 00000 n 0000025695 00000 n 0000025731 00000 n 0000025829 00000 n 0000033708 00000 n 0000033738 00000 n 0000033866 00000 n 0000033902 00000 n 0000033932 00000 n 0000034058 00000 n 0000034094 00000 n 0000034124 00000 n 0000034252 00000 n 0000034288 00000 n 0000034428 00000 n 0000041138 00000 n 0000041266 00000 n 0000041321 00000 n 0000041449 00000 n 0000041504 00000 n 0000041632 00000 n 0000041687 00000 n 0000041815 00000 n 0000041870 00000 n 0000041998 00000 n 0000042053 00000 n 0000042181 00000 n 0000042236 00000 n 0000042364 00000 n 0000042419 00000 n 0000042547 00000 n 0000042602 00000 n 0000042730 00000 n trailer << /Size 64 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42825 %%EOF