%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141026231319+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141026231319+00'00') /Title (The Satirical Gaze: Prints of Women in Late Eighteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4372 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Satirical Gaze: Prints of Women in Late Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1993 Amanda Vickery's now well-known historiographical review 'Golden Age to Separate Spheres?' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided an exhaustive survey of the interpretation of the position, identity and role of English women from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern to the Victorian periods.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.980 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.980 236.289 m 248.972 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.972 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was a timely project in response the wealth of interest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research in that field over the previous decade and one in which it seemed Vickery successfully discredited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the over-simplistic historiographical model of the separate spheres of public male and private female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience. However, the following decade continued to see such dichotomies shape the narrative of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's history. Cindy McCreery's study of late eighteenth-century satirical prints of women suggests a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promising new direction, not only for women's or gender history, but also for social and cultural history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader sense. The new approach signalled in )] TJ ET BT 273.620 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Satirical Gaze)] TJ ET BT 363.620 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( awards visual evidence a central role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formulation of a new historiography rather than a supporting role merely illustrating historical detail. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combining the territory of art and print historians with the methodologies of social, cultural and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history, McCreery unites two fields of historical enquiry that have hitherto proceeded on distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relatively unrelated paths.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than fitting her study into a previously established narrative of women's history, McCreery limits her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scope to the decades that have become known as the 'golden age' of the British satirical print in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(477)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 September, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cindy McCreery)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199267561X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katy Layton-Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.9797 236.6035 248.9717 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8118 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This period also coincides with what has often been identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a watershed in attitudes to womanhood within British society. However, McCreery's emphasis upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary visual material, much of which has been hitherto neglected by historians, enables her to complicate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not entirely avoid, the well-rehearsed chronology of a reactionary conservative circumscription of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles and behaviour during this period. The successful complication of this narrative through a close analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of visual representations is one of the greatest strengths of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The traditional, if no longer universally accepted, narrative of British women's history from the early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period onwards is one of initial emancipation followed by the reactionary curtailing of women's public roles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the later decades of the eighteenth century culminating in the archetypal 'little woman' of the Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era. Even Vickery, in contesting the perceived universality of this process concedes that the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's influence, if not its actual power, had changed by the mid nineteenth century. Historians have vied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with each other to identify the dominant reason for this apparent 'relegation' or 'relocation' of women to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of prescribed and limited roles within society. The reasons proffered range from the segregation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work place and the domestic home in response to industrialisation to a reactionary response to the prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of women during the French Revolution and the Republic that followed. Historical wisdom implies that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether within the domestic sphere or in the public eye, the situation of women and their various roles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society were subject to the censure or approval of a univocal public opinion. Consequently, historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject has often failed to distinguish real attitudes to women and womanhood, from those, which, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even at the time of their production, were recognised as exaggerated reflections or humorous distortions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCreery has not completely dispensed with established historical models. As in Hannah Barker's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elaine Chalus's co-edited volume, )] TJ ET BT 200.492 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in Eighteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 390.140 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1997\), the chapters are structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around a series of familiar eighteenth-century characterisations of women and female roles.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.228 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.228 457.443 m 487.220 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.220 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Categories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as 'women of the street', actresses, adulteresses, mothers and 'old maids', are attended to in turn. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the reputations and responses to specific 'real' women, as opposed to women in general, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed, and the important distinctions between the two are given necessary attention. In a chapter titled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Women on the stage: courtesans and scandalous actresses' McCreery skilfully exposes the subtle but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant differences between satirical responses to specific personalities, such as Kitty Fisher and Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Perdita' Robinson, and those which sought to satirise actresses in general. The extent to which such women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were represented favourably or unfavourably in prints was, it seems, due as much to their individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality, appearance and aptitude for self-promotion, as it was related to their 'scandalous' profession. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While to some extent McCreery reasserts a standard series of eighteenth-century female stereotypes, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that responses to such 'types' were even more various than the characterisations themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notwithstanding the strength of much of the visual analysis in this book, the account of criticism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation levelled at common prostitutes, 'unnatural' mothers and affected, insincere female aristocrats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributes little to existing historical wisdom on the subject. Increasing popular interest in late-eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century personalities, and biographies such as Amanda Foreman's hugely successful )] TJ ET BT 441.104 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgiana, Duchess of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Devonshire)] TJ ET BT 89.336 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\), have ensured that those with even a remote interest in the period are familiar with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censure and condemnation awarded to women from both 'high' and 'low' society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.256 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.256 217.347 m 435.248 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.248 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, in addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounting these now-familiar attitudes to perceived female transgressions, McCreery employs satirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prints to access a more diverse range of responses to female behaviour, many of which have been either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed or ignored by previous historical commentaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The synopsis of what might be called the 'British female experience' of the late eighteenth century outlined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Satirical Gaze)] TJ ET BT 136.352 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one of diversity and ambivalence in which images and 'popular' attitudes to women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were subject to many caveats and variations depending upon the social and political context of not only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female protagonist, but also the vendor and viewer. This multiplicity of perspectives is a recurrent theme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book and particularly evident in the chapter dealing with prints that address the relatively familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical territory of the 'fashionable mamma' and the 'natural mother'. Some of the imagery included is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost too familiar. Portraits such as Joshua Reynolds's paintings of the Duchess of Devonshire pictured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with her mother and daughter respectively have come to define both academic and popular notions of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2277 457.7575 487.2197 469.6375 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.2557 217.6615 435.2477 229.5415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century femininity. Equally, some of the Gillray prints called upon have been so extensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed as to appear exhausted as a historical resource. However, it is the mixture of these over-familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images with less well-known and ambiguous prints that lends weight to the author's commentary. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous images that have been previously interpreted as evidence of narrow and prescriptive attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards women are, within the context of the wider print market, revealed as merely one component of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluid and often-contradictory discourse surrounding women in the latter decades of the eighteenth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Images as wide-ranging as 'Lady Squab taking a Ride' published in the )] TJ ET BT 376.292 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rambler's Magazine)] TJ ET BT 475.184 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1784 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Neglected Daughter; An affecting tale' published by Laurie and Whittle in 1804, indicate a vast corpus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of female representation which, although 'public' in both its production and consumption, provided anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a singular voice in response to women, their influence and behaviour.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the other end of the social and moral spectrum, in a chapter titled 'Prostitutes and market vendors', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCreery discusses the representation of one of the most contentious female 'types' and objects of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny, both by eighteenth-century contemporaries and historians alike. Along with the more obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterisations of prostitutes as disease-ridden objects of vice, such as the procuress in Hogarth's )] TJ ET BT 511.076 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Harlots' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Progress)] TJ ET BT 77.348 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the various levels of these working women and their respective modes of representation are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified and explored in detail. The visual images that underpin McCreery's research represent the entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale of the hierarchy of prostitution from the common 'Bunter' to the elite courtesan and 'demi-rep' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect an equally wide range of attitudes and responses to these stock 'types'. Bunters, the lowest level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street prostitute, were often depicted as mildly comical figures rather than a danger to society. In later years, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the condemnation of these women became somewhat more vehement. However, this shift in attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifested itself in the exclusion of such women from satirical imagery and the sentimentalising of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme of the female repentant, rather than in the explicit demonisation of the 'fallen' woman.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One reason for this progressive occlusion rather than overt condemnation of undesirable themes was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumer preference. McCreery quite rightly acknowledges the importance of 'popular' appeal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decorative value. Though many satires appear to us vulgar or explicit, there were other subjects that proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either totally unacceptable or simply unappealing to eighteenth-century consumers. An unpalatable subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the explicit delineation of a dark social anxiety was less likely to sell than a humorous, albeit crude, joke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a sentimental scene. Certainly tastes were constantly changing and a convincing account is provided of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the transition from a relatively light-hearted attitude to marginalised women such as prostitutes and 'old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maids', to a less compassionate tone in later images. Still, despite this general shift, satirical prints continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reflect a wide range of attitudes to women and womanhood throughout the late eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The range of the quality and cost of prints covered in )] TJ ET BT 291.632 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Satirical Gaze)] TJ ET BT 381.632 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also contributes to the overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument of wide-ranging attitudes to women. Although McCreery has limited her main focus to satirical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prints \(explicitly excluding caricatures\), this format itself included many variations in quality, style and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre. The examples range from small-scale engravings of 'street characters' to frieze prints, mild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pornography, political cartoons and periodical illustrations that were increasingly incorporated into such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publications as the )] TJ ET BT 126.344 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rambler's Magazine)] TJ ET BT 225.236 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In addition, a range of non-satirical imagery provides a visual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social context for this satirical material. Both printed images, such as those that made up the long-running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Tte--Tte' series in the )] TJ ET BT 157.628 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Town and Country Magazine)] TJ ET BT 297.968 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and grand portraits in oil like Richard Samuel's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group portrait, )] TJ ET BT 106.340 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nine Living Muses of Great Britain)] TJ ET BT 297.680 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1778\), add to the wealth of visual material that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpins McCreery's thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The marriage of images with historical analysis in the manner attempted in this study is still a rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking. Although visual material has been used for decades to support or refute pre-existing historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments, it is only now, in the age of digital databases, the internet, and the rising popularity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdisciplinary research, gaining the status it deserves as a historical resource in its own right.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.276 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.276 119.811 m 505.268 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.268 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps not surprising then that some passages of )] TJ ET BT 274.652 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Satirical Gaze)] TJ ET BT 364.652 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, particularly those that describe and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address specific prints in detail, sometimes appear laboured and occasionally over-step the line between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis and speculation. However, this is a small criticism in a work that constitutes one of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial attempts to privilege 'low' visual material in this manner.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.2757 120.1255 505.2677 132.0055 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 4056 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a well-rehearsed clich that through satire society sees itself more clearly. Nevertheless, it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable that a book dedicated to images that simplify and exaggerate should reveal such diversity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception and representation of women and womanhood throughout this period. In addition to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the historiography of eighteenth-century women's history, possibly the most influential and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring legacy of McCreery's project will be the wider utilisation of visual material in revising and shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our most fundamental conceptions of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.291 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 647.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Vickery, 'Golden age to separate spheres? A review of the categories and chronology of English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's history', )] TJ ET BT 150.668 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 239.672 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36.2 \(1993\), 383?414.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.992 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.992 632.019 m 405.980 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender in Eighteenth-Century England: Roles Representations and Responsibilities)] TJ ET BT 467.660 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. H. Barker )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and E. Chalus \(London and New York, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.980 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.980 603.507 m 339.968 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. Foreman, )] TJ ET BT 127.340 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire)] TJ ET BT 296.648 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.640 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.640 589.251 m 388.628 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a discussion of the importance of visual material in historical enquiry, see R. Porter, 'Seeing the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Past', )] TJ ET BT 92.180 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Past and Present)] TJ ET BT 174.176 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 118 \(1998\), 186?205.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.496 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.496 560.739 m 337.484 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author accepts the review and does not wish to add anything at this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political Review Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/AJPH/R_0004_9522_296_1006458.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 479.715 m 470.996 479.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.996 481.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 476.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 458.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 458.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/477)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 457.209 m 322.316 457.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2502)] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/AJPH/R_0004_9522_296_1006458.asp)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.9917 632.3335 405.9797 644.2135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.9797 603.8215 339.9677 615.7015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.6397 589.5655 388.6277 601.4455 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.4957 561.0535 337.4837 572.9335 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 480.0295 470.9957 491.9095 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.politicalreviewnet.com/polrev/reviews/AJPH/R_0004_9522_296_1006458.asp) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 457.5235 322.3157 469.4035 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/477) >> endobj xref 0 44 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000573 00000 n 0000000662 00000 n 0000005086 00000 n 0000005195 00000 n 0000005305 00000 n 0000005414 00000 n 0000008975 00000 n 0000009103 00000 n 0000009187 00000 n 0000009216 00000 n 0000009344 00000 n 0000009380 00000 n 0000009471 00000 n 0000017642 00000 n 0000017672 00000 n 0000017800 00000 n 0000017836 00000 n 0000017866 00000 n 0000017994 00000 n 0000018030 00000 n 0000018114 00000 n 0000026284 00000 n 0000026314 00000 n 0000026442 00000 n 0000026478 00000 n 0000026597 00000 n 0000030706 00000 n 0000030834 00000 n 0000030889 00000 n 0000031017 00000 n 0000031072 00000 n 0000031200 00000 n 0000031255 00000 n 0000031383 00000 n 0000031438 00000 n 0000031565 00000 n 0000031698 00000 n 0000031826 00000 n trailer << /Size 44 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31921 %%EOF