%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141222025134+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141222025134+00'00') /Title (Reading Sex in the Eighteenth Century: Bodies and Gender in English Erotic Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3488 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reading Sex in the Eighteenth Century: Bodies and Gender in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(English Erotic Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Harvey's )] TJ ET BT 111.476 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Sex in the Eighteenth Century: Bodies and Gender in English Erotic Culture)] TJ ET BT 522.116 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cogently argued, well researched, and accessible account of the ways erotic discourse shaped eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century understandings of gendered bodies. Her book situates erotica within the context of Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laqueur's description of a shift in representation during the eighteenth century from a one-sex to a two-sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of the human body.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.340 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.340 207.777 m 174.332 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 174.332 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Harvey also challenges Laqueur's thesis, as well as dominant narratives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's history and masculinity, arguing that multiple discursive shifts resulted from 'synchronic' rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than 'diachronic' changes. Insisting on the multi-vocality of erotic texts and mindful of the space between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation and practice, Harvey sees the representation of bodies as both a 'product of' and a 'screen for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and projection of' cultural, social and political discourse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(478)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 November, 2005)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Harvey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521822351X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharon Harrow)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.3397 208.0915 174.3317 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8448 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Sex in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 220.328 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is timely given recent interest in scholarly work on erotica. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Pettit and Patrick Spedding's mighty two-volume compilation Eighteenth-Century British Erotica )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes available a multitude of previously inaccessible texts. And Bradford Mudge's more modest )] TJ ET BT 506.780 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Flesh Becomes Word: An Anthology of Early Eighteenth-Century Libertine Literature)] TJ ET BT 446.984 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars and students a taste of erotic literature. Harvey's book is a valuable contribution to a field that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been grappling with the question of how to define erotica, pornography and seduction fiction.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.948 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.948 711.795 m 496.940 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey opens with a strong claim for the generic suppleness of erotica. Shaped by a number of discourses ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, cultural, literary, medical and scientific ? erotic discourse was itself, she explains, a medium to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiate questions about bodies, gender, and sexual difference. But, while literary and visual erotica was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('porous' \(p. 13\), Harvey carefully distinguishes erotica from two contemporary, related genres: pornography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and seduction fiction. Whereas erotica is, by comparison, benignly metaphorical and satirical, pornography's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit language invites promiscuous propinquity, at an imaginary level, between reader and the bodies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the page. And erotica is distinct from romantic and seduction fiction, she claims, because, in eroticising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental love, these genres are primarily moralistic. Recent work, like Lynn Hunt's )] TJ ET BT 450.452 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pornography: Obscenity and the Origins of Modernity, 1500?1800)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.660 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.660 571.491 m 370.652 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.652 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has categorised pornography and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscenity in relation to political and religious critiques of early-modern and eighteenth-century culture. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while some critics like Ros Ballaster have called eighteenth-century amatory fiction erotica for women )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.588 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.588 542.979 m 544.580 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 544.580 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey distinguishes erotica from amatory fiction based on style and theme. For her, erotica, unlike amatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction, works stylistically by 'describ[ing] )] TJ ET BT 240.164 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(material about sexual pleasure which depicted sex, bodies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(desire through illusions of concealment and distance: bodies were represented through metaphor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(suggestion, and depictions of sexual activity were characterized by deferral and silence)] TJ ET BT 454.640 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(author's italics, p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20\). Harvey sees erotica as a kind of literary chiaroscuro, a genre that reveals and conceals at once, and she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches it through the themes of 'sameness and difference'. Her distinctions are clear and valuable, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though I do not entirely agree with her assessment of seduction fiction. Seduction fiction is often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by a series of deferrals, and many things are suggestively and partially articulated. Eliza )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haywood, known in her day as 'the great Arbitress of Passion', for instance, consistently claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('language wants the force' to adequately express passion. Haywood's amatory fiction often displaces desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and passion onto language, though, unlike erotica, it leaves the desiring heroines \(and readers?\) unfulfilled. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Text may be erotic, but it is not, after all, sex. Harvey is right to point out the important difference in tone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the two genres, and she usefully locates erotica at the juncture between pornography and amatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiction: 'Erotica shared with pornography an interest in sex, and shared with amatory fiction a desire to hide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it from the reader. This combination situated the genre on the cusp between refined restraint and liberated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libido.' \(p. 33\) This last point is an important one, for the first chapter details a gendered readership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erotica within the context of a specifically eighteenth-century balance between refinement and sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure \(p. 74\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 1 contextualises erotic literature in terms of the materiality of books, the content of erotica, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century reading practices. Since education, social status and gender determined reading practices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey provides convincing evidence for the social and public nature of erotica. Whereas eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct manuals warned women against the perils of private reading, erotica's intended audience was male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, though its subject could be called intimate, because of its satiric and heteroglot nature, erotica offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male readers 'intellectual' as well as sensual pleasure. The key to achieving this balance of reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure was the public homosociality of erotica. Male social clubs like the infamous Hell-Fire Club equated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male homosociality with civic virtues such as 'politeness... sociability, improvement, worldliness, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentility' \(p. 75\). Men could feel aroused and even masturbate while consuming erotica ? 'reading and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sociable sexual activity were integrated' \(p. 68\). Indeed, in one of the images Harvey includes \(Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cosway, )] TJ ET BT 78.680 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Group of Connoisseurs)] TJ ET BT 190.688 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1771?5\), one member of a group of well-dressed, polite and apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserved club-goers who are admiring statues of nude women has, as Harvey puts it, his hand 'thrust firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the breeches' \(p. 69\). Harvey argues that such public pleasures protected men from the more crass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyments of the debauched tavern-goer or of privately enjoyed pornography. The contemporary American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equivalent is the difference between the public homosociality of a strip club, where businessmen convivially )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.9477 712.1095 496.9397 723.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.6597 571.8055 370.6517 583.6855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.5877 543.2935 544.5797 555.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7725 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consume light-fare porn together and the private sexuality of a jack-shack or bordello where individual men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can pay for sex. One is respectable; the other is not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though there was a decidedly physical nature to erotica, Harvey tells us that primarily 'men's reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erotica was not sex: it was wit, sociability, enquiry, and improvement and it embodied some of the classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic virtues of Georgian England' \(p. 77\). She shows that erotica was a specifically masculine mode of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interacting and of discussing popular, current ideas about medicine, science and politics through the satiric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medium of erotica. Women's bodies became the conduit for such discussions, though erotica did not invite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women themselves to participate in those conversations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having established the context for reading erotica, Harvey tackles the problem of 'sexual difference' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to the ways erotica represented the body. She complicates Laqueur's groundbreaking argument about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the shift from a one-sex to a two-sex model of the body. She reads Laqueur's model in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment's ontological shift in which gender and racial difference 'was based on the physical rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the cultural' \(p. 79\), and claims that the move from the one-sex to the two-sex model was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omnipresent. Harvey points out that a clear distinction between one-sex and two-sex models was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuously absent from the prolific erotic texts that satirised scientific texts of the day. Erotica is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonant sounding board for such a theory because it satirised important scientific views of the day, on topics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as conception, desire, and physical sex characteristics \(p. 80\). Though such texts used humour and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parody, they relied upon and reflected current scientific debates and beliefs. In eroticising conception, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, parodic-scientific writers did not neatly subscribe to either a one-sex or a two-sex model, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, they used a 'circular' narrative to fit their rhetorical needs \(p. 88\). For instance, erotic writers played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around with scientific theories about women's pleasurably active role in conception. Harvey reminds us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference is not just a gender thing ? it is based on a myriad of categories like race, nationality, age, etc. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey therefore adapts Laqueur's model to an approach that investigates the labile or 'elastic' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of sexed bodies during the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erotica captured, imagined and dissected female bodies with more frequency than it did male bodies. Harvey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus reads female bodies rather than male bodies as central to our understanding of gender and sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference. The dominant narrative about female sexuality in current scholarship is that the early-modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(libidinous woman evolved into a passive and domesticated woman during the eighteenth century. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey's account, erotica reminds us that this historical narrative ought to be situated in relation to male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosocial discourse. Moreover, such representational shifts were not clear, consistent, or immediate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-century British writers certainly used female sexuality as a measure of a healthy social body. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women were both feared and desired; desiring women were depicted as attractive and monstrous. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stylistically, erotica reflected such attitudes. Erotica measured social concerns in metaphoric language: maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and voyages signaled women's inscrutability. But the literary landscape of erotica was often contradictory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrain; though dangerous, fertile landscapes were desirable, anxieties about agricultural changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metastacised into fecund, erotic, feminised landscapes. Women's genitals, for example, were called 'private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enclosures' in )] TJ ET BT 104.168 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Erotopolis; Or, of the Situation of Bettyland )] TJ ET BT 318.848 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1741\), signaling a displaced worry about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diminishing availability of public grazing land. Considering the intersections of geography, gender, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place, as Harvey does, the book certainly draws on the influential work of critics such as Annette Kolodny in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lay of the Land: Metaphor as Experience and History in American Life and Letters and The Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Before Her: Fantasy and Experience of the American Frontiers, 1630?1860)] TJ ET BT 399.296 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or Felicity Nussbaum in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Torrid Zones: Maternity, Sexuality, and Empire in Narratives)] TJ ET BT 330.344 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.344 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.344 174.579 m 347.336 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 347.336 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Harvey takes these feminist critics' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work into new territory by showing how feminine concerns like pregnancy and menstruation crop up in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine genre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey claims that there were fewer literary portraits of male bodies and that they signalled a different range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of concerns than did female bodies. Fertility, for example, was important to erotic depictions of male bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for different reasons. Masculinity signified national and martial might. Unlike female bodies, male bodies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were defined by nationalistic or geographic differences in size, vigor, and fertility. 'Have heterosexual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vaginal, reproductive sex!', erotica said, 'and you will fulfill your patriotic duty'. Erotica registered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xenophobic anxieties that emerged as Britain became a colonial power: dangerous, exotic male others might )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.3437 174.8935 347.3357 186.7735 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sleep with British women. In these circumstances, sex and even erotica could be about purity: patriotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last three chapters of Harvey's book ? 'Space,' 'Movement' and 'Pleasure' ? make interesting points about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cultural environment of erotica. Eighteenth-century modernity reorganised work, domestic spaces and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender relations. Like many recent critics, Harvey rethinks the 'separate spheres' theory as an adequate way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to read changing representations of British domestic identity. Erotic literature's conception of space, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims, is too slippery for the theory of separate spheres that gendered public spaces as masculine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered private spaces as feminine.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.296 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.296 683.283 m 224.288 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 224.288 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Harvey not only identifies commonly eroticised spaces, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious and pastoral spaces, but she complicates familiar dichotomies that are used to talk about morality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and geography, like the association of the urban with license and luxury, and rural landscapes with civic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual virtues. For instance, gardens have been long associated with sexuality and transgression. But by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at shade, privacy, opacity, and softness, for example, Harvey extends our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation between pleasure and space. But she also points out the predictable dichotomies at work in erotica: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure can be safely staged in traditionally private, feminine spaces, like kitchens or laundry rooms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvey distinguishes such pleasures from more opprobrious public luxuries like chocolate consumption or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gambling. But sex, Harvey says, 'is a place for men to visit' \(p. 173\), and erotica made it safe; erotica offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men a sanctioned space to experience reason's feminised nemesis: passion. This is where Harvey illustrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mutual entanglement of public and private spaces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Movement' tells us what we would expect to hear about men ranging over and penetrating eroticised female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscapes. In satires of medical treatises or travel narratives, men gaze powerfully and knowingly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's lush bodies as they are slowly revealed in a kind of literary 'striptease' \(p. 180\). In this scenario, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men are mobile, women stationary. Like their literary counterparts \(think of Daniel Defoe's Roxana or Moll )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flanders, or of most of Eliza Haywood's heroines\), erotic narratives punish women who are too lusty or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adventurous. Harvey situates this rhetoric in the context of modern worries about gender: female virtue as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metaphor for national virtue was under increasing threat \(or at least increasing scrutiny\). Eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers of conduct manuals and fiction brooded over ways to safeguard female virtue during a time when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urbanisation and other forces left women comparatively unprotected from unwanted advances and assault. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course female virtue had to be protected from adulteration because, for one thing, chastity ensured the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear transmission of property to legitimate heirs. Female sexuality was therefore a very public and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affair. Numerous genres registered, absorbed, and transformed such anxieties. Harvey reads erotica against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legal discourse of rape trials and concludes that erotica echoed and rendered benign the legal language of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rape by ending the sexual/ seduction narrative with mutual pleasure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter fleshes out the tricky question of how gender fitted into eighteenth-century divisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between mind and body, reason and passion. Empiricism and materialism unleashed licit libidinous urges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of a new primacy of the body as instrument for understanding the world. Body was equated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passion and femininity, whereas mind was equated with reason and masculinity. Reading each sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separately, Harvey shows that erotica's distinction between pleasures of the imagination and pleasures of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body allowed women to feel pleasure but only in the context of a thoroughly masculinised narrative. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charts erotica's stylising of the senses interestingly, but I was not entirely convinced by her reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's speech in the sub-section 'sound.' Women became silent during sex, Harvey claims, 'and these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts of women's virtual silence served to further blur the boundary between consensual and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensual sex' \(p. 209\). True enough: the failure of language often mirrored women's inability to ward off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwanted sexual advances and rape. But the dashes and drifts of language ? the sighs and caesuras so typical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of passages describing sex in the eighteenth century ? could also be seen as partial iterations that signaled the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to render legible that which was largely unspeakable: female desire. It is, as Harvey points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic that the discourses of desire and of domination skimmed seamlessly into one another. But those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slips in language can also be read as the garrulous and suggestive way by which the language of sex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promiscuously eludes discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such small disagreements are important only in that they point to the valuable way Harvey's book opens up )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.2957 683.5975 224.2877 695.4775 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 5697 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical conversation. It was with \(licit\) pleasure that I read )] TJ ET BT 318.284 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reading Sex in the Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 504.596 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Harvey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers important new ground, and her perspective on erotic culture is fresh and smart. Her book is a valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resource and a welcome contribution to the field of gender and sexuality studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Laqueur, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud)] TJ ET BT 424.604 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, Mass., 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 686.787 m 118.004 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century British Erotica and Eighteenth-Century British Erotica II)] TJ ET BT 437.672 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. A. Pettitt and P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spedding \(2002, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 180.680 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When Flesh Becomes Word: An Anthology of Early Eighteenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Libertine Literature)] TJ ET BT 159.692 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Bradford K. Mudge \(New York and Oxford, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.292 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.292 644.019 m 484.280 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynn Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 122.348 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Pornography: Obscenity and the Origins of Modernity, 1500?1800 )] TJ ET BT 529.652 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.672 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.672 615.507 m 179.660 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ros Ballaster, )] TJ ET BT 134.348 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seductive Forms: Women's Amatory Fiction from 1684 to 1740)] TJ ET BT 438.884 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.532 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.532 601.251 m 557.528 601.251 l S BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 586.995 m 78.008 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 574.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annette Kolodny, )] TJ ET BT 153.008 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lay of the Land: Metaphor as Experience and History in American Life and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters)] TJ ET BT 97.352 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 1975\) and )] TJ ET BT 240.008 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Land Before Her: Fantasy and Experience of the American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frontiers, 1630?1860)] TJ ET BT 169.352 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chapel Hill, NC, 1984\); Felicity Nussbaum, )] TJ ET BT 391.352 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Torrid Zones: Maternity, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sexuality, and Empire in Narratives)] TJ ET BT 237.008 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, Md., 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.668 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.668 529.971 m 408.656 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a recent summary of ideas surrounding the critical reconsideration of the public/ private split that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structured the ideology of separate spheres, see Lawrence Klein, 'Gender and the public/private )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction in the eighteenth century: some questions about evidence and analytic procedure', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-Century Studies)] TJ ET BT 196.340 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29.1 \(1996\), 97?109. Amanda Vickery's 'Golden age to separate spheres? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A review of the categories and chronology of English women's history", )] TJ ET BT 413.684 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 502.688 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36.2 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1993\), 383?414 is a valuable historiographical review.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.300 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.300 444.435 m 383.288 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 400.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 382.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 382.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/478)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 381.417 m 322.316 381.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 356.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/2504)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 687.1015 118.0037 698.9815 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.2917 644.3335 484.2797 656.2135 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6717 615.8215 179.6597 627.7015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.5317 601.5655 557.5277 613.4455 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 587.3095 78.0077 599.1895 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6677 530.2855 408.6557 542.1655 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.2997 444.7495 383.2877 456.6295 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 381.7315 322.3157 393.6115 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/478) >> endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000681 00000 n 0000004221 00000 n 0000004330 00000 n 0000004440 00000 n 0000004549 00000 n 0000008110 00000 n 0000008238 00000 n 0000008322 00000 n 0000008351 00000 n 0000008479 00000 n 0000008515 00000 n 0000008613 00000 n 0000017114 00000 n 0000017144 00000 n 0000017272 00000 n 0000017308 00000 n 0000017338 00000 n 0000017466 00000 n 0000017502 00000 n 0000017532 00000 n 0000017660 00000 n 0000017696 00000 n 0000017780 00000 n 0000025558 00000 n 0000025588 00000 n 0000025716 00000 n 0000025752 00000 n 0000025836 00000 n 0000033289 00000 n 0000033319 00000 n 0000033447 00000 n 0000033483 00000 n 0000033616 00000 n 0000039366 00000 n 0000039493 00000 n 0000039548 00000 n 0000039676 00000 n 0000039731 00000 n 0000039859 00000 n 0000039914 00000 n 0000040042 00000 n 0000040097 00000 n 0000040223 00000 n 0000040278 00000 n 0000040406 00000 n 0000040461 00000 n 0000040589 00000 n 0000040644 00000 n 0000040772 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40867 %%EOF